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The Skin

Best reviews

2023: A review of using CBD for skin conditions & cosmetics (nice chart)
Skin applications of cannabidiol: sources, effects, delivery systems, marketed formulations and safety

2023: A review of why the cannabinoids are worth trying for psoriasis & other autoimmune skin disorders (a nice chart of CBD’s many effects)
Phytocannabinoids in the Pharmacotherapy of Psoriasis

2023: In patients with ulcers on their fingers from scleroderma (an autoimmune connective tissue & rheumatic disease that causes skin inflammation), topical CBD treatment caused lower pain scores, reduced painkiller use, higher health scores & an increase in total hours of sleep
Topical Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Digital Ulcers in Patients with Scleroderma: Comparative Analysis and Literature Review

2022: This review suggests the possibility of using cannabinoids for wound care
Evidence-based Potential Therapeutic Applications of Cannabinoids in Wound Management

2022: A review of the data strengthens the support for using CBD for acne
The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Cannabidiol (CBD) on Acne

2022: A review of treating skin diseases with cannabinoids
Cannabinoid Compounds as a Pharmacotherapeutic Option for the Treatment of Non-Cancer Skin Diseases

2022: A review of the use of CBD for sick skin
Topical cannabidiol (CBD) in skin pathology - A comprehensive review and prospects for new therapeutic opportunities


2022: A review of the studies on how well CBD absorbs through the skin
Systematic Review on Transdermal/Topical Cannabidiol Trials: A Reconsidered Way Forward

2022: For musculoskeletal pain, a review of using topical cannabinoids
Topical cannabinoids for the management of musculoskeletal pain: Understanding and review

2022: A review of CBD for cosmetology & dermatology

Cannabidiol – characteristic and application in cosmetology and dermatology

2022: This review looks at the studies on using cannabinoids for skin conditions

Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Dermatologic Conditions

2022: A review of the transdermal delivery of cannabinoids

The Transdermal Delivery of Therapeutic Cannabinoids

2022: A review of using cannabinoids for diseases of skin inflammation

Cannabis-Based Products for the Treatment of Skin Inflammatory Diseases: A Timely Review

2021: Speaking of, this survey looks at why people use cannabis topicals in Canada

A Survey of Topical Cannabis Use in Canada

2021: A review of the use of cannabinoids for skin health

Topical Use of Cannabis sativa L. Biochemicals

2021: A review of the promise of phytocannabinoids like CBD for healing the skin

Cannabis sativa and Skin Health: Dissecting the Role of Phytocannabinoids

2021: A review of the use of cannabinoids for skin health

Topical Use of Cannabis sativa L. Biochemicals

2021: A review of cannabis & the skin

Cannabis and the Skin

2021: A review of the use of oral cannabinoids for seborrheic dermatitis - a common skin issue among Parkinson's disease patients

A Review of the Current Evidence Connecting Seborrheic Dermatitis and Parkinson’s Disease and the Potential Role of Oral Cannabinoids

2021: A review of using for healing the skin & skin disorders

Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD) for Skin Health and Disorders

2020: Review of cannabinoids for dermatology

Cannabinoids in Dermatology: Hope or Hype?

2020: Review of trials & mechanisms

Mechanisms of Cannabinoids and Potential Applicability to Skin Diseases

2020: A review about using cannabinoids for wound healing

The Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids for Integumentary Wound Management

2020: A review of the endocannabinoid system's role in healing skin wounds

Cutaneous endocannabinoid system: Does it have a role on skin wound healing bearing fibrosis?

2020: ECS & skin inflammation

Cannabinoids in the Pathophysiology of Skin Inflammation

2019: Cannabinoids & skin conditions

Cannabinoids: Potential Role in Inflammatory and Neoplastic Skin Diseases

2019: excellent review of the cutaneous cannabinoid system (very comprehensive bibliography)

Cannabinoid Signaling in the Skin: Therapeutic Potential of the "C(ut)annabinoid" System

2019: a review of the use of cannabinoids in dermatology

The potential role of cannabinoids in dermatology

2018: A review of cannabinoids in dermatology

Cannabinoids in dermatology: a scoping review

2018: review with focus on druggability of ECS for skin disorders (excellent bibliography)

The endocannabinoid system of the skin. A potential approach for the treatment of skin disorders

