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The Eyes

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Best reviews

2023: How the endocannabinoid system works in our vision
The endocannabinoid system in the visual process

2022: A look at treating glaucoma with cannabinoids
Cannabinoids as New Drug Candidates for the Treatment of Glaucoma

2022: A review of how the endocannabinoid system is involved in the retina & protects it from inflammation
Endogenous Mediators of Neuroinflammation: The Endocannabinoid System at the Retina

2022: This review of preclinical evidence suggests than cannabinoids should be investigated for treating ocular pain

Is there a rational basis for cannabinoids research and development in ocular pain therapy? A systematic review of preclinical evidence

2021: This review looks at the presence of the ECS in the eyes of primates

The Vertical and Horizontal Pathways in the Monkey Retina Are Modulated by Typical and Atypical Cannabinoid Receptors

2021: This review looks at how CBD appears helpful for glaucoma via the WNT/β-Catenin pathway

Cannabidiol and the Canonical WNT/β-Catenin Pathway in Glaucoma

2021: This review looks at the benefits of CBD for the eye

Cannabidiol Signaling in the Eye and Its Potential as an Ocular Therapeutic Agent

2021: A review of the long history of cannabinoids & glaucoma

Cannabinoids in Glaucoma Patients: The Never-Ending Story

2021: A big review of the endocannabinoid system in the eye & its mechanisms

CannabinEYEds: The Endocannabinoid System as a Regulator of the Ocular Surface Nociception, Inflammatory Response, Neovascularization and Wound Healing

2020: A review of the cannabinoids & flavonoids as topical treatments for eye problems such as allergies & dry eye

Flavonoid and cannabinoid impact on the ocular surface

2020: A new review looks at 5 studies involving cannabis & the cornea

Cannabis and the Cornea

2018: An overview of the ECS in the eye, including an excellent chart

Neuroprotection by (endo)Cannabinoids in Glaucoma and Retinal Neurodegenerative Diseases

Timeline of Research

2023: In retinal cells of the eyes, PEA protected them from reactive oxygen species & cell death
Effect of palmitoylethanolamide on degeneration of a human-derived retinal pigment epithelial cell induced by all-trans retinal

2022: CBD topicals applied to the eyes of rabbits lowered intraocular pressure
Cannabidiol Loaded Topical Ophthalmic Nanoemulsion Lowers Intraocular Pressure in Normotensive Dutch-Belted Rabbits

2022: In pig eyes, CBD increased the flow of the aqueous humor (the fluid that contributes to the intraocular pressure important in eye diseases like glaucoma) via collagen contraction, the inhibition of myosin light chain (MLC) & myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1) & reduced activation of RhoA
The Effects of Cannabidiol on Aqueous Humor Outflow and Trabecular Meshwork Cell Signaling

2022: In healthy humans, THC reduced the intraocular pressure of their eye

The Relationship Between Plasma Tetrahydrocannabinol Levels and Intraocular Pressure in Healthy Adult Subjects

2022: In a mouse model of glaucoma, a stabilized nanoemulsion of CBD reduced ocular inflammation & at some dosages, helped decrease intraocular pressure

The dose-dependent effect of a stabilized cannabidiol nanoemulsion on ocular surface inflammation and intraocular pressure

2022: In humans with benign essential blepharospasm (a rare neurological disorder of the eyes), medical cannabis drops greatly reduced the length of eye spasms

Medical cannabis oil for benign essential blepharospasm: a prospective, randomized controlled pilot study

2022: In mouse eyes injured by excess glutamate, activating the CB1 & CB2 receptors doubled the number of neural eye cells to survive

Neuroprotection of Retinal Ganglion Cells In Vivo Using the Activation of the Endogenous Cannabinoid Signaling System in Mammalian Eyes


2022: In a mouse model of dry eye syndrome, the topical application of different cannabinoids reduced inflammation, protected corneal nerves & maintained cornea sensitivity

Topical application of cannabinoid-ligands ameliorates experimental dry-eye disease

