the Nervous System

The brain, the nerves & the mind

Best reviews

2021: This review looks at targeting the CB2 receptor for disorders of the central nervous system

The CB2 cannabinoid receptor as a therapeutic target in the central nervous system

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34424117/

2021: A review of how the endocannabinoids regulate synaptic plasticity

Mechanisms of endocannabinoid control of synaptic plasticity

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34343612/

2021: This review looks at how CB1 receptors regulate astrocytes (key players in the homeostasis of neurons)

CB1R-dependent regulation of astrocyte physiology and astrocyte-neuron interactions

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34157362/

2021: This review discusses CBD for a wide range of neurological disorders

Cannabidiol in Neurological and Neoplastic Diseases: Latest Developments on the Molecular Mechanism of Action

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33919010/

2021: A review of why the cannabinoids can be helpful for the neurological consequences of HIV

Confound, Cause, or Cure: The Effect of Cannabinoids on HIV-Associated Neurological Sequelae

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34206839/

2021: Large book chapter on 'Cannabinoids & Neuropsychiatric Disorders'

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-57369-0_9

2021: A short review of CBD for neurological disorders

The Role of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders

http://www.thepermanentejournal.org/files/2021/tpj20156.pdf

2021: A review of the basics about the importance of the cannabinoids in neuropsychopharmacology & how our brains work

Cannabinoids: Emerging developments in neuropsychopharmacology and biological psychiatry

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33737216/

2020: A review of GW's data on CBD for two rare types of epilepsy

Cannabidiol for Adjuvant Treatment of Seizures Associated With Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome and Dravet Syndrome: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32514751/

2020: A guide to treatment of epilepsy with CBD

Epilepsy and cannabidiol: a guide to treatment

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32096470/

2020: Why the ECS should be a target for the prevention of strokes

Endocannabinoids and Stroke Prevention: Review of Clinical Studies

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32322672/

2020: The ECS & sleep in aging

The Endocannabinoid System May Modulate Sleep Disorders in Aging

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31368874/

 

2020: CBD for concussions

Neuroprotection Following Concussion: The Potential Role for Cannabidiol

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32029015/

2020: A metareview of cannabis for Huntington's disease looks at 22 studies

Medical Marijuana Effects in Movement Disorders, Focus on Huntington Disease; A Literature Review

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33064979/

2020: A review of the mechanisms of what makes CBD so effective for various neurological diseases

Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Experimental Models of Neurological Disease

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33171772/

2020: This paper reviews how CB1 allosteric modulators (like CBD) have the potential for treating a wide range of brain diseases

CB1 allosteric modulators and their therapeutic potential in CNS disorders

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0278584620304796

2020: GABA & cannabinoids in the brain

Phytocannabinoids in Neurological Diseases: Could They Restore a Physiological GABAergic Transmission?

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31979108/

2020: CBD & brain disorders

The complexity of pharmacology of cannabidiol (CBD) and its implications in the treatment of brain disorders

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31511618

2020: A review of CBD in treating neurological disorders

Current application of cannabidiol (CBD) in the management and treatment of neurological disorders

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32556748/

2020: A review of CBD and THC for mental and neurological disorders

Cannabidiol or CBD Oil: Help, Hope, and Hype for Psychiatric and Neurologic Conditions

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32508204/

2020: Di Marzo on cannabinoids & the ECS in neurological disorders

Cannabinoids and the expanded endocannabinoid system in neurological disorders

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31831863

2020: A review of potential ECS drugs for the brain focusing on inhibitors of FAAH & MAGL

Potential application of endocannabinoid system agents in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases-focusing on FAAH/MAGL inhibitors

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32203086

2020: A review of targeting the ECS for potential brain treatments

Targeting the endocannabinoid system: a predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine-directed approach to the management of brain pathologies

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13167-020-00203-4

2020: A meta-review on activating CB2 receptors for neurological disorders

The impact of cannabinoid type 2 receptors (CB2Rs) in neuroprotection against neurological disorders

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33024239/

2020: CBD & proteinopathies

Emerging potential of cannabidiol in reversing proteinopathies

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33181336/

2020: A new meta-review finds cannabis & CBD helpful for the agitations of dementia

Use of Cannabis for Agitation in Patients With Dementia

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32600509/

2020: This meta-review looks at 47 animal studies to show the efficacy of modulating the endocannabinoid system for the treatment of brain injuries & neurodegeneration

The Treatment of Cognitive, Behavioural and Motor Impairments from Brain Injury and Neurodegenerative Diseases through Cannabinoid System Modulation—Evidence from In Vivo Studies

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7464236/

2020: A review of CBD for proteinopathies - diseases of misfolded or aggregated proteins that include some of the important neurodegenerative disorders

Roles of Cannabidiol in Reversing Proteinopathies

https://europepmc.org/article/ppr/ppr166114

2020: Cannabinoids for neurodegenerative disorders

From Cannabis sativa to Cannabidiol: Promising Therapeutic Candidate for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32210795/

2020: The ECS & CBD for Parkinson’s & Alzheimer’s

Current Aspects of the Endocannabinoid System and Targeted THC and CBD Phytocannabinoids as Potential Therapeutics for Parkinson's and Alzheimer's Diseases: a Review

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32813239/

2019: Maccarrone’s review of cannabinoids for neurological disorders

Safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of action of cannabinoids in neurological disorders

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30910443

2019: CBD for brain injuries in sports

Cannabidiol (CBD) in the Management of Sports-Related Traumatic Brain Injury: Research and Efficacy

https://www.gavinpublishers.com/admin/assets/articles_pdf/1573043696article_pdf948916365.pdf

2019: A review of the ECS & strokes

The endocannabinoid system and stroke: A focused review

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31001593/

2019: A review of cannabinoids for Tourette Syndrome

The Potential of Cannabinoid-Based Treatments in Tourette Syndrome

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30977108/

2019: A review on using the cannabinoid system and the vanilloid system for treating epilepsy

