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​Digestive System & Metabolism


Guts, Metabolics & the Cannabinoids

Best reviews

2023: A review of 107 papers on oral health find that activating the cannabinoid receptors can help with inflammation, bone healing & the treatment of periodontitis (a serious gum infection)
Activation of cannabinoid receptors promotes periodontal healing by regulating periodontal inflammation and bone remodeling

2023: A review of the gut microbiome-endocannabinoidome axis
The Gut Microbiome-Endocannabinoidome Axis: A New Way of Controlling Metabolism, Inflammation, and Behavior

2023: A review of the endocannabinoid system & its effects on the diseases of energy & metabolic homeostasis with a focus on the therapeutic potential for diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity & hypertension
Role of the Endocannabinoid System in Metabolic Control Processes and in the Pathogenesis of Metabolic Syndrome: An Update

2022: A review of how the endocannabinoid system balances the intestines
The role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of intestinal homeostasis

2022: This review of cannabis for dentistry shows the most support for using CBD for certain mouth disorders
A critical review of cannabis in medicine and dentistry: A look back and the path forward

2022: A review of how CBD affects appetite & body weight
Effects of Cannabidiol on Appetite and Body Weight: A Systematic Review

2022: A review of how the gut microbiome plays a role in the cannabinoid’s ability to lower inflammation
Role of Gut Microbiota in Cannabinoid-Mediated Suppression of Inflammation

2022: The endocannabinoid system & eating behaviors
The Endocannabinoid System and Eating Behaviours: a Review of the Current State of the Evidence


2022: A review looks at how exercise activates the endocannabinoid system & prevents metabolic disorders
The Endocannabinoid System and Physical Activity-A Robust Duo in the Novel Therapeutic Approach against Metabolic Disorders

2022: A review of the potential of CBD for dentistry
Cannabidiol, the Journey of Cannabis from a Social Stigma to a Miracle Drug in Dentistry

2022: A big review of CBD for dentistry
Cannabidiol in Dentistry: A Scoping Review

2022: In this review of the enteric nervous system in your guts, it looks at the many roles played by your endocannabinoid system & suggests targeting it for treating diseases
The Enteric Glia and Its Modulation by the Endocannabinoid System, a New Target for Cannabinoid-Based Nutraceuticals?

2022: A review of cannabis for treating metabolic syndrome (the cluster of factors leading to heart disease, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes)
Cannabis and cannabinoids as an alternative remedy in metabolic syndrome


2022: A review of how cannabinoids alter the gut microbiome – and how that alters the gut-brain & gut-bone axes
Modulatory Effect of Gut Microbiota on the Gut-Brain, Gut-Bone Axes, and the Impact of Cannabinoids

2022: A review of using cannabinoids & terpenes to treat diabetes mellitus
Cannabinoids and terpenes for diabetes mellitus and its complications: from mechanisms to new therapies

2022: In the heart problems arising from diabetes, this review looks at how the ECS is involved in this complex problem & how we might target the endocannabinoids to treat it
Role of cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system in modulation of diabetic cardiomyopathy

2022: A great review of the vanilloid TRPV1 & how the cannabinoids interact with this ion channel for lowering pain & nausea
TRPV1: A Common Denominator Mediating Antinociceptive and Antiemetic Effects of Cannabinoids

2022: This thorough review of autism spectrum disorders looks at the overlap between the endocannabinoid system & the microbiome’s effect on the gut-brain axis
The Endocannabinoids-Microbiota Partnership in Gut-Brain Axis Homeostasis: Implications for Autism Spectrum Disorders


2022: A review of how lipids (like cannabinoids) control your energy balance via the brain’s hypothalamus
Yin-Yang control of energy balance by lipids in the hypothalamus: The endocannabinoids vs bile acids case

2022: A review of psychosis treatments suggests the microbiome-endocannabinoid axis as a target
Unmet Therapeutic Needs in Psychotic Illness: The Gut Microbiome-Endocannabinoid Axis as a Target for the Development of New Preventative Strategies

2022: A review of how CBD may be helping neurodegenerative diseases via its effects on the gut microbiome
The gut microbiota in neurodegenerative diseases: revisiting possible therapeutic targets for cannabidiol

2022: Targeting the ECS for the pain of irritable bowel syndrome
Targeting the endocannabinoid system for the treatment of abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome

2022: This review looks at the link between the gut microbiome & the endocannabinoidome, especially in companion animals

Mutual Links between the Endocannabinoidome and the Gut Microbiome, with Special Reference to Companion Animals: A Nutritional Viewpoint

2022: On targeting the ECS for obesity & metabolic disorders

The Endocannabinoid System, an Underexploited and Promising Niche for the Pharmacological Treatment of Obesity and Metabolic Diseases

2022: This review looks at targeting the enzymes of the ECS for treating obesity

Potential of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH), Monoacylglycerol Lipase (MAGL), and Diacylglycerol Lipase (DAGL) Enzymes as Targets for Obesity Treatment: A Narrative Review

2021: This review looks at the possibility of the endocannabinoid system being the cause & the solution to food addiction

Obesity as a Condition Determined by Food Addiction: Should Brain Endocannabinoid System Alterations Be the Cause and Its Modulation the Solution?