2022: In mice with ocular blast injury, a CB2 receptor inverse agonist protected their eyes from visual deficits via the microglial cells

Raloxifene, a cannabinoid type-2 receptor inverse agonist, mitigates visual deficits and pathology and modulates microglia after ocular blast

2022: In a mouse eye cell model of glaucoma, CBN caused neuroprotection of the optic nerve cells, protected from changes in the extracellular matrix & normalized intraocular pressure

Cannabinol modulates neuroprotection and intraocular pressure: A potential multi-target therapeutic intervention for glaucoma

2021: How to create nano-encapsulated CBD balls for delivery into the eyeball

Cannabidiol-Loaded Mixed Polymeric Micelles of Chitosan/Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) And Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) For Trans-Corneal Delivery

2021: Vervet monkeys possesses an endocannabinoid system in their brain’s inferior pulvinar (a region related to vision & sight)

Presence of the Endocannabinoid System in the Inferior Pulvinar of the Vervet Monkey

2021: Research in the eyes of monkeys finds that the FAAH enzyme & the endocannabinoids mediate vision from our cone photoreceptors

The Inhibition of the Degrading Enzyme Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Alters the Activity of the Cone System in the Vervet Monkey Retina

2021: In the retinas of goldfish, the CB1 receptor & a dopamine receptor work together to modulate the day/night difference in rod-cone coupling

Interactions of cone cannabinoid CB1 and dopamine D4 receptors increase day/night difference in rod-cone gap junction coupling in goldfish retina

2021: In a chick model of the eye, cannabinoids are involved with the control of stem cells

Cannabinoid signaling promotes the de-differentiation and proliferation of Müller glia-derived progenitor cells

2021: In a cellular model of diabetic retinopathy (damage to the blood vessels at the back of the eye), activating the CB2 receptor decreased inflammation

Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Agonist HU-308 Demonstrates Therapeutic Potential in Inflammatory Diabetic Retinopathy Models

2021: In a rat model of glaucoma, activating the cannabinoid receptors protected the neurons associated with vision

VSN16S, an agonist of the cannabinoid receptor, reduces IOP profiles and exhibits neuroprotective properties in a rat model of glaucoma

2021: In eye cells & in tadpoles, the CB1 receptors help enhance your vision & visual signaling

Endocannabinoid signaling enhances visual responses through modulation of intracellular chloride levels in retinal ganglion cells

2021: In rats, modulation of the endocannabinoid system enzymes protected the retinas & displayed neuroprotection & anti-inflammatory actions

The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol and dual ABHD6/MAGL enzyme inhibitors display neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory actions in the in vivo retinal model of AMPA excitotoxicity

2021: In rabbits having eye surgery, PEA reduced postoperative inflammation & scarring via the nuclear PPARα receptors that control genetic transcription

Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) reduces postoperative adhesions after experimental strabismus surgery in rabbits by suppressing canonical and non-canonical TGFβ signaling through PPARα

2020: In mice, activating their CB receptors protected both their retinas & their brains

Effect of acute and subchronic administration of (R)-WIN55,212-2 induced neuroprotection and anti inflammatory actions in rat retina: CB1 and CB2 receptor involvement

2020: In mice, the ECS is involved with the maturation of the visual system from birth to adolescence

Endocannabinoid Signaling Contributes to Experience-Induced Increase of Synaptic Release Sites From Parvalbumin Interneurons in Mouse Visual Cortex

2020: In mice with no CB2 receptors, they had greater visual acuity while increasing 2-AG levels also increased visual acuity

Cannabinoids affect the mouse visual acuity via the cannabinoid receptor type 2


2020: The ECS enzymes & transporters may be a good target for the regulation of the eye's intraocular pressure

Endocannabinoid metabolism and transport as targets to regulate intraocular pressure

2020: In mice, this team found the CB1 receptor in the lacrimal gland of the eye. In males, THC decreased tearing, while it had no effect in females. The males had 5x the amount of CB1 in these glands.

