Best of cannabinoid science this week...
Dr. Raphael Mechoulam, “the father of the endocannabinoid system”, writes a review of his life & his work on cannabinoids A Delightful Trip Along the Pathway of Cannabinoid and Endocannabinoid Chemistry and Pharmacology https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35850522
Another survey of CBD users (young adults this time) that list the tops uses of CBD as pain, sleep & anxiety Cannabidiol Knowledge, Perceptions, and Use Among Young Adults in 6 U.S. Metropolitan Areas https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35878060 In a study of long COVID patients, PEA for 3 months substantially improved their symptom scores on the post-COVID-19 Functional Status (PCFS) scale The Use of Palmitoylethanolamide in the Treatment of Long COVID: A Real-Life Retrospective Cohort Study https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35893119 In humans with tension headaches, PEA worked almost as well as ibuprofen for moderate headaches & for severe headaches, PEA worked faster Efficacy of Palmitoylethanolamide (Levagen+TM) Compared to Ibuprofen for Reducing Headache Pain Severity and Duration in Healthy Adults: A Double-Blind, Parallel, Randomized Clinical Trial https://www.scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=118715 In humans with schizophrenia, PEA combined with risperidone (a common treatment) helped with their negative symptoms (functional, verbal, and social performance loss) but little change in their positive symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, confused thoughts, disorganized speech) Adjuvant palmitoylethanolamide therapy with risperidone improves negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0165178122003328 In a test of THC & CBD’s effect on social cognition in a natural setting (a cannabis social club), THC caused lower cognitive empathy but adding CBD made that effect go away. CBD also caused more cognitive Theory of Mind (understanding that other people have a mind). No differences on emotional scales The Effects of Cannabidiol and δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Social Cognition: A Naturalistic Controlled Study https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35881851 In a double-blind study of patients with rotator cuff surgery, CBD helped them with the pain immediately following surgery Paper 68: Cannabidiol is Effective in Improving Immediate Post-operative Pain and Patient Satisfaction Following Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: A Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blinded Study https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/2325967121S00631
A review of how endocannabinoids work in the astrocytes (star shaped immune cells of the brain) Endocannabinoid signaling in astrocytes https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35822691 If I had the funds (& the lyrical abilities), I’d turn this into a musical.
A review of how lipids (like cannabinoids) control your energy balance via the brain’s hypothalamus Yin-Yang control of energy balance by lipids in the hypothalamus: The endocannabinoids vs bile acids case https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35863558
A review that says the risks for psychosis & traffic accidents are roughly similar between the use of tobacco & the use of cannabis Comparative harms assessments for cannabis, alcohol, and tobacco: Risk for psychosis, cognitive impairment, and traffic accident https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/20503245221095228
In mice with gut inflammation & colitis, THC & CBD inhibited inflammatory macrophages (mobile white blood cells) & improved clinical scores - with cannabis extracts working better than isolated molecules (#entourage) Differential Effects of D9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)- and Cannabidiol (CBD)-Based Cannabinoid Treatments on Macrophage Immune Function In Vitro and on Gastrointestinal Inflammation in a Murine Model https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35892693
In a rat pineal gland, the addition of THC, CBD & CBC all reduced the output of melatonin - & they did it using a pathway other the CB1 & CB2 receptors Cannabinoids attenuate norepinephrine-induced melatonin biosynthesis in the rat pineal gland by reducing arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity without involvement of cannabinoid receptors https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16805813
In immune cells, the acid form of the cannabinoids (especially CBDA & CBGA) potently blocked calcium channels to lower T-cell activation & inflammation Acidic Cannabinoids Suppress Proinflammatory Cytokine Release by Blocking Store-operated Calcium Entry https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35910331
In rats taking haloperidol (a common antipsychotic), CBD lowered the weight & fasting blood sugar increase that usually occurs Effects of cannabidiol on weight and fasting blood sugar with chronic and subchronic haloperidol administration https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s44192-022-00021-2
In a rat model of methamphetamine addiction, CBD inhibited the rewarding effects & increased the extinction of use as well as protecting relevant brain cells Cannabidiol attenuates methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in male rats and viability in PC12 cells through the Sigma1R/AKT/GSK3β/CREB signaling pathway
In elderly horses, a look at the pharmacokinetics (how a drug moves through the body) from one dose of CBD Pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol in a randomized crossover trial in senior horses