Exploiting cannabinoid and vanilloid mechanisms for epilepsy treatment

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31839498/

2018: metareview finds more help from CBD extracts than isolated CBD - 11 references covering 670 patients

Potential Clinical Benefits of CBD-Rich Cannabis Extracts Over Purified CBD in Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy: Observational Data Meta-analysis

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30258398/

(correction of a table: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30687209/)

2018: ECS & neuroprotection

Neuroprotection in Oxidative Stress-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases: Role of Endocannabinoid System Modulation

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28497982

2018: Cannabinoids & CNS disorders

Cannabinoid pharmacology/therapeutics in chronic degenerative disorders affecting the central nervous system

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30121249

2017: The CB2 receptors & neurodegenerative disorders

Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Signaling in Neurodegenerative Disorders: From Pathogenesis to a Promising Therapeutic Target

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28210207/

2017: This discussion suggests CBD as a therapeutic candidate for stroke prevention

Translating Endocannabinoid Biology into Clinical Practice: Cannabidiol for Stroke Prevention

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29098188

2017: Endocannabinoids & TBI

Endocannabinoids: A Promising Impact for Traumatic Brain Injury

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28261100/

2017: the ECS for concussions – strong CBD section

Understanding the endocannabinoid system as a modulator of the trigeminal pain response to concussion

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30202590

2017: CBD and neurological disorders

Neurological Aspects of Medical Use of Cannabidiol

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28412918

2015: Molecular targets of CBD in the brain

Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4604182/pdf/13311_2015_Article_377.pdf

2015: Di Marzo review on the ECS and the aging brain

Endocannabinoid signalling and the deteriorating brain

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25524120

2012: a classic review on the ECS and the aging brain

The endocannabinoid system in normal and pathological brain ageing

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rstb.2011.0388

2011: Mechoulam on endocannabinoids & TBIs

Endocannabinoids and traumatic brain injury

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21418185/

2010: Review of CBD for stroke & as a cerebroprotective

Therapeutic potential of non-psychotropic cannabidiol in ischemic stroke

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27713349

Chart Gallery

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Timeline of Research

2021: In healthy young humans, this randomized clinical trial showed that CBD enhanced their verbal episodic memory

Cannabidiol enhances verbal episodic memory in healthy young participants: A randomized clinical trial

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002239562100546X

2021: In a rodent model of depression, CBD prevented “both behavioral & neuro-immunological changes associated” with depression as well as modulating neuroinflammation

Cannabidiol prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced sickness behavior and alters cytokine and neurotrophic factor levels in the brain

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34218397/

2021: In the mouse brain, THC promotes remyelination

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol promotes functional remyelination in the mouse brain

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Javier-Palazuelos/publication/352967337_D_9_-Tetrahydrocannabinol_promotes_functional_remyelination_in_the_mouse_brain/links/6108e552169a1a0103d459ef/D-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-promotes-functional-remyelination-in-the-mouse-brain.pdf

2021: In neurons, activating the endocannabinoid system protected from the damage of the potent neuroexcitatory amino acid kainic acid

Kainate-Induced Degeneration of Hippocampal Neurons. Protective Effect of Activation of the Endocannabinoid System

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34297297/

 

2021: In mice disoriented by an anesthetic, activating the CB2 receptor protects their brain & behavior via changes in hippocampal neuroinflammation, neurogenesis & neuroplasticity

Cannabinoid receptor 2 deficiency enhances isoflurane-induced spatial cognitive impairment in adult mice by affecting neuroinflammation, neurogenesis and neuroplasticity

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34257720/

2021: Research in mice shows 2-AG to be the endocannabinoid neurotransmitter most associated with the control of neurotransmitter release & neuronal signaling

In vivo endocannabinoid dynamics at the timescale of physiological and pathological neural activity

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34352214/

2021: In brain slices from rats, the ECS helps to regulate synaptic plasticity via the PPARs (nuclear receptors that control the regulation of genetic transcription)

Tonic Endocannabinoid Signaling Gates Synaptic Plasticity in Dorsal Raphe Nucleus Serotonin Neurons Through Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34262460/

2021: In mice, the brain’s medium spiny neurons – which contain the highest levels of CB1 receptors in the CNS – control exploration & motor coordination partially via the ECS

Control of exploration, motor coordination and amphetamine sensitization by cannabinoid CB 1 receptors expressed in medium spiny neurons

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34216157/

2021: In brain tissue, CB1 receptors on the mitochondria (the powerhouse of the cell) regulates the calcium signaling of the brain’s astrocytes

ER-mitochondria contacts underline cannabinoid regulation of calcium signaling in astrocytes

https://europepmc.org/article/ppr/ppr357782

2021: In mice disoriented by an anesthetic, activating the CB2 receptor protects their brain & behavior via changes in hippocampal neuroinflammation, neurogenesis & neuroplasticity

Cannabinoid receptor 2 deficiency enhances isoflurane-induced spatial cognitive impairment in adult mice by affecting neuroinflammation, neurogenesis and neuroplasticity

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34257720/

2021: In a mouse model of stroke, CBG & CBDV protective of the blood-brain barrier

Protective Effects of Cannabidivarin and Cannabigerol on Cells of the Blood-Brain Barrier Under Ischemic Conditions

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33998890/

2021: In a rat model of stroke (cerebral ischemia), CBD helped them to remember how to navigate a maze, increased their brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNFs, a key molecule for brain growth) & protected their hippocampus (memory center of the brain)

Cannabidiol confers neuroprotection in rats in a model of transient global cerebral ischemia: impact of hippocampal synaptic neuroplasticity

https://assets.researchsquare.com/files/rs-447933/v1/dc94c822-65d3-45dc-a715-f07fb42aba36.pdf

