The Skin

Best reviews

2021: A review of the promise of phytocannabinoids like CBD for healing the skin

Cannabis sativa and Skin Health: Dissecting the Role of Phytocannabinoids

2021: A review of the use of cannabinoids for skin health

Topical Use of Cannabis sativa L. Biochemicals

2021: A review of cannabis & the skin

Cannabis and the Skin

2021: A review of the use of oral cannabinoids for seborrheic dermatitis - a common skin issue among Parkinson's disease patients

A Review of the Current Evidence Connecting Seborrheic Dermatitis and Parkinson’s Disease and the Potential Role of Oral Cannabinoids

2021: A review of using for healing the skin & skin disorders

Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD) for Skin Health and Disorders

2020: Review of cannabinoids for dermatology

Cannabinoids in Dermatology: Hope or Hype?

2020: Review of trials & mechanisms

Mechanisms of Cannabinoids and Potential Applicability to Skin Diseases

2020: A review about using cannabinoids for wound healing

The Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids for Integumentary Wound Management

2020: A review of the endocannabinoid system's role in healing skin wounds

Cutaneous endocannabinoid system: Does it have a role on skin wound healing bearing fibrosis?

2020: ECS & skin inflammation

Cannabinoids in the Pathophysiology of Skin Inflammation

2019: Cannabinoids & skin conditions

Cannabinoids: Potential Role in Inflammatory and Neoplastic Skin Diseases

2019: excellent review of the cutaneous cannabinoid system (very comprehensive bibliography)

Cannabinoid Signaling in the Skin: Therapeutic Potential of the "C(ut)annabinoid" System

2019: a review of the use of cannabinoids in dermatology

The potential role of cannabinoids in dermatology

2018: A review of cannabinoids in dermatology

Cannabinoids in dermatology: a scoping review

2018: review with focus on druggability of ECS for skin disorders (excellent bibliography)

The endocannabinoid system of the skin. A potential approach for the treatment of skin disorders

2018: review of cannabinoids in clinic (excellent graphics)

The Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids in Dermatology

2017: short review for MDs

The role of cannabinoids in dermatology

2013: metareview of the lipid endocannabinoids and how they work in the skin

Bioactive lipid mediators in skin inflammation and immunity

2013: A review of the modulation of mast cells by PEA

New insights in mast cell modulation by palmitoylethanolamide

2011: quite a poetic look at the fine regulation by the ECS of skin differentiation in mammalian epidermis (by Maccarrone et. al)

Endocannabinoid signaling and epidermal differentiation

2009: multi-institutional study of ECS for treatment of various skin diseases

The endocannabinoid system of the skin in health and disease: novel perspectives and therapeutic opportunities

Chart Gallery

CBD & skin integrity
CBD & skin integrity

2020: Cannabidiol protects keratinocyte cell membranes following exposure to UVB and hydrogen peroxide

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ECS, CBD & dermatology
ECS, CBD & dermatology

2019: Cannabinoid Signaling in the Skin: Therapeutic Potential of the "C(ut)annabinoid" System

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ECS in skin
ECS in skin

2019: Cannabinoids: Potential Role in Inflammatory and Neoplastic Skin Diseases

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CBD & skin integrity
CBD & skin integrity

2020: Cannabidiol protects keratinocyte cell membranes following exposure to UVB and hydrogen peroxide

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Timeline of Research

2021: In a mouse model of diabetic skin, mice with no CB1 receptors showed decreased collagen levels, more pro-inflammatory markers, more inflammatory macrophages & more free radicals leading to accelerated skin aging

Diabetes and Cannabinoid CB1 receptor deficiency promotes similar early onset aging-like changes in the skin

2021: In mice, treatment with topical CBD led their skin to produce more aquaporin-3 (important in skin water retention) & to be more moisturized

Cannabidiol Application Increases Cutaneous Aquaporin-3 and Exerts a Skin Moisturizing Effect

2021: A case report of a man with ALS & severe itching who used oral cannabinoids to treat his skin condition

Cannabinoids for the treatment of refractory neuropathic pruritus in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A case report

2021: In a study in 35 humans with alopecia (patchy hair loss), 6 months of a topical CBD caused participants to experience an average of 93.5% increase in hair

Case Study of Hair Regrowth with Topical Cannabidiol (CBD)

