The Eyes

Best reviews

2021: This review looks at how CBD appears helpful for glaucoma via the WNT/β-Catenin pathway

Cannabidiol and the Canonical WNT/β-Catenin Pathway in Glaucoma

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/22/7/3798

2021: This review looks at the benefits of CBD for the eye

Cannabidiol Signaling in the Eye and Its Potential as an Ocular Therapeutic Agent

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33984199/

2021: A review of the long history of cannabinoids & glaucoma

Cannabinoids in Glaucoma Patients: The Never-Ending Story

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33302608/

2021: A big review of the endocannabinoid system in the eye & its mechanisms

CannabinEYEds: The Endocannabinoid System as a Regulator of the Ocular Surface Nociception, Inflammatory Response, Neovascularization and Wound Healing

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33327429/

2020: A review of the cannabinoids & flavonoids as topical treatments for eye problems such as allergies & dry eye

Flavonoid and cannabinoid impact on the ocular surface

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32796166/

2020: A new review looks at 5 studies involving cannabis & the cornea

Cannabis and the Cornea

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32159404

2020: A review of the potential benefits & IOP effects of the various cannabinoid ingestion methods

Cannabinoids in Glaucoma Patients: The Never-Ending Story

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33302608/

2018: An overview of the ECS in the eye, including an excellent chart

Neuroprotection by (endo)Cannabinoids in Glaucoma and Retinal Neurodegenerative Diseases

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28738764/

Timeline of Research

2021: In the retinas of goldfish, the CB1 receptor & a dopamine receptor work together to modulate the day/night difference in rod-cone coupling

Interactions of cone cannabinoid CB1 and dopamine D4 receptors increase day/night difference in rod-cone gap junction coupling in goldfish retina

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34252195/

2021: In a chick model of the eye, cannabinoids are involved with the control of stem cells

Cannabinoid signaling promotes the de-differentiation and proliferation of Müller glia-derived progenitor cells

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34231253/

2021: In a cellular model of diabetic retinopathy (damage to the blood vessels at the back of the eye), activating the CB2 receptor decreased inflammation

Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Agonist HU-308 Demonstrates Therapeutic Potential in Inflammatory Diabetic Retinopathy Models

https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2776401

2021: In a rat model of glaucoma, activating the cannabinoid receptors protected the neurons associated with vision

VSN16S, an agonist of the cannabinoid receptor, reduces IOP profiles and exhibits neuroprotective properties in a rat model of glaucoma

https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2775346

2021: In eye cells & in tadpoles, the CB1 receptors help enhance your vision & visual signaling

Endocannabinoid signaling enhances visual responses through modulation of intracellular chloride levels in retinal ganglion cells

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27501334/

2021: In rats, modulation of the endocannabinoid system enzymes protected the retinas & displayed neuroprotection & anti-inflammatory actions

The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol and dual ABHD6/MAGL enzyme inhibitors display neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory actions in the in vivo retinal model of AMPA excitotoxicity

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33450278/

2021: In rabbits having eye surgery, PEA reduced postoperative inflammation & scarring via the nuclear PPARα receptors that control genetic transcription

Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) reduces postoperative adhesions after experimental strabismus surgery in rabbits by suppressing canonical and non-canonical TGFβ signaling through PPARα

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006295220306341

2020: In mice, activating their CB receptors protected both their retinas & their brains

Effect of acute and subchronic administration of (R)-WIN55,212-2 induced neuroprotection and anti inflammatory actions in rat retina: CB1 and CB2 receptor involvement

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0197018620302989

2020: In mice, the ECS is involved with the maturation of the visual system from birth to adolescence

Endocannabinoid Signaling Contributes to Experience-Induced Increase of Synaptic Release Sites From Parvalbumin Interneurons in Mouse Visual Cortex

https://search.proquest.com/openview/06dcef27c8aa35209ce2dbb6bbb7b915/1

2020: In mice with no CB2 receptors, they had greater visual acuity while increasing 2-AG levels also increased visual acuity

Cannabinoids affect the mouse visual acuity via the cannabinoid receptor type 2

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7519129/

 

2020: The ECS enzymes & transporters may be a good target for the regulation of the eye's intraocular pressure

Endocannabinoid metabolism and transport as targets to regulate intraocular pressure

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0014483520305248

2020: In mice, this team found the CB1 receptor in the lacrimal gland of the eye. In males, THC decreased tearing, while it had no effect in females. The males had 5x the amount of CB1 in these glands.