2021: In a mouse model of stroke, combining CBD & beta-caryophyllene helped to protect from neuroinflammation & improved immune system response

Effects of Cannabidiol and Beta-Caryophyllene Alone or in Combination in a Mouse Model of Permanent Ischemia

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/22/6/2866

2021: In rats with traumatic brain injuries, activation of the CB2 receptor protects against the loss of white matter

Selective Activation of Cannabinoid Receptor-2 Reduces White Matter Injury via Perk Signaling in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury

https://europepmc.org/article/ppr/ppr298161

2021: In mice with traumatic brain injuries, THC promoted recovery via various brain growth factors such as BDNF & GDNF

Recovery from Traumatic Brain Injury Following Treatment with Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Is Associated with Increased Expression of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor and Other Neurotrophic Factors

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/can.2020.0119

2020: PEA for neurological disorders

Food supplements based on palmitoylethanolamide plus hydroxytyrosol from olive tree or Bacopa monnieri extracts for neurological diseases

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33170159/

2020: In a mouse model of Rett syndrome (a rare neurological genetic disorder), CBDA helped with pain, stress, & nausea

Chronic Treatment with Cannabidiolic Acid (CBDA) Reduces Thermal Pain Sensitivity in Male Mice and Rescues the Hyperalgesia in a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33010341/

2020: In this pilot double-blind study of using CBD for children with intellectual disabilities, they found that families & their children adhered to the study well and that "there was an efficacy signal in favour of active drug"

A Pilot Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial of Cannabidiol to Reduce Severe Behavioural Problems in Children and Adolescents With Intellectual Disability

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32478863/

2020: GW releases another paper showing transdermal CBD gels helped in children with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (rare neurodevelopmental disorders)

Quality of Life and Qualitative Caregiver Assessments in Children and Adolescents with Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathies Treated with Cannabidiol Transdermal Gel: An Open-label Clinical Trial

https://n.neurology.org/content/94/15_Supplement/1664.abstract

 

2020: in mice with TBI, how CB2 helps recovery

Role of CB2 Receptor in the Recovery of Mice after Traumatic Brain Injury

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6551996/

2020: In mice with bone cancer pain, activation of the CB2 receptor lowered pain & improved the functioning of the blood-spinal cord barrier

Spinal cannabinoid receptor 2 activation reduces hypersensitivity associated with bone cancer pain and improves the integrity of the blood–spinal cord barrier

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7513263/

2020: In mice with nerve injuries, their CB1 levels raise in a certain part of their cortex & the activation of those CB1 receptors causes pain relief

Activation of CB1 receptors on GABAergic interneurons in the ventrolateral orbital cortex induces analgesia

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32745558/

2020: In rats, nerve injuries upregulate glutamate receptors & CB1 receptors

Disability-Specific Genes NR1, NMDA-2D and CB1 Show Injury-Dependent Protein Expression in the Lumbar Spinal Cord of CCI Rats

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32320718

2020: In rats with spinal cord injuries, activation of the CB2 receptor lowered the neurological damage & helped to mitigate disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier

Exogenous activation of cannabinoid-2 receptor modulates TLR4/MMP9 expression in a spinal cord ischemia reperfusion rat model

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32248810

2020: In rats with nerve damage, this paper elucidates the epigenetic control of CB receptors in response - nerve injury seems to lower CB1 levels & raise CB2 levels

Histone methyltransferase G9a diminishes expression of cannabinoid CB 1 receptors in primary sensory neurons in neuropathic pain

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32024693/

2020: In humans with stroke, elevated levels of 2-AG were found in their blood

The Endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) Is Elevated In Acute Ischemic Stroke

https://n.neurology.org/content/94/15_Supplement/1352.abstract

2020: In mice with epilepsy, treatment with CBD caused longer survival & improved co-morbidities

Cannabidiol improves survival and behavioural co-morbidities of Dravet syndrome in mice

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32321192/

2020: In mouse model of Lafora disease (progressive infantile epilepsy), CBD-rich extracts helped with the dementia but not the seizures

Cannabidiol-Enriched Extract Reduced the Cognitive Impairment but Not the Epileptic Seizures in a Lafora Disease Animal Model

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32656347/

2020: Epilepsy patients vastly prefer natural CBD over synthetic CBD

Plant Derived Versus Synthetic Cannabidiol: Wishes and Commitment of Epilepsy Patients

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32554292/

2020: In a multicenter study in Georgia, children with treatment-resistant epilepsy who did not qualify for the Epidiolex trials were given CBD in an expanded access program & the data showed that it was helpful & well-tolerated

Long-term safety and efficacy of cannabidiol in children and adults with treatment resistant Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or Dravet syndrome: Expanded access program results

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31022635/

2020: A study of 607 epilepsy patients at 25 centers found CBD effective & well-tolerated

Long‐term safety and treatment effects of cannabidiol in children and adults with treatment‐resistant epilepsies: Expanded access program results

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6175436/

2020: Patients with epilepsy experience problems with their working memory & this clinical study showed that CBD did not cause those problems to worsen & that it stimulated the brain regions related to working memory

Effects of highly purified cannabidiol (CBD) on fMRI of working memory in treatment-resistant epilepsy

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32871501/

2020: In using CBD for epilepsy, this intriguing study looks at the dynamics of a brain's network to predict their responsiveness to CBD

Global brain network dynamics predict therapeutic responsiveness to cannabidiol treatment for refractory epilepsy

https://academic.oup.com/braincomms/advance-article/doi/10.1093/braincomms/fcaa140/5899717

2020: In mouse models of febrile seizure (a seizure, common in children, caused by a spike in body temperature), CBD lessened the chance of seizure via glutamate & AMPA receptors, reducing the excitability of the neurons in the hippocampus

Cannabidiol inhibits febrile seizure by modulating AMPA receptor kinetics through its interaction with the N-terminal domain of GluA1/GluA2

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32805354/

2020: In epilepsy, the brain's resting-state functional connectivity is often dysfunctional and in this study of 27 patients, CBD helped to normalize it

Cannabidiol normalizes resting-state functional connectivity in treatment-resistant epilepsy

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32745959/

2020: In a one-year study following 38 young people with epilepsy using high doses of CBD, they found no negative effects on cognition or adaptive function

Cognitive function and adaptive skills after a one-year trial of cannabidiol (CBD) in a pediatric sample with treatment-resistant epilepsy

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32759071/

2020: This study of 72 patients with epilepsy found that about 25% of them needed to increase their dose of CBD after some months

Cannabidiol-enriched oil in children and adults with treatment-resistant epilepsy-does tolerance exist?