2018: review of cannabinoids in clinic (excellent graphics)

The Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids in Dermatology

2017: short review for MDs

The role of cannabinoids in dermatology

2013: metareview of the lipid endocannabinoids and how they work in the skin

Bioactive lipid mediators in skin inflammation and immunity

2013: A review of the modulation of mast cells by PEA

New insights in mast cell modulation by palmitoylethanolamide

2011: quite a poetic look at the fine regulation by the ECS of skin differentiation in mammalian epidermis (by Maccarrone et. al)

Endocannabinoid signaling and epidermal differentiation

2009: multi-institutional study of ECS for treatment of various skin diseases

The endocannabinoid system of the skin in health and disease: novel perspectives and therapeutic opportunities

Chart Gallery

Timeline of Research

2023: In 20 elite athletes, topical CBD was well tolerated & helpful in a number of domains
Topical cannabidiol is well tolerated in individuals with a history of elite physical performance and chronic lower extremity pain


2023: In patients with recurrent mouth ulcers, a topical 0.1% CBD cream reduced the ulcer size, accelerated the ulcer healing & exerted anti-inflammatory & painkilling effects
Efficacy and safety of topical 0.1% cannabidiol for managing recurrent aphthous ulcers: a randomized controlled trial

2023: A case report on cannabis for hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating) by the famed Dr. Franjo Grotenhermen
Case in Context: Hyperhidrosis

2023: A case report of using the cannabinoids against hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating)
Cannabinoids in hyperhidrosis

2023: In skin stem cells, a look at the pathways CBD uses to enhance the skin barrier & reduce oxidative stress
Cannabidiol mediates epidermal terminal differentiation and redox homeostasis through aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent signaling

2023: On human keratinocytes (skin stem cells), CBG, CBC, THCV & CBDA all reduced inflammation via the reduction of proinflammatory cytokines, perhaps mediated by the TRPV1 receptor & the MAGL enzyme
Rare Phytocannabinoids Exert Anti-Inflammatory Effects on Human Keratinocytes via the Endocannabinoid System and MAPK Signaling Pathway

2023: On skin, CBD & CBG kill harmful microbials while sparing the skin’s microbiome
Cannabidiol and Cannabigerol Exert Antimicrobial Activity without Compromising Skin Microbiota

2023: In a mouse model of psoriasis & skin inflammation, activating the CB1 receptor significantly lessened scratching behavior & skin inflammation
The key role of CB1R in the sensory neurons to regulate psoriasiform skin inflammation and pruritus

2022: In a case study of a woman with severe recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (a rare genetic skin fragility disorder), after nothing else helped with the pain, oral CBD drops helped improve her pain to tolerable levels, improved her ability to swallow as well as her quality of life
Purified oral cannabidiol for pain management in severe recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa

2022: In a small pilot study, a CBD topical combined with retinol helped with a variety of facial skin imperfections
A Single-Center Study Evaluating the Effects of a Novel Retinol and Cannabidiol Combination Topical on Facial Skin

2022: In an animal model, topical 1% CBD cream helped with pain & inflammation
Study the Effect of Cannabidiol Topical on Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities in Animal Model

2022: In skin connective tissue, both THC & CBD decreased aging & improved wound healing more effectively than the top skin ingredients they were tested against
Phytocannabinoids Stimulate Rejuvenation and Prevent Cellular Senescence in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

2022: In skin stem cells (keratinocytes), CBD protects against the multipronged damage from UVB light
Photoprotective Effects of Cannabidiol against Ultraviolet-B-Induced DNA Damage and Autophagy in Human Keratinocyte Cells and Mouse Skin Tissue

2022: In skin connective tissue cells, combining CBD with common nutrient treatments (such as resveratrol from wine) increased their viability & wound-healing functionality as well as reducing their metabolic dysfunction
The Effects of Nutrient Signaling Regulators in Combination with Phytocannabinoids on the Senescence-Associated Phenotype in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

2022: In a human skin stem cell model of acne, CBD lowered inflammatory cytokines & upregulated CB2 levels
Cannabidiol Inhibits Inflammation Induced by Cutibacterium acnes-Derived Extracellular Vesicles via Activation of CB2 Receptor in Keratinocytes