2021: This review looks at the endocannabinoids in the hypothalamus & how they relate to obesity

Hypothalamic endocannabinoids in obesity: an old story with new challenges

2021: This review looks at how the endocannabinoids regulate your metabolism, stress response & development

Lipid endocannabinoids in energy metabolism, stress and developmental programming

2021: This review looks at how the endocannabinoid system forms a bridge between Alzheimer’s disease & the gut microbiome

The Endocannabinoid System: A Bridge between Alzheimer’s Disease and Gut Microbiota

2021: This review looks at CBD, CBDA & the more stable methyl ester version of CBDA for nausea & vomiting

Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol, Cannabidiolic Acid, and Cannabidiolic Acid Methyl Ester as Treatments for Nausea and Vomiting

2021: A review of the use of cannabinoids in dentistry with a special focus on CBD

The Current and Potential Application of Medicinal Cannabis Products in Dentistry

2021: This review of clinical trials finds that CBD helps to decrease appetite

Approved cannabinoids for medical purposes - Comparative systematic review and meta-analysis for sleep and appetite

2021: This review looks at how the endocannabinoids regulate metabolism & energy homeostasis

Roles of Endocannabinoids and Endocannabinoid-like Molecules in Energy Homeostasis and Metabolic Regulation: A Nutritional Perspective

2021: This review looks at how the ECS interacts with your fat tissue & how it regulates your metabolism

Role of the Endocannabinoid System in the Adipose Tissue with Focus on Energy Metabolism

2021: This review looks at how the endocannabinoid system affects our exercising: by rewarding us for exercising, by improving the gut-brain axis & by lowering inflammation

Neurobiological Processes Induced by Aerobic Exercise through the Endocannabinoidome

2021: This review looks at how the endocannabinoids regulate the gut-brain connection for the control of our food intake

Endocannabinoids and the Gut-Brain Control of Food Intake and Obesity

2021: a review about fine-tuning your metabolic pathways via the endocannabinoid system

Functional Fine-Tuning of Metabolic Pathways by the Endocannabinoid System-Implications for Health and Disease

2021: This review looks at how the ECS interacts with your fat tissue & how it regulates your metabolism

Role of the Endocannabinoid System in the Adipose Tissue with Focus on Energy Metabolism

2021: This review paper of type 2 diabetes & the endocannabinoid system suggests the endocannabinoids as targets for treatment

Insights into the Molecular Role of Endocannabinoids in Diabetes Mellitus

2021: This meta-review looks at targeting the endocannabinoid system for treating the twin specters of diabetes & obesity

Targeting the endocannabinoid system in diabesity: fact or fiction?

2021: A review on targeting the ECS for the neuropathic pain of diabetes

The endocannabinoid system as a therapeutic target in diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain: A review;type=0

2021: This review looks at how the CB1 receptor in the body modulates inflammation in the guts & metabolic systems

Peripheral CB1R as a modulator of metabolic inflammation

2021: DiMarzo looks at the two gigantic overlapping spheres of our gut microbiome & our endocannabinoidome

The gut microbiome, endocannabinoids and metabolic disorders

2021: A review of the endocannabinoid system in obesity

Understanding the possible role of endocannabinoid system in obesity

2021: This review by Piomelli looks at the endocannabinoid system in our fat (aka the adipose organ)

The endocannabinoid system in the adipose organ

2021: This review looks at how CB1 regulates the genes related to food & eating

On the Role of Central Type-1 Cannabinoid Receptor Gene Regulation in Food Intake and Eating Behaviors

2021: This review looks at how involved the ECS is in the regulation of energy & why it's a target for treating obesity

What Role Does the Endocannabinoid System Play in the Pathogenesis of Obesity?

2021: This review examines why it makes sense to modulate the endocannabinoid receptors for the regulation of metabolism & diabetes

Cannabinoid Receptors in Metabolic Regulation and Diabetes

2020: A review of CBD & other non-psychoactive cannabinoids for GI tract disorders
Cannabidiol and Other Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids for Prevention and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders: Useful Nutraceuticals?

2020: A review found that across all trials they looked at for the nausea & vomiting of chemotherapy, cannabis worked better than conventional antiemetics
Pharmacotherapeutic Considerations for Use of Cannabinoids to Relieve Symptoms of Nausea and Vomiting Induced by Chemotherapy

2020: This review of CBD for obesity finds that "CBD has the promising potential as a therapeutic agent and might be effective in alleviating the symptoms of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome."
Phytocannabinoids: Useful Drugs for the Treatment of Obesity? Special Focus on Cannabidiol

2020: This review looks at the history - and the future - of targeting the CB1 receptor to control obesity

Targeting the Endocannabinoid CB1 Receptor to Treat Body Weight Disorders: A Preclinical and Clinical Review of the Therapeutic Potential of Past and Present CB1 Drugs

2020: A small review of using the cannabinoids to treat anorexia nervosa

Treatment studies with cannabinoids in anorexia nervosa: a systematic review

2020: In humans living with HIV, how cannabis affects the gut, the microbiome & the gut-brain axis

Cannabis and the Gut–Brain Axis Communication in HIV Infection

2020: A good rundown of the ECS in the guts: how it was found & how involved it is

The Endocannabinoid System in the Gastrointestinal tract

2020: A nice review with great charts on targeting the ECS for metabolic syndrome

Plant-derived natural therapeutics targeting cannabinoid receptors in metabolic syndrome and its complications: A review

2020: A review of how the ECS helps with metabolic syndrome & the related cardiovascular problems

Cannabinoids in Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiac Fibrosis

2020: This meta-review looks at how the terpene β-Caryophyllene (usually the most predominant terpene in our products) can help with diabetes

Therapeutic Potential of β-Caryophyllene: A Dietary Cannabinoid in Diabetes and Associated Complications

2019: DiMarzo’s review of diabetes & the ECS

The Expanded Endocannabinoid System/Endocannabinoidome as a Potential Target for Treating Diabetes Mellitus

2019: Review of the effects of cannabinoids on GI motility

Cannabinoids and gastrointestinal motility: Pharmacology, clinical effects, and potential therapeutics in humans

2011: On targeting the ECS for eating disorders & addiction

The Endocannabinoid System as Pharmacological Target Derived from Its CNS Role in Energy Homeostasis and Reward. Applications in Eating Disorders and Addiction