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32713661/

2020: In mice, CBD seems to cause its strong anticonvulsant effect via the PI3Kγ pathway

Cannabidiol anticonvulsant effect is mediated by the PI3Kγ pathway

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32574650/

2020: In 3 patients with rare epilepsies, adding CBD significantly decreased their seizures

Add‐on cannabidiol significantly decreases seizures in 3 patients with SYNGAP1 developmental and epileptic encephalopathy

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7469777/

2020: In cells, CBD helps to inhibit the overactive sodium channels that cause problems in epilepsy

Differential Inhibition of Human Nav1.2 Resurgent and Persistent Sodium Currents by Cannabidiol and GS967

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32244818

2020: In a review of the rare childhood epilepsy KCNT-1, the best therapies seemed to be CBD, diet therapy and the dug quinidine

KCNT1-related epilepsy: An international multicenter cohort of 27 pediatric cases

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32167590

2020: In a study of 9 patients with refractory childhood-onset epileptic spasms (ES), isolated CBD found to be effective and safe

Cannabidiol in treatment of refractory epileptic spasms: An open-label study

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32169600/

2020: From GW Pharma study of dose effects, they found that for children with Dravet's, 10 mg/kg/day is as effective and better tolerated than 20 mg/kg/day

Dose-Ranging Effect of Adjunctive Oral Cannabidiol vs Placebo on Convulsive Seizure Frequency in Dravet Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32119035

2020: CBD helps mice with Dravet syndrome

Cannabidiol improves survival and behavioural co‐morbidities of Dravet syndrome in mice

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236080/

2020: In rare type of infant epilepsy, CBD a helpful addition for their seizures (3 patients in an open-label, prospective, interventional study)

Response to cannabidiol in epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures associated with KCNT1 mutations: An open-label, prospective, interventional study

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31926846/

2020: The anti-seizure properties of CBD seem dependent on TRPV1

Anticonvulsive Properties of Cannabidiol in a Model of Generalized Seizure Are Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Dependent

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7347071/

2020: CBD helpful in refractory epilepsy (47 patients in an open-label study)

Efficacy of cannabidiol in subjects with refractory epilepsy relative to concomitant use of clobazam

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31923763/

2020: Zynerba's poster on using transdermal CBD for treating Fragile X Syndrome

Post Hoc Analysis—An Open-Label Study of Transdermal Cannabidiol (ZYN002) for the Treatment of Fragile X Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: Estimating Health State Utility Scores

https://zynerba.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/ASENT2020_Poster_HUI_FINAL_3-2.pdf

2020: In humans with Tourette’s, in their spinal fluid they had increased levels of AEA, PEA, 2-AG, AA - with 2-AG correlating to severity of ADHD symptoms

Cerebrospinal fluid endocannabinoid levels in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32272483/

2020: Genome association study found that a variant of CB1 is a risk factor for Tourette’s (541 participants)

Association of a Variant of CNR1 Gene Encoding Cannabinoid Receptor 1 With Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32194619/

2019: An online survey and retrospective analysis suggests cannabis medicines for the treatment of Tourette syndrome

Treatment of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome with Cannabis-Based Medicine: Results from a Retrospective Analysis and Online Survey

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31872061/

2019: A case series of 3 humans with Fragile X Syndrom using CBD + brief literature review

Treatment of Fragile X Syndrome with Cannabidiol: A Case Series Study and Brief Review of the Literature

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30944868

2019: In pediatric humans with Fragile X Syndrome, transdermal CBD helped with anxiety & behavioral symptoms (20 children in an open-label, multi-site, trial of ZYN002)

A phase 1/2, open-label assessment of the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of transdermal cannabidiol (ZYN002) for the treatment of pediatric fragile X syndrome

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31370779

2019: In mouse model of Fragile X syndrome, CBD reduced anxiety but not other behavioral abnormalities

Cannabidiol (CBD) reduces anxiety-related behavior in mice via an FMRP-independent mechanism

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31063743/

2019: A wideranging study in mice and rats found "CBD treatment improved seizures, motor  function and cognition without producing any adverse effect on gait" and "extended survivability."

Cannabidiol improves survivability, seizures and associated behavioural comorbidities in a range of animal models of epilepsy

http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/85133/
 

2019: In healthy humans, a drug interaction study of CBD and antiepileptic drugs (26 adults in a phase I, open-label, randomized, single-dose, 3-period crossover study)

A phase I, randomized, open-label, single-dose, 3-period crossover study to evaluate the drug-drug interaction between ZX008 (fenfluramine HCl oral solution) and a regimen of stiripentol, clobazam, and valproate in healthy subjects

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6298132/

2019: A drug interaction study of CBD and the epileptic drug Fenfluramine

A Phase 1, Single-Dose, Open-Label Pharmacokinetic Study to Investigate the Drug-Drug Interaction Potential of ZX008 (Fenfluramine HCl Oral Solution) and Cannabidiol

https://www.zogenix.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/10_ENCORE-52370-AES-1604-CBD-Poster-2019-12-03v1.pdf

2019: In humans with epilepsy, CBD modulated attention control processing

fMRI study of cannabidiol-induced changes in attention control in treatment-resistant epilepsy

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31129526/

2019: In a patient with recurrent gliomas, CBD helped with her seizures

Potential role of cannabidiol for seizure control in a patient with recurrent glioma

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31848037/

2019: In infants with spasms, CBD was not particularly effective in highly refractory cases (9 in a multicenter phase-2 study)

Synthetic pharmaceutical grade cannabidiol for treatment of refractory infantile spasms: A multicenter phase-2 study

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31816477/

2019: In humans with epilepsy, synthetic CBD seems to work just as well as plant-derived CBD for severe epilepsy (35 patients in a prospective, open-label study)

Efficacy and Tolerance of Synthetic Cannabidiol for Treatment of Drug Resistant Epilepsy

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31920934/

2019: in mice, lowering CB2 receptor activity led to more seizures

Reduced cannabinoid 2 receptor activity increases susceptibility to induced seizures in mice

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31758544/

2019: In humans, a study found "no effect of CBD on gray matter volume and cortical thickness" (27 patients)

A preliminary study of the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on brain structure in patients with epilepsy

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32322816/

2019: In pediatric humans with epilepsy, CBD preparation was effective in reducing seizures (16 patients in a phase II, open-label, single-center study)

The safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of PTL-101, an oral cannabidiol formulation, in pediatric intractable epilepsy: A phase II, open-label, single-center study

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31394352

2019: effect of food on CBD pharmacokinetics in epilepsy patients

Food effect on pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol oral capsules in adult patients with refractory epilepsy

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31247132/

2019: In humans with epilepsy, CBD found to be well tolerated for cognition

Cognitive functioning following long-term cannabidiol use in adults with treatment-resistant epilepsy

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31220785/

2019: In mice with epilepsy induced by a virus, CBD reduced frequency and severity of seizures but not overall seizure outcome

Cannabidiol reduces seizures following CNS infection with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31440724

2019: In pediatric humans with epilepsy, this study found CBD effective & safe (29 patients in a single-center, prospective, open-label study)

Purified Cannabidiol for Treatment of Refractory Epilepsies in Pediatric Patients with Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31179531/

2019: In humans with pediatric epilepsy, CBD affected clobazam levels but overall was well-tolerated (61 patients in open-label study)

Pharmacokinetics and Tolerability of Multiple Doses of Pharmaceutical-Grade Synthetic Cannabidiol in Pediatric Patients with Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31049885/

2019: In dogs with seizures, 12 weeks of CBD lessened seizures (26 dogs in randomized blinded controlled clinical trial)

Randomized blinded controlled clinical trial to assess the effect of oral cannabidiol administration in addition to conventional antiepileptic treatment on seizure frequency in dogs with intractable idiopathic epilepsy

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31067185/

2019: In humans with epilepsy, higher blood concentrations of CBD were associated with better seizure control (100 participants in an open-label single-center study)

Higher cannabidiol plasma levels are associated with better seizure response following treatment with a pharmaceutical grade cannabidiol

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31048098/

2019: In humans with epilepsy, CBD improved quality of life & mood (53 participants in open-label study)

Quality of life in adults enrolled in an open-label study of cannabidiol (CBD) for treatment-resistant epilepsy

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31003195

2019: In three dogs with epilepsy, CBD helped two of them

Cannabidiol as a potential anti-epileptic dietary supplement in dogs with suspected epilepsy: three case reports

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332361943_Cannabidiol_as_a_potential_anti-epileptic_dietary_supplement_in_dogs_with_suspected_epilepsy_three_case_reports

2019: In humans, GW looks at adverse events between CBD and the common anti epilepsy medications

A Phase 1, Open-Label, Pharmacokinetic Trial to Investigate Possible Drug-Drug Interactions Between Clobazam, Stiripentol, or Valproate and Cannabidiol in Healthy Subjects

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30791225/

2019: In humans, CBD showed long-term efficacy in the treatment of epilepsy due to Lenox-Gastaut syndrome

Cannabidiol in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: Interim analysis of an open-label extension study

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30740695

2019: in 8 patients with 'neuronal ceroidlipofuscinoses' (a neurodegenerative disease caused by problems with lysosomal storage), CBD was found to be helpful and well-tolerated

Experiences with Cannabidiol in Patients with NCL Disease

https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/s-0039-1698230

2019: In this case study, a patient with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (a painful genetic disorder), CBD helped with mood and pain

Cannabidiol (CBD) for Treatment of Neurofibromatosis-related Pain and Concomitant Mood Disorder: A Case Report

https://www.cureus.com/articles/23602-cannabidiol-cbd-for-treatment-of-neurofibromatosis-related-pain-and-concomitant-mood-disorder-a-case-report

2019: in mice with traumatic brain injury, CBD restored their behavioral alterations & partially normalized the neurochemical changes

Oral Cannabidiol Prevents Allodynia and Neurological Dysfunctions in a Mouse Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31040777

2019: in mice with brain injuries, a FAAH inhibitor raised AEA levels, improved locomotion, learning & memory

Therapeutic Effect of a Novel Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitor PF04457845 in the Repetitive Closed Head Injury Mouse Model

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30526351

2019: in newborn rats, CBD prevented the brain from damage due to lack of oxygen

Cannabidiol Administration Prevents Hypoxia-Ischemia-Induced Hypomyelination in Newborn Rats

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31611802

2019: In piglets with ischemia, CBD worked alone and with hypothermia to protect the brain

Neuroprotection by cannabidiol and hypothermia in a piglet model of newborn hypoxic-ischemic brain damage

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30468796/

2019: in humans, a study finds "cannabis is used to reduce pain after [spinal cord injury] and enable increased community participation."

Using cannabis for pain management after spinal cord injury: a qualitative study

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31632740

2018: in mice with spinal cord injuries, 10 weeks of CBD injections lowered inflammatory cytokines & decreased T-call invasion to injury – no effect on locomotionor bladder function – helped with thermal sensitivity

The non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) attenuates pro-inflammatory mediators, T cell infiltration, and thermal sensitivity following spinal cord injury in mice

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29784129

2018: In animal models of stroke, CBD enhanced morphine’s analgesia, diminished seizures & protected

Cannabidiol enhances morphine antinociception, diminishes NMDA-mediated seizures and reduces stroke damage via the sigma 1 receptor

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30223868/

2018: In humans with epilepsy, CBD-rich extracts effective & safe (108 patients in a retrospective study)

Efficacy of artisanal preparations of cannabidiol for the treatment of epilepsy: Practical experiences in a tertiary medical center

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29429908

2018: In model of temporal lobe epilepsy, CBD works via the hippocampus interneurons

Cannabidiol exerts antiepileptic effects by restoring hippocampal interneuron functions in a temporal lobe epilepsy model

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29574880

2018: in humans with Lennox-Gastaut, a double-blind phase 3 trial saw CBD as efficacious and generally well-tolerated

Cannabidiol in patients with seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (GWPCARE4): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29395273

2018: in children with Dravet, CBD study on safety and pharmacokinetics

Randomized, dose-ranging safety trial of cannabidiol in Dravet syndrome.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29540584

2018: in humans with Lennox–Gastaut, CBD found to be effective addition to conventional medications for lessening drop seizures

Effect of Cannabidiol on Drop Seizures in the Lennox–Gastaut Syndrome

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1714631

2018: in humans with severe childhood-onset epilepsy, CBD shows efficacy

Open-label use of highly purified CBD (Epidiolex®) in patients with CDKL5 deficiency disorder and Aicardi, Dup15q, and Doose syndromes

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30006259

2018: In humans with treatment-resistant epilepsy, a review from 25 studies confirms the safety & efficacy of CBD (607 patients in safety dataset)

Long-term safety and treatment effects of cannabidiol in children and adults with treatment-resistant epilepsies: Expanded access program results

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29998598

2017: in several models of seizures, CBD suggested to be helpful

Evaluation of Cannabidiol in Animal Seizure Models by the Epilepsy Therapy Screening Program (ETSP)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28478594

2017: significant changes seen to the serum levels of common antiepileptic drugs – stresses importance of monitoring serum drug levels

Interactions between cannabidiol and commonly used antiepileptic drugs

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28782097

2017: In 3 case studies of epilepsy related to brain tumors, all 3 saw improvements

The use of cannabidiol for seizure management in patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29063814

2017: In mouse model of Dravet, CBD helped with the seizures and autistic behaviors

Cannabidiol attenuates seizures and social deficits in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28973916

2017: GW trial of CBD for Dravet Syndrome

Trial of Cannabidiol for Drug-Resistant Seizures in the Dravet Syndrome.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28538134/

2017: In children with FIRES, open-label case series shows CBD as a potential treatment

Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES) in the Acute and Chronic Phases

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27655472

2017: in neurons, CBD protected from the damage of oxygen deprivation

Cannabidiol attenuates OGD/R-induced damage by enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetics and modulating glucose metabolism via pentose-phosphate pathway in hippocampal neurons

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28110213

2017: In a mouse with traumatic brain injury, PEA protected the brain

Palmitoylethanolamide Reduces Neuropsychiatric Behaviors by Restoring Cortical Electrophysiological Activity in a Mouse Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28321191/

2016: In piglets with ischemia, CBD & hypothermia combined well to protect the brain

Effects of Cannabidiol and Hypothermia on Short-Term Brain Damage in New-Born Piglets after Acute Hypoxia-Ischemia

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27462203/

2016: In mice, CBD protected from the damages of brain ischemia via an increase of BDNF, neurogenesis & dendritic restructuring

Cannabidiol reduces neuroinflammation and promotes neuroplasticity and functional recovery after brain ischemia

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27889412/

2016: GW trial of CBD across 11 epilepsy centers – 162 patients – reduction in seizure frequency – three most common side effects were tiredness, decreased appetite & diarrhea

Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26724101/

 

2016: In epilepsy model, CBD promotes neuroprotection via autophagy

Cannabidiol Post-Treatment Alleviates Rat Epileptic-Related Behaviors and Activates Hippocampal Cell Autophagy Pathway Along with Antioxidant Defense in Chronic Phase of Pilocarpine-Induced Seizure

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26738731

2016: In tissue culture, CBD altered sodium channel activity

Aberrant epilepsy-associated mutant Nav1.6 sodium channel activity can be targeted with cannabidiol

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27267376

2016: In humans with Huntington’s disease, Sativex found to be safe but didn’t change symptoms (24 patients in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled, pilot trial)

A double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled, pilot trial with Sativex in Huntington's disease

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27159993

2015: A case report of a 10 month old with severe seizure helped by CBD

Pure cannabidiol in the treatment of malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy: a case report

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25882081

2015: In a survey of 117 parents of children with epilepsy, CBD-rich extracts saw “eighty-five percent of all parents reported a reduction in seizure frequency, and 14% reported complete seizure freedom”

Perceived efficacy of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis extracts for treatment of pediatric epilepsy: A potential role for infantile spasms and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25935511/

2015: CBD seems to raise clobazam in children with epilepsy but with monitoring, it seems like a safe and effective treatment

Drug-drug interaction between clobazam and cannabidiol in children with refractory epilepsy

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26114620

2015: CBD rescues the brain in mouse cerebral malaria – suggests protection via upregulation of BDNF in the hippocampus and decreasing TNFα & IL1-6

Cannabidiol increases survival and promotes rescue of cognitive function in a murine model of cerebral malaria

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25595981

2015: MAGL inhibition helps mice with TBI

Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase prevents chronic traumatic encephalopathy-like neuropathology in a mouse model of repetitive mild closed head injury

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25492114

2014: in humans, TBI mortality down in patients using THC

Effect of marijuana use on outcomes in traumatic brain injury

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25264643

2014: in mice subjected to brain ischemia, CBD protective of hippocampus

Protective effects of cannabidiol against hippocampal cell death and cognitive impairment induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion in mice

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24532152 (PDF)

2014: in mice with induced spinal disc injury, CBD decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines associated with T-cell differentiation and invasion – most helpful for regaining thermal sensitivity

Protective effects of cannabidiol on lesion-induced intervertebral disc degeneration

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25517414

2014: CBD may help epilepsy via the TRPV1

Nonpsychotropic plant cannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and cannabidiol (CBD), activate and desensitize transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels in vitro: potential for the treatment of neuronal hyperexcitability

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25029033/

2013: In mouse and rat model of epilepsy, CBDV rich extracts caused a significant reduction in seizures – but not via CB1

Cannabidivarin-rich cannabis extracts are anticonvulsant in mouse and rat via a CB1 receptor-independent mechanism

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23902406/

2013: In a survey, reports from parents on treatment with high CBD cannabis for epilepsy

Report of a parent survey of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis use in pediatric treatment-resistant epilepsy

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24237632

2013: in rats, when a nerve is severed, CBD protects and it reduces the reaction of the glial cells

Neuroprotection and reduction of glial reaction by cannabidiol treatment after sciatic nerve transection in neonatal rats

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23981015

2013: in baby pigs, brain damage from lack of oxygen lessened by CBD via CB2 receptor and serotonergic 5-HT1A receptor (may be forming heteromers)

Mechanisms of cannabidiol neuroprotection in hypoxic-ischemic newborn pigs: role of 5HT(1A) and CB2 receptors

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23587650

2012: CBD works in rodent models of seizure

Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22520455/

2012: in rats, CBD protected them during induced spinal injuries

Cannabidiol-treated Rats Exhibited Higher Motor Score After Cryogenic Spinal Cord Injury

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21915768

2012: In rats with ischemia, CBD protected the brain

Cannabidiol administration after hypoxia-ischemia to newborn rats reduces long-term brain injury and restores neurobehavioral function

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22659086/

2012: In a rat model of Huntington’s disease, Sativex appears helpful for HD and CB1 & CB2 receptors may be involved

Sativex-like combination of phytocannabinoids is neuroprotective in malonate-lesioned rats, an inflammatory model of Huntington's disease: role of CB1 and CB2 receptors

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22860209/

2012: In a mouse model of Huntington’s disease, CB1 agonism and how CB1 levels are reduced in GABA neurons but not glutamate

Unbalance of CB1 receptors expressed in GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22207189

2011: In a rat model of Huntington’s disease, brain scans show early regional dysfunctions in endocannabinoid signaling – CB1 measurements may be useful early biomarker

Metabolic and type 1 cannabinoid receptor imaging of a transgenic rat model in the early phase of Huntington disease

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21459091

2011: in rat model of Huntington’s disease, CBD and THC found neuroprotective

Neuroprotective effects of phytocannabinoid-based medicines in experimental models of Huntington's disease

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21674569

2011: In mouse model of Huntington’s disease, CB1 loss in brain is a key factor

Loss of striatal type 1 cannabinoid receptors is a key pathogenic factor in Huntington's disease

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20929960

2011: in pigs, CBD protected the brain from ischemia

Cannabidiol reduces brain damage and improves functional recovery after acute hypoxia-ischemia in newborn pigs

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21654550/

2011: in mice, the damage from a model of liver failure is lessened by CBD

Cannabidiol improves brain and liver function in a fulminant hepatic failure-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy in mice

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21182490

2010: in mice, CBD protects the brain from damage when the bile duct is cut (BDL) via serotonergic 5-HT1A receptor

Cannabidiol ameliorates cognitive and motor impairments in bile-duct ligated mice via 5-HT1A receptor activation

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20128798

2010: in mice, CBD protects from hypoxic brain damage via CB2 & adenosine receptors

The neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol in an in vitro model of newborn hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in mice is mediated by CB(2) and adenosine receptors

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19900555

2010: Efficacy of CBD against seizures in animals and cell culture models

Cannabidiol displays antiepileptiform and antiseizure properties in vitro and in vivo’

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19906779/

2010: In cell culture, CB1 agonism suggested as therapeutic target for Huntington’s disease

Neuroprotective potential of CB1 receptor agonists in an in vitro model of Huntington's disease

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20590577

2010: In humans with Huntington’s disease, scans show large widespread reduction of CB1 levels

Widespread decrease of type 1 cannabinoid receptor availability in Huntington disease in vivo

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20720046

2009: In humans with Huntington’s disease, nabilone helpful for symptoms (44 patients in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over)

A pilot study using nabilone for symptomatic treatment in Huntington's disease

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19845035

2009: In a rat model of Huntington’s disease, CB2 agonists helpful

Cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonists protect the striatum against malonate toxicity: relevance for Huntington's disease

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19115380

2009: In a mouse model of Huntington’s disease, CB2 receptors on the microglia are protective

Microglial CB2 cannabinoid receptors are neuroprotective in Huntington's disease excitotoxicity.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19805493

2009: In mouse model of Huntington’s disease, loss of CB1 precedes the onset of symptoms

Altered CB1 receptor and endocannabinoid levels precede motor symptom onset in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19524019

2009: In humans with Huntington’s disease, changes in the CB1 and GABA receptors

Cannabinoid (CB(1)), GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor subunit changes in the globus pallidus in Huntington's disease

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19481011

2009: AEA is low in patients who just developed temporal lobe epilepsy – possible dysregulation involved in its pathogenesis

Cerebrospinal fluid levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide are reduced in patients with untreated newly diagnosed temporal lobe epilepsy