THC Regulates Tearing via Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32852544/

2020: The ability of cannabis to slow dopamine transmission in the brain can be studied by changes in the responses in the retina

Oscillatory potentials abnormalities in regular cannabis users: Amacrine cells dysfunction as a marker of central dopaminergic modulation

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0278584620303997

2020: In the eyes of monkeys, they found TRPV1 receptors (one of the receptors that CBD binds to most strongly)

Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 is expressed in the horizontal pathway of the vervet monkey retina

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-68937-9

2020: In humans, a new double-blind study finds PEA helpful for glaucoma patients

Effect of palmitoylethanolamide on inner retinal function in glaucoma: a randomized, single blind, crossover, clinical trial by pattern-electroretinogram

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-67527-z

2020: A positive case study of using CBD oil to treat a rare eye disease

Successful Treatment of Superior Oblique Myokymia With Cannabidiol Oil

https://journals.lww.com/jneuro-ophthalmology/Citation/9000/Successful_Treatment_of_Superior_Oblique_Myokymia.98982.aspx

2020: In rats, PEA found helpful for eye disorders via the PPARα nuclear receptors that regulate genetic transcription

PPARα-Dependent Effects of Palmitoylethanolamide Against Retinal Neovascularization and Fibrosis

https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2764802

2020: A look at using CBD for treating blindness caused by diabetes

Cannabidiol As a Putative Novel Therapy for Diabetic Retinopathy: A Postulated Mechanism of Action as an Entry Point for Biomarker-Guided Clinical Development

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2955420/

2020: In the eyes of rats, CB1 activation helped to fine-tune visual signaling via modulation of GABA

Cannabinoid Signaling Selectively Modulates GABAergic Inhibitory Input to OFF Bipolar Cells in Rat Retina

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32150246

2020: For ocular pain & inflammation, allosteric activation of the CB1 receptor (an action of CBD) causes significant relief

Allosteric Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CB1) Ligands Reduce Ocular Pain and Inflammation

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31968549

2020: In rats, the IOP of the eye seems to be regulated by CB1 using opposing mechanisms for balance – involves CB1, GPR18 and GPR119

Evidence that cannabinoid CB1 receptors regulate intraocular pressure via two opposing mechanisms

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0014483520304991

2019: On targeting the ECS for eye pain & inflammation

Targetting the endocannabinoid system with orthosteric and allosteric cannabinoid ligands to reduce corneal pain and inflammation

https://dalspace.library.dal.ca/handle/10222/76707

2019: Dr. ElSohly, who runs the federal pot farm at UMiss, will be developing THC eye drops

https://www.marijuanamoment.net/head-of-nations-only-federally-legal-marijuana-farm-develops-thc-eye-drops/

2019: A hydrophilic prodrug of THC reduces intraocular pressure

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Derivative-Loaded Nanoformulation Lowers Intraocular Pressure in Normotensive Rabbits

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31588378

2019: In rat retinas, cannabinoids induce reduction of CB1 receptors

Endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids induce the downregulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptor in retina

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31199905

2019: In mice, repairs of the cornea involve CB2

Cannabinoid CB2R receptors are upregulated with corneal injury and regulate the course of corneal wound healing

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30905716

2018: in mice, topical application of THC saw IOP lower via CB1 and GPR18 while CBD blocked the effect

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol Differentially Regulate Intraocular Pressure

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30550613

2007: In a mouse model of autoimmune eye disease, CB2 activation lowers inflammation, inhibits autoreactive T cells & stop leukocytes traveling to inflamed tissue

Anti-inflammatory property of the cannabinoid receptor-2-selective agonist JWH-133 in a rodent model of autoimmune uveoretinitis

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17537989

2006: In humans, oral THC lowered IOP and while 20 mg of CBD had no change, 40 mg of CBD caused a transient increase

Effect of sublingual application of cannabinoids on intraocular pressure: a pilot study

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16988594

1984: An early study of cannabinoids & IOP in rabbits

Cannabinoids in glaucoma II: the effect of different cannabinoids on intraocular pressure of the rabbit

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6329602

1984: THC & CBD both dropped IOP but THC caused much stronger effects while full-spectrum extracts helped to ameliorate some of THC’s effects

Ocular hypotension, ocular toxicity, and neurotoxicity in response to marihuana extract and cannabidiol

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6098513

1982: Early study on IOP & cannabinoids

Intraocular pressure following systemic administration of cannabinoids

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6295702

1978: A comparison of the cannabinoid’s effects on IOP

A comparison of topical cannabinoids on intraocular pressure

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/680037

1971: landmark study by Hepler and Frank first demonstrated inhaled cannabis lowered IOP

Marihuana smoking and intraocular pressure

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5109652/