2021: In skin tissue, CBD protected the skin stem cells exposed to toxic hydrogen peroxide by reducing stress & maintaining the protein regulation networks

Protective effects of cannabidiol on the membrane proteins of skin keratinocytes exposed to hydrogen peroxide via participation in the proteostasis network

2021: In human skin tissue, activating the CB2 receptor helped with wound healing & the reduction of fibrosis (scarring)

Targeting cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) limits collagen production - an in vitro study in a primary culture of human fibroblasts

2021: In human skin cells, the antioxidant ascorbic acid & rutin protected the skin from UV radiation via direct interaction with the ECS

Exogenous Antioxidants Impact on UV-Induced Changes in Membrane Phospholipids and the Effectiveness of the Endocannabinoid System in Human Skin Cells

2021: In rats exposed to UV radiation, topical CBD protected the skin & also absorbed into the bloodstream where it proceeded to the liver & caused many changes

Changes in Hepatic Phospholipid Metabolism in Rats under UV Irradiation and Topically Treated with Cannabidiol

2021: Case study of PEA for the neuropathic pain of shingles

Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) in the treatment of neuropathic pain: a case study

2021: In human skin cells, CBD protected them from the oxidative stress of hydrogen peroxide via the inflammasome

Cannabidiol Protects Human Skin Keratinocytes from Hydrogen-Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress via Modulation of the Caspase-1-IL-1β Axis

2021: In humans, CBD & PEA found safe for the skin

Tolerability Profile of Topical Cannabidiol and Palmitoylethanolamide: A Compilation of Single-Center Randomized Evaluator-Blinded Clinical and In Vitro Studies in Normal Skin

2021: In skin cells, CBD may act as an anti-inflammatory - but it does not do so via the Caspase-1, interleukin or prostaglandin pathways

Purified Cannabidiol Isolate does not inhibit Active Caspase-1 Release in NLRP Inflammasome-Mediated UVB or ATP-Activated Keratinocytes or Reduce Key inflammatory Cytokines in UVB-irradiate Keratinocytes

2021: In skin cells, hemp extracts were found to have positive effects

Positive Effect of Cannabis sativa L. Herb Extracts on Skin Cells and Assessment of Cannabinoid-Based Hydrogels Properties

2021: In humans, rats, and skin cell samples of jaundice, the activation of CB2 by anandamide raised the levels of β-endorphin (an endogenous painkiller)

Cannabinoid Receptor-2 Activation in Keratinocytes Contributes to Elevated Peripheral β-Endorphin Levels in Patients With Obstructive Jaundice

2021: In human skin, the soothing effects of patchouli are mediated by the CB2 receptor

Soothing Effect of Pogostemon cablin Extract (Patchouli), via Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Modulation in Human Skin

2020: In human skin cells, blocking the CB1 receptor helped to prevent fibrosis (scarring)

AM251, a cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist, prevents human fibroblasts differentiation and collagen deposition induced by TGF-β – an in vitro study

2020: In 50 humans with itchy scalps, CBD shampoo reduced "both severity and symptoms of scalp inflammation within 2 weeks, with excellent tolerability and treatment satisfaction"

Efficacy and Tolerability of a Shampoo Containing Broad-Spectrum Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Scalp Inflammation in Patients with Mild to Moderate Scalp Psoriasis or Seborrheic Dermatitis

2020: In this study of rat skin, they looked at the proteins underlying how CBD protected the skin from UV radiation

Therapeutic application of cannabidiol on UVA and UVB irradiated rat skin. A proteomic study

2020: When you put CBD in sunscreen, it protects the keratinocytes (skin stem cells) & melanocytes from the harms of UVB radiation - probably via antioxidant effects

Novel cannabidiol sunscreen protects keratinocytes and melanocytes against ultraviolet B radiation

2020: In keratinocytes (the main cells of the skin), CBD protected against the insults of UVB radiation & hydrogen peroxide via a variety of mechanisms (includes a nice graphic)

Cannabidiol protects keratinocyte cell membranes following exposure to UVB and hydrogen peroxide

2020: A Hataedock treatment is the feeding of herbal extracts to infants for the prevention of future skin diseases. It's widely done across China & Korea & this research suggests that it works via the ECS

Effect of Hataedock Treatment on Epidermal Structure Maintenance through Intervention in the Endocannabinoid System