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19817812/

2008: in pig brains deprived of oxygen, CBD cuts damaging effects by 50%

Neuroprotective Effects of the Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid Cannabidiol in Hypoxic-Ischemic Newborn Piglets

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18679164

2007: In mice with ischemia, CBD protects the brain without developing tolerance

Repeated treatment with cannabidiol but not Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol has a neuroprotective effect without the development of tolerance

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17320118

2007: In a rat model of Huntington’s disease, CBD reduced brain atrophy – increased superoxide dismutase (antioxidant) machinery

Cannabidiol reduced the striatal atrophy caused 3-nitropropionic acid in vivo by mechanisms independent of the activation of cannabinoid, vanilloid TRPV1 and adenosine A2A receptors

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17672854/

2006: In a case report, nabilone helpful for symptoms of Huntington’s disease

Nabilone could treat chorea and irritability in Huntington's disease

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17135385

2006: in dopamine neurons, the ECS protects them during ischemia

Protective activation of the endocannabinoid system during ischemia in dopamine neurons

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16762556/

2005: in mice, neuroprotective effect of CBD may be related to increase of cerebral flood flow via serotonergic 5-HT1A receptor

Cannabidiol prevents cerebral infarction via a serotonergic 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptor-dependent mechanism

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15845890

2004: in rats, ischemia causes AEA levels to rise and blockage of the CB1 receptor is protective

Anandamide content is increased and CB1 cannabinoid receptor blockade is protective during transient, focal cerebral ischemia

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15541895

2004: in mice, a CB1 blocker stopped the neuroprotection of THC but not CBD

Cannabidiol prevents infarction via the non-CB1 cannabinoid receptor mechanism

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15640760

2003: in gerbils, CBD protected against ischemia

Post-ischemic treatment with cannabidiol prevents electroencephalographic flattening, hyperlocomotion and neuronal injury in gerbils

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12850548

2003: in mice, PEA potentiates the ability of AEA to induce microglia migration – not mediated by CB1 or CB2

Palmitoylethanolamide increases after focal cerebral ischemia and potentiates microglial cell motility

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12944505

2003: In a rat model of Huntington’s disease, CB1 agonists protect against excitotoxicity

Effects of cannabinoids in the rat model of Huntington's disease generated by an intrastriatal injection of malonate

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12858038

2003: In humans with Tourette syndrome, double-blind study finds THC safe and effective for treatment of tics

Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12716250

2003: In humans with Tourette syndrome, a double blind placebo study found THC caused no negative cognitive defects

Treatment of Tourette syndrome with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC): no influence on neuropsychological performance

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12589392

2003: In humans, cannabis reduced the symptoms of Tourette’s (12 patients in a  single-dose, cross-over study & 24 patients in a 6-week, randomised trial)

Cannabinoids reduce symptoms of Tourette's syndrome

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14521482/

2002: In humans with Tourette syndrome, no neurocognitive deficits from THC use

Combined Treatment of Tourette Syndrome with ∆9-THC and Dopamine Receptor Antagonists

http://www.cannabis-med.org/iacm/data/pdf/2002-03-04-9.pdf

2002: In a rat model of Huntington’s disease, loss of CB1 may be linked to pathology

Loss of mRNA levels, binding and activation of GTP-binding proteins for cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the basal ganglia of a transgenic model of Huntington's disease

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11864629

2002: in rats with no CB1 receptors, strokes are more damaging

Increased severity of stroke in CB1 cannabinoid receptor knock-out mice

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12427832

2002: in a human after a stroke, levels of AEA, PEA & OEA rise

Release of fatty acid amides in a patient with hemispheric stroke: a microdialysis study

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12154273

2001: in mice after brain injuries, 2AG levels rise and the injection of 2AG is protective

An endogenous cannabinoid (2-AG) is neuroprotective after brain injury

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11586361

2000: In humans with Huntington’s disease, the pattern of neurodegeneration for different neurotransmitters

The pattern of neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease: a comparative study of cannabinoid, dopamine, adenosine and GABA(A) receptor alterations in the human basal ganglia in Huntington's disease

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10828533

2000: in rats, AEA & 2AG protected the brain during ischemia via pathways independent of CB1 & CB2

Endocannabinoids protect cerebral cortical neurons from in vitro ischemia in rats

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10653017

2000: in rats, the varying effects of THC neuroprotection in different parts of the brain

The effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on forebrain ischemia in rat

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10700566

1998: In humans with Tourette’s syndrome, a survey of 64 patients found that many of them who used marijuana saw a reduction or complete remission of tics & OCD urges

Cannabinoids: possible role in patho-physiology and therapy of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9879795/

1997: In humans, a survey of Tourette’s patients found the majority saw relief from smoked marijuana

Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Effect of nicotine, alcohol and marihuana on clinical symptoms

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9465342/

1995: at death in animals, levels of anandamide levels begin to rise

Occurrence and postmortem generation of anandamide and other long-chain N-acylethanolamines in mammalian brain

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7498458

1991: In 15 Huntington’s disease patients, CBD at 700 mg/day for 6 weeks was nontoxic but not effective for symptoms

Controlled clinical trial of cannabidiol in Huntington's disease

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1839644

1987: early structure-function work on CBD analogs for convulsions

Structure-anticonvulsant activity relationships of cannabidiol analogs

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3125480

1981: early evidence on lipid production during insult

On the biosynthesis and metabolism of N-acylethanolamine phospholipids in infarcted dog heart

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7248333

1981: CBD analogs for epilepsy

Antiepileptic potential of cannabidiol analogs

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7298873

1982: Early CBD seizure work in mice

Effects of cannabidiol on behavioral seizures caused by convulsant drugs or current in mice

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6129147/

1980: in human study, chronic administration of CBD was well tolerated & showed efficacy for epilepsy

Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7413719

1974: CBD & convulsions

Anticonvulsant properties of cannabidiol

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/4850602/