2022: In rats with cuts in their skin, CBD improved inflammation & healing time, probably via the CB2 receptor
Cannabidiol Improves Random-Pattern Skin Flap Survival in Rats: Involvement of Cannabinoid Type-2 Receptors

2022: In skin stem cells, CBD has a central role in inhibiting pro-inflammatory signals
Cannabidiol has a central role in the NF-κB inhibition of a Cannabis sativa L. extract in human keratinocytes

2022: In skin stem cells, UVB radiation causes cell death while the presence of anandamide & CBD protected them from cell death, partially via the COX2 pathway
Influence of Inhibition of COX-2-Dependent Lipid Metabolism on Regulation of UVB-Induced Keratinocytes Apoptosis by Cannabinoids

2022: In a mouse model of itchy skin, β-Caryophyllene (a common cannabis terpene) lowered the inflammation & lesions
β-Caryophyllene Ameliorates 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis through the Downregulation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase/EGR1/TSLP Signaling Axis

2022: In the skin’s sebocytes (which produce the important oily sebum & regulate skin functions), the damage caused by blue light is lessened by CBD with actions including reduced inflammation, less reactive oxygen species & restoration of skewed cell cycles
The Modulation of Blue-Light-Induced Inflammation, Intracellular Lipid Secretion, and Oxidative Stress in Sebocytes with Cannabidiol

2022: CBD hydrogels for wound healing
Cannabidiol/β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex loaded poly(vinyl alcohol) semi-solid hydrogels for potential use in wound management

2022: In mice with scarring on their skin & livers, injected CBD lessened scarring & in the model of non-alcohol liver fibrosis, reduced infiltration by immune cells
Cannabidiol markedly alleviates skin and liver fibrosis

2022: In a mouse model of chronic itchy skin, electroacupuncture helps via the brain’s CB1 receptors & the lowering of serotonin levels by the control of both GABA & glutamate (the brain’s primary inhibitory & excitatory neurotransmitters respectively)
Electroacupuncture reduces chronic itch via cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray

2022: A combination of lidocaine & CBD for the topical treatment of pain
Design of Liposomal Lidocaine/Cannabidiol Fixed Combinations for Local Neuropathic Pain Treatment

2022: In humans with peripheral neuropathy, a double-blind study showed topical CBD oil caused “significant improvement in pain and other disturbing sensations”

The Effectiveness of Topical Cannabidiol Oil in Symptomatic Relief of Peripheral Neuropathy of the Lower Extremities

2022: In nude rats exposed to UV radiation, topical CBD lowered proinflammatory molecules in the skin, dramatically increased the anti-inflammatory LPXA4 & increased antioxidant capacity

Changes in Phospholipid/Ceramide Profiles and Eicosanoid Levels in the Plasma of Rats Irradiated with UV Rays and Treated Topically with Cannabidiol

2022: A study of what effects the absorption of CBD into human skin

In vitro percutaneous absorption studies of cannabidiol using human skin: Exploring the effect of drug concentration, chemical enhancers, and essential oils

2022: This survey finds that consumers use topical cannabis for treating skin conditions like acne & psoriasis

Consumer Perspectives on and Utilization of Medical Cannabis to Treat Dermatologic Conditions

2022: In a mouse model of itching skin, activating the CB1 receptor reduced itching behavior

The Effects of the Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibitor 17-Allylamino-17-Demethoxygeldanamycin, Cannabinoid Agonist WIN 55,212-2, and Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor Nω-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester Hydrochloride on the Serotonin and Dry Skin-Induced Itch

2022: In rats with a flap of their skin cut (a model for surgical procedures), treatment with the drug sumatriptan seemed to be mediated by the CB2 receptors

Involvement of cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors in the favorable effects of sumatriptan on the random-pattern skin flap survival in rats: a novel potential target

2022: In skin cells, an activator of the CB2 receptor exerted anti-inflammatory effects

Cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2R) distribution in dermatomyositis skin and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in vivo effects of Lenabasum TM

2022: An industry sponsored study finds that CBG produced via yeast fermentation acted as an effective topical skin treatment for inflammation

In Vitro and Clinical Evaluation of Cannabigerol (CBG) Produced via Yeast Biosynthesis: A Cannabinoid with a Broad Range of Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Health-Boosting Properties

2021: The combination of several clinical trials shows that CBD & PEA skin products are nonirritating & nonsensitizing for the skin