2020: In skin cells, the CB1 receptors on the surface of the mitochondria (powerhouse of cell) downregulated mitochondrial activity, suggesting a therapeutic intervention for the excessive productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that causes aging and sun damage

Mitochondrial energy metabolism is negatively regulated by cannabinoid receptor 1 in intact human epidermis

2020: In skin cells, the CB1 receptors on the surface of the mitochondria (powerhouse of cell) downregulates mitochondrial activity, suggesting a therapeutic intervention for the excessive productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause aging and sun damage

Mitochondrial energy metabolism is negatively regulated by cannabinoid receptor 1 in intact human epidermis

2019: In human skin cells, CBD inhibited inflammatory molecules & assisted in wound repair

Cannabis sativa L. extract and cannabidiol inhibit in vitro mediators of skin inflammation and wound injury

2019: in keratinocytes, CBD as regulator of inflammation and transcription

Cannabidiol Regulates the Expression of Keratinocyte Proteins Involved in the Inflammation Process through Transcriptional Regulation

2019: in skin cells, CBD protected from UV radiation

The Differences in the Proteome Profile of Cannabidiol-Treated Skin Fibroblasts following UVA or UVB Irradiation in 2D and 3D Cell Cultures

2019: In a mouse model, increase of endocannabinoids has significant effects on skin inflammation

Modulators of the endocannabinoid system influence skin barrier repair, epidermal proliferation, differentiation and inflammation in a mouse model

2018: How the ECS regulates the highly specialized multifacted sebocyte cells

Endocannabinoid Tone Regulates Human Sebocyte Biology

2018: Letter on use of cannabinoids for rare genetic keratin disorders

Neuroendocrine treatment of inherited keratin disorders by cannabinoids?

2018: In mast cells, anandamide causes less proinflammatory molecules to be created via a (putative) heteromer complex of GPR55 & CB2 plus modulation of the CB1 receptor

Anandamide inhibits FcεRI-dependent degranulation and cytokine synthesis in mast cells through CB2 and GPR55 receptor activation. Possible involvement of CB2-GPR55 heteromers

2016: CBD topical for arthritis

Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis

2016: How inhibiting FAAH causes anti-inflammatory effects

Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase exerts cutaneous anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro and in vivo

2016: PEA raises 2AG & potentiates it at TRPV1

The anti-inflammatory mediator palmitoylethanolamide enhances the levels of 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol and potentiates its actions at TRPV1 cation channels

2016: Mechanisms of skin response to UV radiation via ECS

The cross-talk between electrophiles, antioxidant defence and the endocannabinoid system in fibroblasts and keratinocytes after UVA and UVB irradiation

2016: Insults of the skin by the mustard vesicants induce a host of responses from the ECS

Mustard vesicants alter expression of the endocannabinoid system in mouse skin

2016: In keratinocytes, anandamide inhibits the proinflammatory T Cells via CB1

Anandamide Suppresses Proinflammatory T Cell Responses In Vitro through Type-1 Cannabinoid Receptor-Mediated mTOR Inhibition in Human Keratinocytes

2016: In keratinocytes, CB2 activation causes a β-Endorphin release that lessens pain transmission

Signaling Mechanism of Cannabinoid Receptor-2 Activation-Induced β-Endorphin Release

2015: The common cannabis terpene β-caryophyllene inhibits melanogenesis

Inhibition of melanogenesis by β-caryophyllene from lime mint essential oil in mouse B16 melanoma cells

2014: CBD’s effects on sebocytes – potential as an acne treatment

Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes

2014: TRP channels and cannabinoid receptors in skin homeostasis

TRP channel cannabinoid receptors in skin sensation, homeostasis, and inflammation

2013: The pain relief caused by platelets is mediated, at least in part, by the endocannabinoids

Platelet-rich plasma exerts antinociceptive activity by a peripheral endocannabinoid-related mechanism

2013: In human skin cells, CBD & CBG repressed transcription of genes related to cell proliferation & differentiation – CBD via CB1 & CBG by neither CB1 or CB2

Epigenetic control of skin differentiation genes by phytocannabinoids


2013: A new way to control human keratin found: CB1 activations causes less keratins K6 & K16

A novel control of human keratin expression: Cannabinoid receptor 1-mediated signaling down-regulates the expression of keratins K6 and K16 in human keratinocytes in vitro and in situ