2010: review of the ECS & nutrition by a leader in the field

The endocannabinoid system and its relevance for nutrition

2009: Kirkham on the ECS for the cravings and pleasure of food

Cannabinoids and appetite: Food craving and food pleasure

2009: review of ECS and obesity in the abdomen

Role of the endocannabinoid system in abdominal obesity and the implications for cardiovascular risk

2008: motility of the gut is hugely important & this review looks at the animal and human data

Cannabinoids and gastrointestinal motility: animal and human studies

Chart Gallery

Timeline of Research

2023: In patients with recurrent mouth ulcers, a topical 0.1% CBD cream reduced the ulcer size, accelerated the ulcer healing & exerted anti-inflammatory & painkilling effects
Efficacy and safety of topical 0.1% cannabidiol for managing recurrent aphthous ulcers: a randomized controlled trial

2023: In a rat model of obesity, two weeks of CBD reduced the intramuscular fatty acid, lowered the production of new lipids in the muscles & profoundly improved the ratios of the lipids
Cannabidiol improves muscular lipid profile by affecting the expression of fatty acid transporters and inhibiting de novo lipogenesis

2023: Advice on using the cannabinoids for treating the neuropathic pain of diabetes
Consideration of cannabinoids in the treatment of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain

2023: In patients with type 2 diabetes, 8 weeks of a 10:1 CBD:THC spray helped with their cholesterol, triglyceride & insulin levels
A Phase I Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study on Efficacy and Safety Profile of a Sublingually Administered Cannabidiol /Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabidiol (10: 1) Regimen in Diabetes Type 2 Patients

2023: A survey of inflammatory bowel disease patients find that 85% of them report it improves their symptoms
A Survey of Cannabis Use among Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

2023: In dental stem cells, CBD improved their ability to create new bone cells
Dental pulp stem cells-derived cannabidiol pretreated micro-spheroids showed robust osteogenic potential via upregulation of WNT6

2023: In a mouse model of type-1 diabetes, CBD helped with their anxiety & fearful memories
Cannabidiol modulates contextual fear memory consolidation in animals with experimentally induced type-1 diabetes mellitus


2023: In rats anxious because of the withdrawal of food, blocking their FAAH enzyme (a function of CBD) reduced their anxiety
Anxiety associated with palatable food withdrawal is reversed by the selective FAAH inhibitor PF-3845: A regional analysis of the contribution of endocannabinoid signaling machinery

2023: For the bacteria that causes cavities, a combination of CBD & the antibiotic triclosan disrupted their formation of biofilms & caused an antibacterial effect
Improved Anti-Biofilm Effect against the Oral Cariogenic Streptococcus mutans by Combined Triclosan/CBD Treatment

2023: In a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease, protein nanoparticles loaded with CBD lessened intestinal inflammation, probably via the CB2 receptor
P037 Enhancing the efficacy of cannabidiol using protein nanoparticles to treat inflammatory bowel disease

2023: In dental stem cells, CBD lowered inflammation as well as increased bone regeneration
Cannabidiol Rescues TNF-α-Inhibited Proliferation, Migration, and Osteogenic/Odontogenic Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells

2023: A food study using molecular networking analysis finds that CBD causes anti-obesity effects via alterations of lipids, carbohydrates, amino acids & nucleic acid levels
Foodomics Reveals Anti-Obesity Properties of Cannabinoids from Hemp Oil

2022: CBD as a strong antibiotic against the bacteria that cause cavities
Anti-Bacterial Effect of Cannabidiol against the Cariogenic Streptococcus mutans Bacterium: An In Vitro Study

2022: In a cellular model of a wound in your gum, hemp extracts & CBD decreased inflammatory factors & significantly improved wound closure
Anti-inflammation and gingival wound healing activities of Cannabis sativa L. subsp. sativa (hemp) extract and cannabidiol: An in vitro study

2022: In fat cells, CBD caused less proliferation at some levels & time-points
Effects of physiological and supraphysiological concentrations of cannabidiol on pre-adipocyte proliferation

2022: In a computer analysis for diabetic effects, CBD, THC & full-spectrum extracts were found to inhibit α-glucosidase (an enzyme that breaks down glucose)
α-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of cannabidiol, tetrahydrocannabinol and standardized cannabinoid extracts from Cannabis sativa

2022: In a rat model of oral mucosal (mouth tissue swelling) problems from chemotherapy, CBD “improved survival, decreased body weight loss, reduced ulcer sizes, and improved clinical scores”, “restored epithelial thickness and normal structure in tongue tissues”, suppressed the inflammatory response & lowered reactive oxygen creation
Protective Effects of Cannabidiol on Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis via the Nrf2/Keap1/ARE Signaling Pathways

2022: In a mouse model of oral mucositis (mouth ulcers from chemotherapy), nano-CBD balls accelerated healing & decreased inflammation
Inflammation-targeted cannabidiol-loaded nanomicelles for enhanced oral mucositis treatment

2022: In a rat model of nausea from chemotherapy, they experienced benefit from THC,CBD & CBD Acid with no detectable differences between the sexes
Evaluation of Sex Differences in the Potential of Δ 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabidiol, Cannabidiolic Acid, and Oleoyl Alanine to Reduce Nausea-Induced Conditioned Gaping Reactions in Sprague-Dawley Rats

2022: In the fat tissue of rats, CBD enhanced the glucose uptake, improved glucose-lipid homeostasis & enhanced antioxidative activities
Cannabidiol improves glucose utilization and modulates glucose-induced dysmetabolic activities in isolated rats' peripheral adipose tissues

2022: In a model of human mouth diseases & dental implants, CBD & CBG helped with inflammation
The immunomodulatory role of phytocannabinoids in an in vitro peri-implantitis model