Tolerability profile of topical cannabidiol and palmitoylethanolamide: a compilation of single-centre randomized evaluator-blinded clinical and in vitro studies in normal skin

2021: In skin stem cells from psoriasis patients, the application of CBD restored levels of protective enzymes, lowered inflammation from UVB radiation & protected healthy skin stem cells

Cannabidiol Decreases Metalloproteinase Activity and Normalizes Angiogenesis Factor Expression in UVB-Irradiated Keratinocytes from Psoriatic Patients

2021: Adding CBD to a skin healing gel caused it to be more antioxidant & anti-inflammatory as well as accelerating wound healing

A cannabidiol-containing alginate based hydrogel as novel multifunctional wound dressing for promoting wound healing

2021: In rats exposed to UV radiation, topical CBD helped to protect from the usual negative changes in the bloodstream resulting from the UV exposure

UV induced changes in proteome of rats plasma are reversed by dermally applied cannabidiol

2021: A remarkable case series showing the power of small amounts of synthetic THC (dronabinol) for neuropathic itch

Neuropathic itch treated with oral cannabinoids: A case series

2021: In humans, the positive effects of hemp oil on the skin

Enhanced Skin Performance of Emulgel vs. Cream as Systems for Topical Delivery of Herbal Actives (Immortelle Extract and Hemp Oil)

2021: In mice with skin wounds who had no CB1 or CB2 receptors, researchers find that both receptors help to regulate inflammation & that the CB1 receptor is important in wound repair

Genetic deletion of the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 enhances inflammation with diverging effects on skin wound healing in mice

2021: This study finds that special bioactive clothing made from hemp is good for skin conditions & to slow skin aging

Bioactive Hemp Clothing Modified with Cannabidiol (CBD) Cannabis sativa L. Extract

2021: A new drug delivery system to get cannabis oil onto the skin for the treatment of wounds

Collagen Hydrogels Loaded with Silver Nanoparticles and Cannabis Sativa Oil

2021: In a mouse model of itching, activation of the CB1 receptor plus a drug to inhibit the heat shock proteins can be used to reduce the itching

The Effects of the Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibitor 17-Allylamino-17-Demethoxygeldanamycin, Cannabinoid Agonist WIN 55,212-2, and Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor Nω-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester Hydrochloride on the Serotonin and Dry Skin-Induced Itch

2021: In a mouse model of diabetic skin, mice with no CB1 receptors showed decreased collagen levels, more pro-inflammatory markers, more inflammatory macrophages & more free radicals leading to accelerated skin aging

Diabetes and Cannabinoid CB1 receptor deficiency promotes similar early onset aging-like changes in the skin

2021: In mice, treatment with topical CBD led their skin to produce more aquaporin-3 (important in skin water retention) & to be more moisturized

Cannabidiol Application Increases Cutaneous Aquaporin-3 and Exerts a Skin Moisturizing Effect

2021: A case report of a man with ALS & severe itching who used oral cannabinoids to treat his skin condition

Cannabinoids for the treatment of refractory neuropathic pruritus in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A case report

2021: It turns out the beneficial effects of a Baikal skullcap extract in treating atopic dermatitis in mice is mediated by the endocannabinoid system

ECS Modulating Effect of Scutellaria baicalensis Extract on inflammation relief in atopic dermatitis-induced mice

2021: In a mouse model of diabetic skin, mice with no CB1 receptors showed decreased collagen levels, more pro-inflammatory markers, more inflammatory macrophages & more free radicals leading to accelerated skin aging

Diabetes and Cannabinoid CB1 receptor deficiency promotes similar early onset aging-like changes in the skin

2021: In mice, treatment with topical CBD led their skin to produce more aquaporin-3 (important in skin water retention) & to be more moisturized

Cannabidiol Application Increases Cutaneous Aquaporin-3 and Exerts a Skin Moisturizing Effect

2021: A case report of a man with ALS & severe itching who used oral cannabinoids to treat his skin condition

Cannabinoids for the treatment of refractory neuropathic pruritus in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A case report

2021: In a study in 35 humans with alopecia (patchy hair loss), 6 months of a topical CBD caused participants to experience an average of 93.5% increase in hair

Case Study of Hair Regrowth with Topical Cannabidiol (CBD)

2021: In skin tissue, CBD protected the skin stem cells exposed to toxic hydrogen peroxide by reducing stress & maintaining the protein regulation networks

Protective effects of cannabidiol on the membrane proteins of skin keratinocytes exposed to hydrogen peroxide via participation in the proteostasis network

2021: In human skin tissue, activating the CB2 receptor helped with wound healing & the reduction of fibrosis (scarring)

Targeting cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) limits collagen production - an in vitro study in a primary culture of human fibroblasts

2021: In human skin cells, the antioxidant ascorbic acid & rutin protected the skin from UV radiation via direct interaction with the ECS

Exogenous Antioxidants Impact on UV-Induced Changes in Membrane Phospholipids and the Effectiveness of the Endocannabinoid System in Human Skin Cells

2021: In rats exposed to UV radiation, topical CBD protected the skin & also absorbed into the bloodstream where it proceeded to the liver & caused many changes

Changes in Hepatic Phospholipid Metabolism in Rats under UV Irradiation and Topically Treated with Cannabidiol

2021: Case study of PEA for the neuropathic pain of shingles

Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) in the treatment of neuropathic pain: a case study

2021: In human skin cells, CBD protected them from the oxidative stress of hydrogen peroxide via the inflammasome

Cannabidiol Protects Human Skin Keratinocytes from Hydrogen-Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress via Modulation of the Caspase-1-IL-1β Axis

2021: In humans, CBD & PEA found safe for the skin

Tolerability Profile of Topical Cannabidiol and Palmitoylethanolamide: A Compilation of Single-Center Randomized Evaluator-Blinded Clinical and In Vitro Studies in Normal Skin

2021: In skin cells, CBD may act as an anti-inflammatory - but it does not do so via the Caspase-1, interleukin or prostaglandin pathways

Purified Cannabidiol Isolate does not inhibit Active Caspase-1 Release in NLRP Inflammasome-Mediated UVB or ATP-Activated Keratinocytes or Reduce Key inflammatory Cytokines in UVB-irradiate Keratinocytes

2021: In skin cells, hemp extracts were found to have positive effects

Positive Effect of Cannabis sativa L. Herb Extracts on Skin Cells and Assessment of Cannabinoid-Based Hydrogels Properties

2021: In humans, rats, and skin cell samples of jaundice, the activation of CB2 by anandamide raised the levels of β-endorphin (an endogenous painkiller)

Cannabinoid Receptor-2 Activation in Keratinocytes Contributes to Elevated Peripheral β-Endorphin Levels in Patients With Obstructive Jaundice

2021: In human skin, the soothing effects of patchouli are mediated by the CB2 receptor

Soothing Effect of Pogostemon cablin Extract (Patchouli), via Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Modulation in Human Skin

2020: In human skin cells, blocking the CB1 receptor helped to prevent fibrosis (scarring)

AM251, a cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist, prevents human fibroblasts differentiation and collagen deposition induced by TGF-β – an in vitro study

2020: In 50 humans with itchy scalps, CBD shampoo reduced "both severity and symptoms of scalp inflammation within 2 weeks, with excellent tolerability and treatment satisfaction"

Efficacy and Tolerability of a Shampoo Containing Broad-Spectrum Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Scalp Inflammation in Patients with Mild to Moderate Scalp Psoriasis or Seborrheic Dermatitis

2020: In this study of rat skin, they looked at the proteins underlying how CBD protected the skin from UV radiation

Therapeutic application of cannabidiol on UVA and UVB irradiated rat skin. A proteomic study

2020: When you put CBD in sunscreen, it protects the keratinocytes (skin stem cells) & melanocytes from the harms of UVB radiation - probably via antioxidant effects

Novel cannabidiol sunscreen protects keratinocytes and melanocytes against ultraviolet B radiation

2020: In keratinocytes (the main cells of the skin), CBD protected against the insults of UVB radiation & hydrogen peroxide via a variety of mechanisms (includes a nice graphic)

Cannabidiol protects keratinocyte cell membranes following exposure to UVB and hydrogen peroxide

2020: A Hataedock treatment is the feeding of herbal extracts to infants for the prevention of future skin diseases. It's widely done across China & Korea & this research suggests that it works via the ECS

Effect of Hataedock Treatment on Epidermal Structure Maintenance through Intervention in the Endocannabinoid System

2020: In skin cells, the CB1 receptors on the surface of the mitochondria (powerhouse of cell) downregulated mitochondrial activity, suggesting a therapeutic intervention for the excessive productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that causes aging and sun damage

Mitochondrial energy metabolism is negatively regulated by cannabinoid receptor 1 in intact human epidermis

2020: In skin cells, the CB1 receptors on the surface of the mitochondria (powerhouse of cell) downregulates mitochondrial activity, suggesting a therapeutic intervention for the excessive productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause aging and sun damage

Mitochondrial energy metabolism is negatively regulated by cannabinoid receptor 1 in intact human epidermis

2019: In human skin cells, CBD inhibited inflammatory molecules & assisted in wound repair

Cannabis sativa L. extract and cannabidiol inhibit in vitro mediators of skin inflammation and wound injury

2019: in keratinocytes, CBD as regulator of inflammation and transcription

Cannabidiol Regulates the Expression of Keratinocyte Proteins Involved in the Inflammation Process through Transcriptional Regulation

2019: in skin cells, CBD protected from UV radiation

The Differences in the Proteome Profile of Cannabidiol-Treated Skin Fibroblasts following UVA or UVB Irradiation in 2D and 3D Cell Cultures

2019: In a mouse model, increase of endocannabinoids has significant effects on skin inflammation

Modulators of the endocannabinoid system influence skin barrier repair, epidermal proliferation, differentiation and inflammation in a mouse model

2018: How the ECS regulates the highly specialized multifacted sebocyte cells

Endocannabinoid Tone Regulates Human Sebocyte Biology

2018: Letter on use of cannabinoids for rare genetic keratin disorders

Neuroendocrine treatment of inherited keratin disorders by cannabinoids?

2018: In mast cells, anandamide causes less proinflammatory molecules to be created via a (putative) heteromer complex of GPR55 & CB2 plus modulation of the CB1 receptor

Anandamide inhibits FcεRI-dependent degranulation and cytokine synthesis in mast cells through CB2 and GPR55 receptor activation. Possible involvement of CB2-GPR55 heteromers

2016: CBD topical for arthritis

Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis

2016: How inhibiting FAAH causes anti-inflammatory effects

Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase exerts cutaneous anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro and in vivo

2016: PEA raises 2AG & potentiates it at TRPV1

The anti-inflammatory mediator palmitoylethanolamide enhances the levels of 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol and potentiates its actions at TRPV1 cation channels

2016: Mechanisms of skin response to UV radiation via ECS

The cross-talk between electrophiles, antioxidant defence and the endocannabinoid system in fibroblasts and keratinocytes after UVA and UVB irradiation

2016: Insults of the skin by the mustard vesicants induce a host of responses from the ECS

Mustard vesicants alter expression of the endocannabinoid system in mouse skin

2016: In keratinocytes, anandamide inhibits the proinflammatory T Cells via CB1

Anandamide Suppresses Proinflammatory T Cell Responses In Vitro through Type-1 Cannabinoid Receptor-Mediated mTOR Inhibition in Human Keratinocytes

2016: In keratinocytes, CB2 activation causes a β-Endorphin release that lessens pain transmission

Signaling Mechanism of Cannabinoid Receptor-2 Activation-Induced β-Endorphin Release

2015: The common cannabis terpene β-caryophyllene inhibits melanogenesis

Inhibition of melanogenesis by β-caryophyllene from lime mint essential oil in mouse B16 melanoma cells

2014: CBD’s effects on sebocytes – potential as an acne treatment

Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes

2014: TRP channels and cannabinoid receptors in skin homeostasis

TRP channel cannabinoid receptors in skin sensation, homeostasis, and inflammation

2013: The pain relief caused by platelets is mediated, at least in part, by the endocannabinoids

Platelet-rich plasma exerts antinociceptive activity by a peripheral endocannabinoid-related mechanism

2013: In human skin cells, CBD & CBG repressed transcription of genes related to cell proliferation & differentiation – CBD via CB1 & CBG by neither CB1 or CB2

Epigenetic control of skin differentiation genes by phytocannabinoids


2013: A new way to control human keratin found: CB1 activations causes less keratins K6 & K16

A novel control of human keratin expression: Cannabinoid receptor 1-mediated signaling down-regulates the expression of keratins K6 and K16 in human keratinocytes in vitro and in situ

2013: In keratinocytes, the common terpene β-caryophyllene activates CB2 & release the endogenous opioid β-endorphin

Involvement of peripheral cannabinoid and opioid receptors in β-caryophyllene-induced antinociception

2013: Endocannabinoids inhibit mast cell activation and maturation via CB1 – could be relevant for nasal delivery in allergic diseases

Cannabinoid receptor 1 controls human mucosal-type mast cell degranulation and maturation in situ

2013: In rodents, transdermal CBD protected against alcohol’s neurodegeneration

Transdermal delivery of cannabidiol attenuates binge alcohol-induced neurodegeneration in a rodent model of an alcohol use disorder

2012: Endocannabinoids tightly regulate the skin & CB1 activation is promising for allergy skin diseases and other mast cell-dependent skin diseases

Endocannabinoids limit excessive mast cell maturation and activation in human skin

2012: Cannabinoid receptors involved in regulating skin permeability & differentiation

Cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 oppositely regulate epidermal permeability barrier status and differentiation

2012: How endocannabinoids activate melanocytes to produce melanin pigment via CB1

Endocannabinoids stimulate human melanogenesis via type-1 cannabinoid receptor

2012: How the endocannabinoids regulate the sweat gland cells

Endocannabinoids regulate growth and survival of human eccrine sweat gland-derived epithelial cells

2011: In mast cells, endocannabinoids inhibit the release of nerve growth factors (thus causing less angiogenesis of mast cells and less inflammation)

Endocannabinoids inhibit release of nerve growth factor by inflammation-activated mast cells

2011: When the skin is insulted by UV light, cannabinoid receptors play a role in mediating the damaging response

Inhibition of basal and ultraviolet B-induced melanogenesis by cannabinoid CB(1) receptors: A keratinocyte-dependent effect

2010: AEA causes nocifensive behaviors via activation of TRPV1 receptors

Excitation of cutaneous C nociceptors by intraplantar administration of anandamide

2010: Detailed comparison of important cannabinoids & their varin cousins in topical applications

Comparative topical anti-inflammatory activity of cannabinoids and cannabivarins

2010: In mast cells, PEA caused an inhibition of histamine, PGD2 & TNFalpha release

Effects of palmitoylethanolamide on immunologically induced histamine, PGD2 and TNFalpha release from canine skin mast cells

2009: Maccarrone on the accumulating evidence for AEA controlling epidermal differentiation (or cornification)

Regulation of gene transcription and keratinocyte differentiation by anandamide

2009: TRPV1 regulates sebocytes – and how AEA affects it

Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 signaling as a regulator of human sebocyte biology

2009: AEA acts via vanilloid receptors for vasodilation

Vanilloid receptors on sensory nerves mediate the vasodilator action of anandamide

2008: How AEA regulates keratinocytes via DNA methylation (ie. by using genetic transcription control)

Anandamide regulates keratinocyte differentiation by inducing DNA methylation in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner

2006: “Cannabinoids inhibit AANAT activity and attenuate melatonin biosynthesis through intracellular actions without involvement of classical cannabinoid receptor-dependent signaling cascades”

Cannabinoids attenuate norepinephrine-induced melatonin biosynthesis in the rat pineal gland by reducing arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity without involvement of cannabinoid receptors

2005: In mast cells, how CB1 causes antiinflammation via cAMP elevation

Anti-inflammatory potential of CB1-mediated cAMP elevation in mast cells

2005: Release of opiods via CB2 receptor suggests the cannabinoid receptors might act as cutaneous nociceptors (pain relief response in the skin)

CB2 cannabinoid receptor activation produces antinociception by stimulating peripheral release of endogenous opioids

2005: Fascinating work on the purported anandamide transporter shows that in keratinocytes, the transport & breakdown of anandamide occur in different places

Confocal microscopy and biochemical analysis reveal spatial and functional separation between anandamide uptake and hydrolysis in human keratinocytes

2005: Distribution of cannabinoid receptors in human skin

Distribution of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) on sensory nerve fibers and adnexal structures in human skin

2004: Transdermal delivery rates of THC8, CBN, and CBD

Human skin permeation of Delta8-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol

1995: In mast cells, the CB2 receptor reacts in different ways to AEA & PEA

Mast cells express a peripheral cannabinoid receptor with differential sensitivity to anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide.

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