THC Regulates Tearing via Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors

2020: The ability of cannabis to slow dopamine transmission in the brain can be studied by changes in the responses in the retina

Oscillatory potentials abnormalities in regular cannabis users: Amacrine cells dysfunction as a marker of central dopaminergic modulation

2020: In the eyes of monkeys, they found TRPV1 receptors (one of the receptors that CBD binds to most strongly)

Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 is expressed in the horizontal pathway of the vervet monkey retina

2020: In humans, a new double-blind study finds PEA helpful for glaucoma patients

Effect of palmitoylethanolamide on inner retinal function in glaucoma: a randomized, single blind, crossover, clinical trial by pattern-electroretinogram

2020: A positive case study of using CBD oil to treat a rare eye disease

Successful Treatment of Superior Oblique Myokymia With Cannabidiol Oil

2020: In rats, PEA found helpful for eye disorders via the PPARα nuclear receptors that regulate genetic transcription

PPARα-Dependent Effects of Palmitoylethanolamide Against Retinal Neovascularization and Fibrosis

2020: A look at using CBD for treating blindness caused by diabetes

Cannabidiol As a Putative Novel Therapy for Diabetic Retinopathy: A Postulated Mechanism of Action as an Entry Point for Biomarker-Guided Clinical Development

2020: In the eyes of rats, CB1 activation helped to fine-tune visual signaling via modulation of GABA

Cannabinoid Signaling Selectively Modulates GABAergic Inhibitory Input to OFF Bipolar Cells in Rat Retina

2020: For ocular pain & inflammation, allosteric activation of the CB1 receptor (an action of CBD) causes significant relief

Allosteric Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CB1) Ligands Reduce Ocular Pain and Inflammation

2020: In rats, the IOP of the eye seems to be regulated by CB1 using opposing mechanisms for balance – involves CB1, GPR18 and GPR119

Evidence that cannabinoid CB1 receptors regulate intraocular pressure via two opposing mechanisms

2019: On targeting the ECS for eye pain & inflammation

Targetting the endocannabinoid system with orthosteric and allosteric cannabinoid ligands to reduce corneal pain and inflammation

2019: Dr. ElSohly, who runs the federal pot farm at UMiss, will be developing THC eye drops

2019: A hydrophilic prodrug of THC reduces intraocular pressure

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Derivative-Loaded Nanoformulation Lowers Intraocular Pressure in Normotensive Rabbits

2019: In rat retinas, cannabinoids induce reduction of CB1 receptors

Endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids induce the downregulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptor in retina

2019: In mice, repairs of the cornea involve CB2

Cannabinoid CB2R receptors are upregulated with corneal injury and regulate the course of corneal wound healing

2018: in mice, topical application of THC saw IOP lower via CB1 and GPR18 while CBD blocked the effect

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol Differentially Regulate Intraocular Pressure

2007: In a mouse model of autoimmune eye disease, CB2 activation lowers inflammation, inhibits autoreactive T cells & stop leukocytes traveling to inflamed tissue

Anti-inflammatory property of the cannabinoid receptor-2-selective agonist JWH-133 in a rodent model of autoimmune uveoretinitis

2006: In humans, oral THC lowered IOP and while 20 mg of CBD had no change, 40 mg of CBD caused a transient increase

Effect of sublingual application of cannabinoids on intraocular pressure: a pilot study

1984: An early study of cannabinoids & IOP in rabbits

Cannabinoids in glaucoma II: the effect of different cannabinoids on intraocular pressure of the rabbit

1984: THC & CBD both dropped IOP but THC caused much stronger effects while full-spectrum extracts helped to ameliorate some of THC’s effects

Ocular hypotension, ocular toxicity, and neurotoxicity in response to marihuana extract and cannabidiol

1982: Early study on IOP & cannabinoids

Intraocular pressure following systemic administration of cannabinoids

1978: A comparison of the cannabinoid’s effects on IOP

A comparison of topical cannabinoids on intraocular pressure

1971: landmark study by Hepler and Frank first demonstrated inhaled cannabis lowered IOP

Marihuana smoking and intraocular pressure

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