2022: In a mouse model of colitis, the terpene β-caryophyllene reduced inflammation via inhibition of ferroptosis (a type of cell death triggered by iron)
β-Caryophyllene Acts as a Ferroptosis Inhibitor to Ameliorate Experimental Colitis

2022: In a mouse model of diabetes, CBD lowered blood sugar
Analysis of hypoglycaemic effects of cannabidiol following oral and intraperitoneal administration in healthy rats

2022: In fat stem cells, treating them with CBD protected against oxidative stress by the reduction of inflammation, enhanced their proliferation & lowered apoptosis (cellular suicide)
Cannabidiol (CBD) Protects Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (ASCs) against Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Development and Its Complications

2022: In a rat model of diabetes type 2 with high levels of insulin, THC decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines & regulated antioxidant potential
Anti-inflammatory potential of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in hyperinsulinemia: an experimental study

2022: In a rat model of obesity, CBD rich hemp extracts protected the heart via the inhibition of the transport of adenosine (a messenger of protein synthesis)
The effect of a long-term treatment with cannabidiol-rich hemp extract oil on the adenosinergic system of the zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat atrium

2022: In a mouse model of diabetes with heart problems, THC caused beneficial effects on insulin levels as well as improvements to the heart’s main blood vessel
Vascular responses disrupted by fructose-induced hyperinsulinemia improved with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

2022: In a mouse model of diabetes, activating the CB2 receptor protected the heart from inflammation, oxidative stress, fibrosis (scarring), cell death & cardiac dysfunction
Cannabinoid receptor 2 activation alleviates diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis

2022: In mice with gut inflammation & colitis, THC & CBD inhibited inflammatory macrophages (mobile white blood cells) & improved clinical scores - with cannabis extracts working better than isolated molecules
Differential Effects of D9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)- and Cannabidiol (CBD)-Based Cannabinoid Treatments on Macrophage Immune Function In Vitro and on Gastrointestinal Inflammation in a Murine Model

2022: In a mouse model of obesity, β-caryophyllene (one of the predominant terpenes in hemp) improves their metabolic & immunological processes
β-Caryophyllene, a Dietary Cannabinoid, Protects Against Metabolic and Immune Dysregulation in a Diet-Induced Obesity Mouse Model

2022: In mice being fed high-carb ultra-processed food, CBD lowered the anxiety-inducing nature & compulsive behaviors caused by that diet
Cannabidiol ameliorates the anxiogenic and compulsive-like behaviors induced by chronic consumption of a high-carbohydrate diet in male mice

2022: In a mouse model of Parkinson’s, CBD significantly improved motor deficits & protected the midbrain via the gut-brain axis
Effects of Cannabidiol on Parkinson's Disease in a Transgenic Mouse Model by Gut-Brain Metabolic Analysis

2022: In rats taking haloperidol (a common antipsychotic), CBD lowered the weight & fasting blood sugar increase that usually occurs
Effects of cannabidiol on weight and fasting blood sugar with chronic and subchronic haloperidol administration

2022: The great Dr. Donald Abrams with a new clinical study on cannabis helping diabetics with their neuropathic pain
Cannabis Ameliorates Diabetic Neuropathy Pain

2022: In patients with diabetes experiencing neuropathic body pain, 600 mg of PEA lowered their pain & inflammation scores significantly as well as improving their sleep & mood
A randomized controlled trial assessing the safety and efficacy of palmitoylethanolamide for treating diabetic-related peripheral neuropathic pain

2022: In rats with nausea from THC, CBD lessened the effects via a serotonin receptor

Cannabidiol Interferes with Establishment of Δ 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-Induced Nausea Through a 5-HT 1A Mechanism

2022: In an animal model of colitis, CBD reduced pain responses


2022: In heart cells stressed by high levels of glucose (a model of diabetes), CBD protected them from arrythmia & cytotoxicity via inhibition of the sodium channels

Cannabidiol protects against high glucose-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels

2022: In a mouse model of obesity, treatment with CBD & omega 3 (fish oil) improved the gut microbiome as well as reducing anxiety & memory impairment

High Fat Diet Alteration of Gut Microbiota Impacts Learning, Memory and Anxiety Response in Mice: Cannabidiol and Omega 3 Possible Remedies

2022: In a rat model of obesity, CBD treatment protected their hearts via several measures

Cannabidiol Downregulates Myocardial de Novo Ceramide Synthesis Pathway in a Rat Model of High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

2022: In a mouse model of obesity, PEA restored the plasticity of their white & brown fat cells, leptin sensitivity, tissue hormone sensitivity & rewired the energy storing white into energy-consuming brown fat cells

Palmitoylethanolamide Promotes White-to-Beige Conversion and Metabolic Reprogramming of Adipocytes: Contribution of PPAR-α

2022: In mice, a combination of diet & exercise improved their ECS & their metabolic function

Effect of diet and physical exercise on endocannabinoid system and energy homeostasis in obese mice

2022: In mice, CB1 receptors may form heteromer complexes with a ghrelin receptor, stressing the importance of the ECS & the regulation of metabolism

Ghrelin and Cannabinoid Functional Interactions Mediated by Ghrelin/CB 1 Receptor Heteromers That Are Upregulated in the Striatum From Offspring of Mice Under a High-Fat Diet

2021: In patients with an inflammatory bowel diseases, treatment with cannabis seemed to improve endocannabinoid tone
Endocannabinoid Levels in Ulcerative Colitis Patients Correlate With Clinical Parameters and Are Affected by Cannabis Consumption

2021: In obese mice, alterations to their orexin system & to their 2-AG/CB1 signaling led to problems with episodic memory

Orexin-A and endocannabinoids are involved in obesity-associated alteration of hippocampal neurogenesis, plasticity, and episodic memory in mice

2021: In neurons of the hypothalamus related to feeding, endocannabinoids are required for the proper control of energy homeostasis

Endogenous cannabinoids are required for MC4R-mediated control of energy homeostasis

2021: In male rats, CBD treatment when they are teenagers leads to later changes in metabolism

Juvenile cannabidiol chronic treatments produce robust changes in metabolic markers in adult male Wistar rats

2021: In rats fed a high-fat diet, CBD reduced insulin resistance & decreased the tau protein associated with Alzheimer’s disease

Cannabidiol - A phytocannabinoid that widely affects sphingolipid metabolism under conditions of brain insulin resistance

2021: In rats, mothers being fed a high-fat diet altered the CB1 levels in the brains of their sons & led to depressive symptoms in early life

Maternal High-Fat Diet Modulates Cnr1 Gene Expression in Male Rat Offspring

2021: In cells that produce cholecystokinin (CCK - a hormone that regulates the pancreas, gastric motility & appetite), the endocannabinoid 2-AG caused increased CCK secretion via the CB1 receptor

2-Arachidonoyl glycerol potently induces cholecystokinin secretion in murine enteroendocrine STC-1 cells via cannabinoid receptor CB1

2021: In humans undergoing a caloric restriction diet for 12 weeks & taking 100 mg of capsicum extract, they saw important alterations in their fecal microbiome

Oral Capsaicinoid Administration Alters the Plasma Endocannabinoidome and Fecal Microbiota of Reproductive-Aged Women Living with Overweight and Obesity

2021: In a cellular culture mimicking the gut microbiome, probiotics engineered to produce butyrate downregulated the ECS

Engineered probiotics modulate the endocannabinoid system

2021: In zebrafish, CBD oil had little impact on the microbiome

Passive exposure to cannabidiol oil does not cause microbiome dysbiosis in larval zebrafish

2021: In diabetic humans with painful neuropathy in their feet, 20 mg of water solubilized CBD reduced pain, improved sleep & reduced anxiety

Cannabidiol (CBD) For the Treatment of Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy of the Feet: A Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Randomized Trial

2021: A study in tissues supports CBD’s anti-diabetic effects

Evaluation of cannabidiol's inhibitory effect on alpha-glucosidase and its stability in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids

2021: In diabetic mice, injections of 2-AG protected their hearts from the cardiac pathology of the disease

2-Arachidonoylglycerol Attenuates Fibrosis in Diabetic Mice via the TGF-β1/Smad Pathway

2021: In rats fed an obesity-inducing diet, the endocannabinoid oleoylethanolamide protected their livers from oxidative stress

Oleoylethanolamide Reduces Hepatic Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

2021: In mice with a hole in their intestines, activating the CB2 receptor protected from inflammation & sepsis

Activation of CB2 receptor inhibits pyroptosis and subsequently ameliorates cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis

2021: In rats on an obesity diet, PEA as well as oleamide (OEA – another endocannabinoid) functioned as anti-obesity nutritional interventions

Palmitoleoylethanolamide Is an Efficient Anti-Obesity Endogenous Compound: Comparison with Oleylethanolamide in Diet-Induced Obesity

2021: In mice, CBD helped to reduce binge eating behavior

Cannabidiol reduces binge eating behavior in mice

2021: In female mice with no CB1 receptor, a high-fat diet caused their offspring to be susceptible to later metabolic challenges


2021: In rats, the ECS & the dopamine system are linked to the changes associated with obesity

The endocannabinoid system is modulated in reward and homeostatic brain regions following diet-induced obesity in rats: a cluster analysis approach

2021: In mice, they find that the CB1 receptors in the brain’s ventromedial hypothalamus regulates glucose homeostasis

CB1Rs in VMH Neurons Regulate Glucose Homeostasis but not Body Weight

2021: In humans, the Mediterranean diet modulates the endocannabinoid system

Mediterranean diet consumption affects the endocannabinoid system in overweight and obese subjects: possible links with gut microbiome, insulin resistance and inflammation

2021: In a rat model of obesity, chronic CBD reduced oxidative stress, lowered inflammation & improved the ratio of fatty acids in the skeletal muscle

Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Response by Chronic Cannabidiol Administration Is Associated with Improved n-6/n-3 PUFA Ratio in the White and Red Skeletal Muscle in a Rat Model of High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

2021: In a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome, treatment with a ketogenic diet caused the upregulation of CB1 & CB2 receptors

Cannabinoid Receptors Overexpression in a Rat Model of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) after Treatment with a Ketogenic Diet

2021: In mice with metabolic syndrome, blocking the CB1 receptor in the body improved symptoms

Peripherally Selective CB1 Receptor Antagonist Improves Symptoms of Metabolic Syndrome in Mice

2021: In mice, the CB1 receptor in neurons producing glutamate (the brain's basic excitatory neurotransmitter) drives the overconsumption of food & obesity

Cannabinoid CB1 receptor in dorsal telencephalic glutamatergic neurons drives overconsumption of palatable food and obesity

2021: In a rat model of anxiety from colitis, the increase in the FAAH enzyme led to lower levels of AEA & more anxiety

Comorbid anxiety-like behavior in a rat model of colitis is mediated by an upregulation of corticolimbic fatty acid amide hydrolase

2021: In diabetic rats, CBD helped with depression & anxiety by multiple pathways

Cannabidiol induces antidepressant and anxiolytic‐like effects in experimental type-1 diabetic animals by multiple sites of action

2021: In human cells, CBD disrupts cholesterol's synthesis, transport & storage

Multi-Omic Analysis Reveals Disruption of Cholesterol Homeostasis by Cannabidiol in Human Cell Lines

2021: A Big Data study looking at the links between obesity & the circulating levels of members of the endocannabinoidome

Linking the Endocannabinoidome with Specific Metabolic Parameters in an Overweight and Insulin-Resistant Population: From Multivariate Exploratory Analysis to Univariate Analysis and Construction of Predictive Models

2021: A case report of a man using CBD to help control his type 2 diabetes

Cannabidiol (CBD) Use in Type 2 Diabetes: A Case Report

2021: In mice, the link between gut microbiome & mental health is mediated by the endocannabinoid system

Effect of gut microbiota on depressive-like behaviors in mice is mediated by the endocannabinoid system

2021: In fruit flies, cannabinoids alter what foods they prefer & how much they eat

Cannabinoids modulate food preference and consumption in Drosophila melanogaster

2021: In rats beginning to develop metabolic syndrome, their pancreatic islets saw differing effects on the expression of CB1 & CB2

Cannabinoid receptors are differentially regulated in the pancreatic islets during the early development of metabolic syndrome

2021: In women, this study looks at the correlation of 2-AG levels on their food habits

Blood Level of 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), Neuropeptide Y and Omentin and Their Correlation with Food Habits in Obese Women

2020: In rats, CBD protects from the gastric ulcers induced by diclofenac, an arthritis drug

Protective effect of cannabidiol on diclofenac induced gastric ulcer in rats

2020: For obesity, the crosstalk between CB1 receptors & GLP-1 receptors is suggested as a therapeutic target

CB1 and GLP-1 Receptors Cross-Talk Provides New Therapies for Obesity

2020: A case study of an elderly woman getting diarrhea from CBD

Cannabidiol Oil-Associated Microscopic Colitis

2020: In mice with mood disorders induced by high-fat diets, PEA limits mood disorders & cognitive dysfunction

Palmitoylethanolamide limits mood disorders and cognitive dysfunction induced by high fat diet in obese mice

2020: In humans with intestinal problems, how diet influences the endocannabinoid components lining the gut

Endocannabinoids, endocannabinoid-like molecules and their precursors in human small intestinal lumen and plasma: does diet affect them?

2020: In mice, 2-AG protected from viral gut infections

Endocannabinoids Inhibit the Induction of Virulence in Enteric Pathogens

2020: In mice with intestinal problems, fish oil combined well with CBD & CBG

Efficacy of combined therapy with fish oil and phytocannabinoids in murine intestinal inflammation

2020: In mice, their ability to develop a taste for a Western diet (high fat, high sugar) requires the CB1 receptor

Cannabinoid CB 1 Receptors in the Intestinal Epithelium Are Required for Acute Western-Diet Preferences in Mice

2020: In a test of food intake & gut microbiota, the positives of the Mediterranean diet can be measured by looking at the endocannabinoid signaling (195 people)

Dietary fatty acid intake and gut microbiota determine circulating endocannabinoidome signaling beyond the effect of body fat

2020: In an analysis of humans, the omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived endocannabinoidome mediators help to regulate intuitive eating (non-pathological eating)

Intuitive eating is associated with elevated levels of circulating omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived endocannabinoidome mediators

2020: A pilot study in obese mice found that feeding them cannabis extract helped them to lose weight

A Pilot Study on the Effect of Cannabis Extract on Weight Loss in Diet-induced Obese Mice

2020: Just like in mammals, a high-fat diet in rainbow trout causes changes in the endocannabinoid system and the intake of food

The endocannabinoid system is affected by a high-fat-diet in rainbow trout

2020: In mice, diet is closely linked to the endocannabinoid system

High fat diet induced obesity alters endocannabinoid and ghrelin mediated regulation of components of the endocannabinoid system in nodose ganglia

2020: In older adults, using cannabis is associated with a lower body mass index (BMI) & a higher frequency of exercise

Exercise Intervention Outcomes With Cannabis Users and Nonusers Aged 60 and Older

2020: In humans, a study on the effects of high-protein diet found that the endocannabinoids OEA & PEA might be positively associated with cholesterol levels

Effects of a High-Protein Diet on Cardiometabolic Health, Vascular Function, and Endocannabinoids-A PREVIEW Study

2020: In female rats, oleoylethanolamide (the anandamide analogue) helps with the frustration around binge eating caused by stress

Oleoylethanolamide decreases frustration stress-induced binge-like eating in female rats: a novel potential treatment for binge-eating disorder


2020: Study of CB2 receptor expression in the intestines of prenatal sheep

Expression profile of cannabinoid receptor 2 in ovine ileum during prenatal development

2020: A Yale dissertation on how the ECS contributes to the habitual responses to food and alcohol

Endocannabinoid Contributions to the Formation and Expression of Habitual Responding for Food and for Alcohol

2020: In humans with MS, study looks at how THC and CBD shift glucose metabolism in various regions

The effects of chronic Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) use on cerebral glucose metabolism in multiple sclerosis: a pilot study

2020: In humans, a genetic variant of the CB1 receptor may be protective against metabolic syndrome & type 2 diabetes

Association Between Cannabinoid Receptor-1 Gene Polymorphism and the Risk of Diabetic Nephropathy Among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

2020: In rats, a CB1 neutral antagonist helped with insulin resistance in a model of metabolic syndrome

Effects of the CB1 Receptor Antagonists AM6545 and AM4113 on Insulin Resistance in a High-Fructose High-Salt Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome

2020: In diabetic rats, activating the CB2 receptor protected the brain via increased blood flow

A cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor agonist augments NOS-dependent responses of cerebral arterioles during type 1 diabetes

2020: In mice being fed an obesity inducing diet, CBD improved the insulin signaling in the skeletal muscle & helped with glycogen recovery 

Chronic Cannabidiol Administration Attenuates Skeletal Muscle De Novo Ceramide Synthesis Pathway and Related Metabolic Effects in a Rat Model of High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

2020: Using a CB1 receptor blocker combined with a glycemic control agonist (GLP-1R) helped mice fight obesity and diabetes

Peripheral cannabinoid–1 receptor blockade potentiates the anti–obesity and anti–diabetic effects of GLP–1 mimetics

2020: In mice, blocking the CB1 receptor helped with the obesity related to a fatty liver

Cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonist inhibits progression of obesity‐associated nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in a mouse model by remodulating immune system disturbances

2020: In rats with induced diabetes, activation of the CB1 or CB2 receptor helps with pain

Spinal cannabinoid CB1 or CB2 receptors activation attenuates mechanical allodynia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

2020: In a mouse model of diabetic livers, activating the CB1 receptor helped with their lipid levels being off

Simultaneous Inhibition of Peripheral CB1R and iNOS Mitigates Obesity-Related Dyslipidemia Through Distinct Mechanisms

2020: In obese women, the circulating levels of AEA & 2-AG could be correlated with body mass, waist circumference, body fat percentage, as well as insulin & leptin levels

The association of circulating endocannabinoids with appetite regulatory substances in obese women

2020: In mice with their CB1 deleted from their livers, they saw improved glucose homeostasis & this suggests the modulation of CB1 activity for obese & diabetic individuals

Nullification of Hepatic Cannabinoid 1 Receptor (CB1R) Ameliorates Fatty Liver and Improves Glucose Homeostasis via Regulation of PI3K-mTORC1 axis

2020: In a comparison between the endocannabinoid levels in lean and obese women, it seems "the peripheral ECS may be more active than the central ECS. Indeed, the system appeared to be suppressed in the CNS of obese women."

Central and Peripheral Endocannabinoid Levels in Obese Versus Lean Women

2020: Rats with diabetes saw a number of positive changes from 2 weeks of CBD

Two-weeks treatment with cannabidiol improves biophysical and behavioral deficits associated with experimental type-1 diabetes

2020: In mice, eating meat causes obesity-type effects via alterations in the gut microbiome and the ECS

Meat Protein in High Fat Diet Induces Adipogensis and Dyslipidemia by Altering Gut Microbiota and Endocannabinoid Dysregulation in the Adipose Tissue of Mice

2020: In a cell culture mimicking heart cells in a diabetic, CBD protected from all the negative effect of high glucose: elevated reactive oxygen species, shift of voltage by sodium channels, and prolongation of action potential (hyperexcitability)

Cannabidiol protects against high glucose-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels

2020: In cultures of bone marrow stem cells, CBD (and some of the other cannabinoids) helped to promote their maturation into healthy fat cells with improved insulin sensitivity

Phytocannabinoids promote viability and functional adipogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells through different molecular targets

2020: THCV for diabetes

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV): a commentary on potential therapeutic benefit for the management of obesity and diabetes

2020: A look at using CBD for treating blindness caused by diabetes

Cannabidiol As a Putative Novel Therapy for Diabetic Retinopathy: A Postulated Mechanism of Action as an Entry Point for Biomarker-Guided Clinical Development

2020: In obese people, their 2-AG cycle were misaligned to the normal daily rhythm

Circadian Misalignment of the 24-hour Profile of Endocannabinoid 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in Obese Adults

2020: Involvement of the ECS in the liver damage caused by diabetes - seems to involve a serotonin receptor

Involvement of endocannabinoid system, inflammation and apoptosis in diabetes induced liver injury: Role of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist

2020: Involvement of the ECS in the liver damage caused by diabetes - seems to involve a serotonin receptor

Involvement of endocannabinoid system, inflammation and apoptosis in diabetes induced liver injury: Role of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist

2020: After a mouse has gastric bypass surgery (a technique for weight loss that we're still not sure of how it works), the CB1 receptor seems to be a key player in the regulation of energy after the procedure

Endocannabinoid Receptor-1 and Sympathetic Nervous System Mediate the Beneficial Metabolic Effects of Gastric Bypass

2020: In patients with gastroparesis (where the stomach doesn't empty itself well), females had lower levels of AEA & 2-AG in their blood - while the males saw no change in circulating endocannabinoids

Plasma endocannabinoids and cannabimimetic fatty acid derivatives are altered in gastroparesis: A sex- and subtype-dependent observation

2020: In rats with anorexia, it appears that the CB1 receptor is downregulated

Epigenetic regulation of the cannabinoid receptor CB1 in an activity-based rat model of anorexia nervosa


2019: In humans with anorexia nervoas, the endocannabinoid system tone in the brain may be disturbed

Impaired brain endocannabinoid tone in the activity-based model of anorexia nervosa

2019: In patients with gastroparesis (where the stomach can't empty itself of food), THC & CBD were reported to be most helpful by the patients

Cannabinoid Use in Patients With Gastroparesis and Related Disorders: Prevalence and Benefit

2019: THCA may be useful for the treatment of obesity

Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A) reduces adiposity and prevents metabolic disease caused by diet-induced obesity

2019: In diabetic rats, CBD protects from neurodegeneration & improved many metabolic measures

Cannabidiol improves metabolic dysfunction in middle-aged diabetic rats submitted to a chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

2019: in diabetic rats, CBD reduces neuropathic pain via serotonin

Cannabidiol attenuates mechanical allodynia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats via serotonergic system activation through 5-HT1A receptors

2019: in middle-aged diabetic rats, CBD treatment protected the brain from the declines of diabetes & reduced several inflammation markers in the hippocampus

Effects of Cannabidiol on Diabetes Outcomes and Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion Comorbidities in Middle-Aged Rats

2019: A high-fat diet and nicotine increased the level of CB1 receptors in the hypothalamus

A combination of dietary fat intake and nicotine exposure enhances CB1 endocannabinoid receptor expression in hypothalamic nuclei in male mice

2019: The intake of linoleic acid increases endocannabinoid levels in bowel and liver

Linoleic acid in diets of mice increases total endocannabinoid levels in bowel and liver: modification by dietary glucose

2019: In rats with intestinal injuries, activation of the CB2 receptor protected the bowel from damage due to reduced perfusion via several mechanisms

The curative effect of cannabinoid 2 receptor agonist on functional failure and disruptive inflammation caused by intestinal ischemia and reperfusion

2019: In humans, a FAAH genetic variant significantly increased the risk of obesity (266 humans in a genetic association study)

The influence of the fatty acid amide hydrolase 385C>A single nucleotide polymorphisms on obesity susceptibility

2019: In mice, CB1 receptors found to enhance exercise activity and lower desire for food via GABA neurons

The motivation for exercise over palatable food is dictated by cannabinoid type-1 receptors

2018: In docking studies, CBD/CBDA extracts & CBG/CBGA extracts reduced aldose reductase activity for diabetes

Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by Cannabis sativa chemotypes extracts with high content of cannabidiol or Cannabigerol

2016: in diabetic mice, CBD treatment reduced pancreatic inflammation

Experimental cannabidiol treatment reduces early pancreatic inflammation in type 1 diabetes

2016: CBD to promote ‘browning’ in white fat cells as a method to combat obesity

Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

2016: In mice with diabetes, CB2 activation protects against renal injury

Therapy with a Selective Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 Agonist Limits Albuminuria and Renal Injury in Mice with Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy

2015: In mice, glucocorticoids (steroid hormones) regulate metabolism via the peripheral ECS

A peripheral endocannabinoid mechanism contributes to glucocorticoid-mediated metabolic syndrome

2015: CB1 increases feeding via the POMC neurons in the hypothalamus

Hypothalamic POMC neurons promote cannabinoid-induced feeding

2014: in mice, CB1 increased odor detection and food intake

The endocannabinoid system controls food intake via olfactory processes

2014: In rats, activating the CB2 receptor helped protect the intestines from bacterial translocation

Long-term cannabinoid type 2 receptor agonist therapy decreases Bacterial Translocation In Rats with cirrhosis and ascites.

2014: In diabetic mice, less CB2 receptors worsened renal function & caused more structural abnormalities

Deficiency of cannabinoid receptor of type 2 worsens renal functional and structural abnormalities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

2014: In diabetic rats, CBD helped improve heart function, neuropathic pain & insulitis (inflammation in the pancreas’ islets of Langerhans) via COX1 & COX2

Cannabidiol improves vasorelaxation in Zucker diabetic fatty rats through cyclooxygenase activation

2014: in rats, activation of CB1 & CB2 in the pancreas helps to protect from the oxidative damage of diabetes

Oxidative stress and cannabinoid receptor expression in type-2 diabetic rat pancreas following treatment with Δ⁹-THC

2014: In cells, trans-caryophyllene activates CB2 and regulates glucose in diabetes

A role for trans-caryophyllene in the moderation of insulin secretion

2013: in obese mice, THCV ameliorated insulin sensitivity

The cannabinoid Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) ameliorates insulin sensitivity in two mouse models of obesity

2013: in rats, biphasic effect of THC & CBD on endothelial function of Type 2 diabetes

Cannabinoids alter endothelial function in the Zucker rat model of type 2 diabetes

2013: EC dysfunction leads to anorexia in mice

Small animal PET imaging of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor in a rodent model for anorexia nervosa

2012: CBD appears to help with a number of components related to metabolic syndrome

The potential use of cannabidiol in the therapy of metabolic syndrome

2012: in rats, CBD decreased food intake & CBN increased it

Cannabinol and cannabidiol exert opposing effects on rat feeding patterns

2011: in human & rat bladder samples, CBD extract & isolated CBD reduced the contractions induced by acetylcholine (but not those induced with electrical field stimulation, KCl, or α,β-methylene adenosine triphosphate) via TRPV1 in rats

Inhibitory effect of standardized cannabis sativa extract and its ingredient cannabidiol on rat and human bladder contractility

2010: In mice, the ECS has effects on the taste of sweetness

Endocannabinoids selectively enhance sweet taste

2010: in mice with type 1 diabetes, CBD lessened the neuropathic pain and the microglia accumulation that accompanied it

Cannabinoid-mediated modulation of neuropathic pain and microglial accumulation in a model of murine type I diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain

2010: in mice with Type 1 diabetes, CBD protected the heart cells & reduced cardiac fibrosis, oxidative stress and cell death – CBD’s excellent safety profile

Cannabidiol attenuates cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and inflammatory and cell death signaling pathways in diabetic cardiomyopathy

2008: in mice with the first stages of diabetes, CBD greatly lessened the emergence of the disease & protected the pancreas

Cannabidiol Arrests Onset of Autoimmune Diabetes in NOD Mice

2008: CBD, FAAH & Sepsis

Effect of cannabidiol on sepsis-induced motility disturbances in mice: involvement of CB receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase

2008: In mice, CBD lowers hypermotility in the intestines via CB1 & FAAH

Cannabidiol, extracted from Cannabis sativa, selectively inhibits inflammatory hypermotility in mice

2006: in mice, CBD lowered the occurrence of diabetes, improved several inflammatory markers & reduced insulitis (a disease of the pancreas) – this possibly occurs by shifting the immune response from Th1 to Th2

Cannabidiol lowers incidence of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice

2006: in rats with diabetes, CBD treatment helped with neuroprotection, reduced inflammation and preserved the blood-retinal barrier in the eye

Neuroprotective and blood-retinal barrier-preserving effects of cannabidiol in experimental diabetes

2005: in humans, AEA increases in anorexia but not bulimia

Blood levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide are increased in anorexia nervosa and in binge-eating disorder, but not in bulimia nervosa

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