2013: In keratinocytes, the common terpene β-caryophyllene activates CB2 & release the endogenous opioid β-endorphin

Involvement of peripheral cannabinoid and opioid receptors in β-caryophyllene-induced antinociception

2013: Endocannabinoids inhibit mast cell activation and maturation via CB1 – could be relevant for nasal delivery in allergic diseases

Cannabinoid receptor 1 controls human mucosal-type mast cell degranulation and maturation in situ

2013: In rodents, transdermal CBD protected against alcohol’s neurodegeneration

Transdermal delivery of cannabidiol attenuates binge alcohol-induced neurodegeneration in a rodent model of an alcohol use disorder

2012: Endocannabinoids tightly regulate the skin & CB1 activation is promising for allergy skin diseases and other mast cell-dependent skin diseases

Endocannabinoids limit excessive mast cell maturation and activation in human skin

2012: Cannabinoid receptors involved in regulating skin permeability & differentiation

Cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 oppositely regulate epidermal permeability barrier status and differentiation

2012: How endocannabinoids activate melanocytes to produce melanin pigment via CB1

Endocannabinoids stimulate human melanogenesis via type-1 cannabinoid receptor

2012: How the endocannabinoids regulate the sweat gland cells

Endocannabinoids regulate growth and survival of human eccrine sweat gland-derived epithelial cells

2011: In mast cells, endocannabinoids inhibit the release of nerve growth factors (thus causing less angiogenesis of mast cells and less inflammation)

Endocannabinoids inhibit release of nerve growth factor by inflammation-activated mast cells

2011: When the skin is insulted by UV light, cannabinoid receptors play a role in mediating the damaging response

Inhibition of basal and ultraviolet B-induced melanogenesis by cannabinoid CB(1) receptors: A keratinocyte-dependent effect

2010: AEA causes nocifensive behaviors via activation of TRPV1 receptors

Excitation of cutaneous C nociceptors by intraplantar administration of anandamide

2010: Detailed comparison of important cannabinoids & their varin cousins in topical applications

Comparative topical anti-inflammatory activity of cannabinoids and cannabivarins

2010: In mast cells, PEA caused an inhibition of histamine, PGD2 & TNFalpha release

Effects of palmitoylethanolamide on immunologically induced histamine, PGD2 and TNFalpha release from canine skin mast cells

2009: Maccarrone on the accumulating evidence for AEA controlling epidermal differentiation (or cornification)

Regulation of gene transcription and keratinocyte differentiation by anandamide

2009: TRPV1 regulates sebocytes – and how AEA affects it

Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 signaling as a regulator of human sebocyte biology

2009: AEA acts via vanilloid receptors for vasodilation

Vanilloid receptors on sensory nerves mediate the vasodilator action of anandamide

2008: How AEA regulates keratinocytes via DNA methylation (ie. by using genetic transcription control)

Anandamide regulates keratinocyte differentiation by inducing DNA methylation in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner

2006: “Cannabinoids inhibit AANAT activity and attenuate melatonin biosynthesis through intracellular actions without involvement of classical cannabinoid receptor-dependent signaling cascades”

Cannabinoids attenuate norepinephrine-induced melatonin biosynthesis in the rat pineal gland by reducing arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity without involvement of cannabinoid receptors

2005: In mast cells, how CB1 causes antiinflammation via cAMP elevation

Anti-inflammatory potential of CB1-mediated cAMP elevation in mast cells

2005: Release of opiods via CB2 receptor suggests the cannabinoid receptors might act as cutaneous nociceptors (pain relief response in the skin)

CB2 cannabinoid receptor activation produces antinociception by stimulating peripheral release of endogenous opioids

2005: Fascinating work on the purported anandamide transporter shows that in keratinocytes, the transport & breakdown of anandamide occur in different places

Confocal microscopy and biochemical analysis reveal spatial and functional separation between anandamide uptake and hydrolysis in human keratinocytes

2005: Distribution of cannabinoid receptors in human skin

Distribution of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) on sensory nerve fibers and adnexal structures in human skin

2004: Transdermal delivery rates of THC8, CBN, and CBD

Human skin permeation of Delta8-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol

1995: In mast cells, the CB2 receptor reacts in different ways to AEA & PEA

Mast cells express a peripheral cannabinoid receptor with differential sensitivity to anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide.