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the Nervous System

The brain, the nerves & the mind

Best reviews

2023: A review on using cannabinoids against neuroinflammation

2023: A review of using cannabinoids for neuroinflammatory disorders like MS, Parkinson’s & Alzheimer’s
Cannabinoids in neuroinflammatory disorders: Focusing on multiple sclerosis, Parkinsons, and Alzheimers diseases

2023: A review of using CBD for brain diseases
Cannabidiol for the Treatment of Brain Disorders: Therapeutic Potential and Routes of Administration

2023: A review of targeting the endocannabinoid system for strokes & other diseases where blood flow to the brain stops
The Endocannabinoid System as a Target for Neuroprotection/Neuroregeneration in Perinatal Hypoxic–Ischemic Brain Injury

2023: A review of how endocannabinoids work in the astrocytes (star shaped immune cells of the brain)
Endocannabinoid signaling in astrocytes


2023: For HIV neurocognitive disorder, a review of targeting the endocannabinoid system for the related neuroinflammation & hormonal imbalance
The Endocannabinoid System as a Potential Therapeutic Target for HIV-1-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder

2023: In the brain’s astrocytes (key support cells of homeostasis), this review looks at how the CB1 receptors control transmission between the support cells & metabolic cooperation between the astrocytes and the neurons
Astroglial CB1 receptors, energy metabolism, and gliotransmission: an integrated signaling system?

2023: A review of using CBD against fragile X syndrome (a genetic developmental disorder that causes intellectual disability)
Role of the endocannabinoid system in fragile X syndrome: potential mechanisms for benefit from cannabidiol treatment

2022: A review of pediatric patients using artisanal CBD oil for their epilepsy showed it to be effective & safe
The Long-Term Effectiveness and Safety of Cannabidiol-Enriched Oil in Children With Drug-Resistant Epilepsy

2022: A great review on how the endocannabinoids alter synaptic function
Endocannabinoid signaling in synaptic function

2022: A review of the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in movement disorders
Involvement of the Endocannabinoid System in the pathophysiology and therapeutics of movement disorders

2022: A review of how cannabis alters the metabolism of your astrocytes (important neural support cells that help to regulate social behavior)
Astrocyte glucose metabolism highlights the link between cannabis use and social behavior

2022: An in-depth review of treating depression by focusing on the brain’s lateral habenula (the “anti-reward system”) & the CB1 receptors on its astrocytes (brain regulatory/immune cells)
The intersection of astrocytes and the endocannabinoid system in the lateral habenula: on the fast-track to novel rapid-acting antidepressants

2022: Editorial on cannabinoids as a treatment for neurological diseases
Editorial: Cannabinoids as potential treatment for neurological diseases

2022: A review of how CBD may be helping neurodegenerative diseases via its effects on the gut microbiome
The gut microbiota in neurodegenerative diseases: revisiting possible therapeutic targets for cannabidiol

2022: A review of how the development of neurons & immune cells in the central nervous system is guided by the endocannabinoid system with a special focus on neurodegenerative disorders
Modulatory Activity of the Endocannabinoid System in the Development and Proliferation of Cells in the CNS

2022: In a strong review of 33 studies on PEA for cognitive decline, it found that PEA improved neurobehavioral functions like memory & learning, reduced oxidative stress & inflammation, rebalanced glutamate (the brains most excitatory neurotransmitter), increased neuron survival & promoted neurogenesis (the creation of new brain cells) + so much more
Therapeutic effect of palmitoylethanolamide in cognitive decline: A systematic review and preliminary meta-analysis of preclinical and clinical evidence

2022: A comprehensive review of using CBD for neurodegenerative disorders
Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: A comprehensive review

2022: A literature review of using cannabis & CBD for neurodegenerative disorders
Cannabis sativa and Cannabidiol: A Therapeutic Strategy for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases?

2022: A review of how the ECS works in your central nervous system
Endocannabinoid signaling in the central nervous system

2022: Strong review of all the mechanisms the cannabinoids use to help with neurodegeneration
Intracellular Molecular Targets and Signaling Pathways Involved in Antioxidative and Neuroprotective Effects of Cannabinoids in Neurodegenerative Conditions

2022: A review of brain-imaging studies looks at how CBD alters brain function in several regions: medial frontoparietal, midcingulo-insular, pericentral, lateral frontoparietal, dorsal frontoparietal networks as well as the striatum & cerebellum
An insight into the acute effects of cannabidiol on human brain function and their relationship with the brain expression of its molecular targets: a neuroimaging meta-regression analysis

2022: A review of the neuroprotective effects of CBD against neurological disorders & neuroinflammation regulated by the microglia (the guardian immune cells of the brain)
Neuroprotection of Cannabidiol, Its Synthetic Derivatives and Combination Preparations against Microglia-Mediated Neuroinflammation in Neurological Disorders

2022: On focusing on the CB2 receptor for treating neurodegenerative disease
Interplay Between Endocannabinoid System and Neurodegeneration: Focus on Polypharmacology

2022: A review of PEA for neurodegenerative disorders & defects of the brain’s white matter (connective sheaths around nerve fibers)
Palmitoylethanolamide and White Matter Lesions: Evidence for Therapeutic Implications

2022: A clinical cannabis guide for neuroscience nurses
Cannabis-based medicinal products: a clinical guide

2022: A review of CBD for movement disorders
Cannabinoids in movement disorders

2022: A review on what does PEA does at our synapses for neurodegeneration & neuroinflammation
Synaptic Effects of Palmitoylethanolamide in Neurodegenerative Disorders

2022: Another review looking at CB2 as a great target for disorders of the brain
Potential Role of Cannabinoid Type 2 Receptors in Neuropsychiatric and Neurodegenerative Disorders

2022: This review looks at the ability of PEA to help with neuromuscular diseases, especially those involving acetylcholine

Classical and Unexpected Effects of Ultra-Micronized PEA in Neuromuscular Function

2022: A review of how the endocannabinoids work with the brain’s astrocytes (the most numerous cells in the CNS, these support cells help to guide the formation of axons, protect the synapses, modulate neuroinflammation & control the blood brain barrier as well as the release of neurotransmitters)
Astroglial cannabinoid signaling and behavior

2022: A review article on cannabinoids & pain with a more neurochemical focus
Chronic Pain and the Endocannabinoid System: Smart Lipids – A Novel Therapeutic Option?

2022: A review of using CBD for strokes via aneurysm
Cannabidiol's Multifactorial Mechanisms Has Therapeutic Potential for Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: a Review

2022: This review of stroke looks at the ability of the cannabinoids to protect the brain via the glial cells (support cells that maintain homeostasis)
Cannabinoids as Glial Cell Modulators in Ischemic Stroke: Implications for Neuroprotection

2022: A review of how CBD & CBG interact with the sodium channels that are vital to electrical signaling in the nervous system
Non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid interactions with voltage-gated sodium channels: An update on cannabidiol and cannabigerol

2022: In a review of seven clinical trials on patients with MS, the use of Sativex (a 1:1 CBD: THC spray) caused no detrimental effects on cognitive function after 12 months of use
Effects of SativexⓇ on cognitive function in patients with multiple sclerosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

2022: In a medical record review of multiple sclerosis patients, starting medical cannabis caused extensive improvement in pain, sleep, spasticity & a decrease in opioid use
Multiple Sclerosis and Use of Medical Cannabis: A Retrospective Review of a Neurology Outpatient Population

2022: A Cochrane review of cannabinoids for multiple sclerosis
Are cannabis and cannabinoids effective for symptomatic treatment in people with multiple sclerosis? - A Cochrane Review summary with commentary

2022: A review of the effects of cannabis on cognition in people with multiple sclerosis
A systematic review of the effects of cannabis on cognition in people with multiple sclerosis

2022: A nursing review of using cannabis for multiple sclerosis
Medical cannabis in multiple sclerosis

2022: On using CBD to treat Parkinson’s disease (Portuguese & English)
Uso de Canabidiol como tratamento para a Doença de Parkinson

2022: A strong review of cannabis for the pain & spasticity of MS
The Efficacy of Cannabis on Multiple Sclerosis-Related Symptoms

2022: A review for practitioners of using CBD for Parkinson’s disease
Cannabidiol (CBD) Consideration in Parkinson Disease

2022: A review of how the brain’s oligodendrocytes (which synthesize the myelin sheaths around the axons) use the full range of endocannabinoid machinery & may be a target to promote remyelination for diseases like MS, ALS or Parkinson’s
Endocannabinoid signaling in oligodendroglia

2022: A review of using cannabinoids for treating dementia
Cannabinoids for the treatment of dementia: summary of a Cochrane review

2022: A review of studies on cannabis for palliative end-of-life care found, that despite calling the evidence low-quality, they found positive treatment effects for “pain, nausea and vomiting, appetite, sleep, fatigue, chemosensory perception and paraneoplastic night sweats in patients with cancer, appetite and agitation in patients with dementia and appetite, nausea and vomiting in patients with AIDS”
Cannabis in palliative care: a systematic review of current evidence

2022: A review of using the endocannabinoid system for the chronic pain of Alzheimer's
Chronic pain in Alzheimer's disease: Endocannabinoid system

2022: Using the endocannabinoid system for the neural & psychological stress of Alzheimer's
Targeting the cannabinoid system to counteract the deleterious effects of stress in Alzheimer's disease

2022: A review of targeting the CB2 receptor for proteinopathies (prevalent neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s)
Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors in Neurodegenerative Proteinopathies: New Insights and Therapeutic Potential

2022: For Alzheimer’s, a review of the advantages of using multiple cannabinoids for treatment
Therapeutic properties of multi-cannabinoid treatment strategies for Alzheimer's disease

2022: An overview of the studies on using CBD to treat Alzheimer’s disease
Cannabidiol in the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer’s disease – a comprehensive overview of in vitro and in vivo studies

2022: This review of Alzheimer’s disease looks at how the endocannabinoids system affects the microglial cells (immune cells of the brain)
Microglial Endocannabinoid Signalling in AD

2022: A review suggests exploring the cannabinoids & psychedelics for the symptoms of Alzheimer’s
Cannabinoids and Psychedelics for Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Alzheimer's: Addressing Disparities Through Clinical Trials

2022: A general review of the mechanisms of the ECS underlying its ability to help with neurodegenerative disorders
Endocannabinoid Modulation in Neurodegenerative Diseases: In Pursuit of Certainty

2022: A review of using cannabinoids for treating dementia
Cannabinoids for the treatment of dementia: summary of a Cochrane review

2022: A chapter suggesting the use of cannabinoids for treating Huntington’s disease
Endocannabinoid System as a New Therapeutic Avenue for the Treatment of Huntington’s Disease

2022: A review of PEA for neurodegenerative disorders
Effects of Palmitoylethanolamide on Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Review from Rodents to Humans

2022: A review of how the brain’s oligodendrocytes (which synthesize the myelin sheaths around the axons) use the full range of endocannabinoid machinery & may be a target to promote remyelination for diseases like MS, ALS or Parkinson’s
Endocannabinoid signaling in oligodendroglia

2022: This review of 25 clinical studies of cannabinoids for neurodegenerative disorders finds that CBD helps with the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s & Huntington’s disease & that synthetic cannabinoids like dronabinol helped with the dementia of Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s & Huntington’s
Cannabinoids in the management of behavioral, psychological, and motor symptoms of neurocognitive disorders: a mixed studies systematic review

2022: A more general review of the mechanisms of the ECS underlying its ability to help with neurodegenerative disorders
Endocannabinoid Modulation in Neurodegenerative Diseases: In Pursuit of Certainty

2022: A review looking at targeting the CB2 receptor for neurodegenerative diseases

New Insights and Potential Therapeutic Targeting of CB2 Cannabinoid Receptors in CNS Disorders

2022: On the role of cannabis in neurology

Neurology - to be or not to be of the cannabis-based medicine?

2022: In neuroinflammation, a review of the importance of the ECS & the microglia (often called the guardian cells of the brain)

The Dynamic Role of Microglia and the Endocannabinoid System in Neuroinflammation

2021: This review looks at using PEA to treat cognitive dysfunction syndrome in pets (a model of Alzheimer’s)

Successful and Unsuccessful Brain Aging in Pets: Pathophysiological Mechanisms behind Clinical Signs and Potential Benefits from Palmitoylethanolamide Nutritional Intervention

2021: This review looks at CBD as a new fixture in pediatric neurology

Cannabidiol - A new fixture in childhood neurology

2021: This review looks at targeting the CB2 receptor for disorders of the central nervous system

The CB2 cannabinoid receptor as a therapeutic target in the central nervous system

2021: A review of how the endocannabinoids regulate synaptic plasticity

Mechanisms of endocannabinoid control of synaptic plasticity

2021: This review looks at how CB1 receptors regulate astrocytes (key players in the homeostasis of neurons)

CB1R-dependent regulation of astrocyte physiology and astrocyte-neuron interactions

2021: This review discusses CBD for a wide range of neurological disorders

Cannabidiol in Neurological and Neoplastic Diseases: Latest Developments on the Molecular Mechanism of Action

2021: A review of why the cannabinoids can be helpful for the neurological consequences of HIV

Confound, Cause, or Cure: The Effect of Cannabinoids on HIV-Associated Neurological Sequelae

2021: Large book chapter on 'Cannabinoids & Neuropsychiatric Disorders'

2021: A short review of CBD for neurological disorders

The Role of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders

2021: A review of the basics about the importance of the cannabinoids in neuropsychopharmacology & how our brains work

Cannabinoids: Emerging developments in neuropsychopharmacology and biological psychiatry

2020: A review of GW's data on CBD for two rare types of epilepsy

Cannabidiol for Adjuvant Treatment of Seizures Associated With Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome and Dravet Syndrome: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal

2020: A guide to treatment of epilepsy with CBD

Epilepsy and cannabidiol: a guide to treatment

2020: Why the ECS should be a target for the prevention of strokes

Endocannabinoids and Stroke Prevention: Review of Clinical Studies

2020: The ECS & sleep in aging

The Endocannabinoid System May Modulate Sleep Disorders in Aging


2020: CBD for concussions

Neuroprotection Following Concussion: The Potential Role for Cannabidiol

2020: A metareview of cannabis for Huntington's disease looks at 22 studies

Medical Marijuana Effects in Movement Disorders, Focus on Huntington Disease; A Literature Review

2020: A review of the mechanisms of what makes CBD so effective for various neurological diseases

Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Experimental Models of Neurological Disease

2020: This paper reviews how CB1 allosteric modulators (like CBD) have the potential for treating a wide range of brain diseases

CB1 allosteric modulators and their therapeutic potential in CNS disorders

2020: GABA & cannabinoids in the brain

Phytocannabinoids in Neurological Diseases: Could They Restore a Physiological GABAergic Transmission?

2020: CBD & brain disorders

The complexity of pharmacology of cannabidiol (CBD) and its implications in the treatment of brain disorders

2020: A review of CBD in treating neurological disorders

Current application of cannabidiol (CBD) in the management and treatment of neurological disorders

2020: A review of CBD and THC for mental and neurological disorders

Cannabidiol or CBD Oil: Help, Hope, and Hype for Psychiatric and Neurologic Conditions

2020: Di Marzo on cannabinoids & the ECS in neurological disorders

Cannabinoids and the expanded endocannabinoid system in neurological disorders

2020: A review of potential ECS drugs for the brain focusing on inhibitors of FAAH & MAGL

Potential application of endocannabinoid system agents in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases-focusing on FAAH/MAGL inhibitors

2020: A review of targeting the ECS for potential brain treatments

Targeting the endocannabinoid system: a predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine-directed approach to the management of brain pathologies

2020: A meta-review on activating CB2 receptors for neurological disorders

The impact of cannabinoid type 2 receptors (CB2Rs) in neuroprotection against neurological disorders

2020: CBD & proteinopathies

Emerging potential of cannabidiol in reversing proteinopathies

2020: A new meta-review finds cannabis & CBD helpful for the agitations of dementia

Use of Cannabis for Agitation in Patients With Dementia

2020: This meta-review looks at 47 animal studies to show the efficacy of modulating the endocannabinoid system for the treatment of brain injuries & neurodegeneration

The Treatment of Cognitive, Behavioural and Motor Impairments from Brain Injury and Neurodegenerative Diseases through Cannabinoid System Modulation—Evidence from In Vivo Studies

2020: A review of CBD for proteinopathies - diseases of misfolded or aggregated proteins that include some of the important neurodegenerative disorders

Roles of Cannabidiol in Reversing Proteinopathies

2020: Cannabinoids for neurodegenerative disorders

From Cannabis sativa to Cannabidiol: Promising Therapeutic Candidate for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases

2020: The ECS & CBD for Parkinson’s & Alzheimer’s

Current Aspects of the Endocannabinoid System and Targeted THC and CBD Phytocannabinoids as Potential Therapeutics for Parkinson's and Alzheimer's Diseases: a Review

2019: Maccarrone’s review of cannabinoids for neurological disorders

Safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of action of cannabinoids in neurological disorders

2019: CBD for brain injuries in sports

Cannabidiol (CBD) in the Management of Sports-Related Traumatic Brain Injury: Research and Efficacy

2019: A review of the ECS & strokes

The endocannabinoid system and stroke: A focused review

2019: A review of cannabinoids for Tourette Syndrome

The Potential of Cannabinoid-Based Treatments in Tourette Syndrome

2019: A review on using the cannabinoid system and the vanilloid system for treating epilepsy

Exploiting cannabinoid and vanilloid mechanisms for epilepsy treatment

2018: metareview finds more help from CBD extracts than isolated CBD - 11 references covering 670 patients

Potential Clinical Benefits of CBD-Rich Cannabis Extracts Over Purified CBD in Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy: Observational Data Meta-analysis

(correction of a table:

2018: ECS & neuroprotection

Neuroprotection in Oxidative Stress-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases: Role of Endocannabinoid System Modulation

2018: Cannabinoids & CNS disorders

Cannabinoid pharmacology/therapeutics in chronic degenerative disorders affecting the central nervous system

2017: The CB2 receptors & neurodegenerative disorders

Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Signaling in Neurodegenerative Disorders: From Pathogenesis to a Promising Therapeutic Target

2017: This discussion suggests CBD as a therapeutic candidate for stroke prevention

Translating Endocannabinoid Biology into Clinical Practice: Cannabidiol for Stroke Prevention

2017: Endocannabinoids & TBI

Endocannabinoids: A Promising Impact for Traumatic Brain Injury

2017: the ECS for concussions – strong CBD section

Understanding the endocannabinoid system as a modulator of the trigeminal pain response to concussion

2017: CBD and neurological disorders

Neurological Aspects of Medical Use of Cannabidiol

2015: Molecular targets of CBD in the brain

Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders

2015: Di Marzo review on the ECS and the aging brain

Endocannabinoid signalling and the deteriorating brain

2012: a classic review on the ECS and the aging brain

The endocannabinoid system in normal and pathological brain ageing

2011: Mechoulam on endocannabinoids & TBIs

Endocannabinoids and traumatic brain injury

2010: Review of CBD for stroke & as a cerebroprotective

Therapeutic potential of non-psychotropic cannabidiol in ischemic stroke

Chart Gallery

Timeline of Research

2022: This company is looking to use a combination of PEA & honokiol for treating pain as well as neurodegenerative diseases

Chronic pain : two tested natural compounds may break pain cycle : could they be useful in neurodegenerative disease?

2022: In a rat model of stroke, cannabinoids improved a number of measures & protected the brain

Effect of cannabinoids in global cerebral Ischemia in vivo

2022: In a mouse model of stroke, pretreatment with CBD lessened oxidative stress & cell death

Antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects of cannabidiol in model of ischemic stroke in rats

2022: An article on the use of cannabis for the concussions of sports

Actually, Say Yes to Dope: A Much-Maligned Drug May be the Key to Saving the Brain from Concussions

2022: In a rat model of stroke, the ability of acetaminophen (aka paracetamol) to protect the brain seems to be mediated by the endocannabinoid system

Role of PI3K/Akt axis in mitigating hippocampal ischemia-reperfusion injury via CB1 receptor stimulation by paracetamol and FAAH inhibitor in rat

2022: In a mouse model of memory, the ability of certain serotonin receptors to regulate spatial memory is dependent on a pathway using CB1 & GABA

5-HT3A receptors maintain hippocampal LTP in a CB1 and GABAA receptor- dependent manner for spatial memory

2022: More on how the CB1 receptor modulates synaptic plasticity

SGIP1 modulates kinetics and interactions of the cannabinoid receptor 1 and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 3 signalosome

2022: In a mouse model of Down’s syndrome, the CB1 levels are upregulated on the GABA neurons (the inhibitory neurotransmitter) & downregulated on the glutamate neurons (the excitatory neurotransmitter)

Differential expression of the neuronal CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the hippocampus of male Ts65Dn Down syndrome mouse model

2022: In mouse neurons, a look at how the newly discovered cannaflavins might be producing their anti-inflammatory effects

Interference of Neuronal TrkB Signaling by the Cannabis-Derived Flavonoids Cannflavins A and B

2022: In mice who are suckling, adding extra oleamide to the milk increases hippocampus growth & neuronal plasticity

Neonatal Supplementation of Oleamide During Suckling Promotes Learning Ability and Memory in Adolescent Mice

2022: In slices from the hippocampus of rats, THC – but not CBD – changed the shape of the neurons & astrocytes

Neuronal and Astrocytic Morphological Alterations Driven by Prolonged Exposure with Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol but Not Cannabidiol

2022: In tadpoles, the CB1 receptor regulates the growth of the neurons of the eyes

Cannabinoid 1 Receptor CBIR regulates growth cone filopodia and axon dispersion in the optic tract of Xenopus laevis tadpoles

2022: In mice, the enzyme DAGla (which produces 2-AG) is found to regulate adult neurogenesis (growth of new brain cells)

Regulation of adult neurogenesis by the endocannabinoid-producing enzyme diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGLa)

2022: In obese mice, PEA lessened neuroinflammation as well as anxious behavior

Palmitoylethanolamide dampens neuroinflammation and anxiety-like behavior in obese mice

2022: On treating neuroinflammation via targeting of the CB2 receptor

CB2 receptor activation inhibits the phagocytic function of microglia through activating ERK/AKT-Nurr1 signal pathways

2022: This look at the CB2 receptors of parrots finds that they help with neuroinflammation (as well as intriguing backstory on the evolution)

Revealing genomic changes responsible for cannabinoid receptor loss in parrots: mechanism and functional effects

2021: A case report of cannabis improving stuttering
Cannabis Improves Stuttering: Case Report and Interview with the Patient

2021: A drug combining CBD with a derivative of a malaria drug helped to reduce neuroinflammation & protect the microglia (guardian immune cells of the brain)
Cannabidiol-dihydroartemisinin conjugates for ameliorating neuroinflammation with reduced cytotoxicity

2021: In a cellular model of Alzheimer’s disease, 9 non-psychoactive cannabinoids that helped to protect the neurons, lower inflammation, reduce oxidative damage & increase balance to the proteins & mitochondria (powerhouse of the cell)
Efficacy of non-psychoactive phytocannabinoids in a novel phenotypic drug-screening platform for old age-associated neurodegeneration

2021: In a cellular model of Parkinson’s disease, THC protected the dopamine producing neurons by antioxidant effects, decreasing cell death & protecting the mitochondria (powerhouse of the cell)
Neuroprotective Effects of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol against FeSO4- and H2O2-Induced Cell Damage on Dopaminergic Neurons in Primary Mesencephalic Cell Culture

2021: In a rat model of Parkinson’s, cannabis improved their motor control via an increase in synaptic plasticity
Marijuana improved motor impairments and changes in synaptic plasticity-related molecules in the striatum in 6-OHDA-treated rats

2021: In mice with no CB2 receptor, they had an impaired social memory

Cannabinoid receptor 2 deletion influences social memory and synaptic architecture in the hippocampus

2021: The CB2 receptor is a key pathway to control homeostasis of our brain’s microglia (immune cells that respond to potential threats)

Cannabinoid receptor 2 is necessary to induce toll-like receptor-mediated microglial activation

2021: In healthy young humans, this randomized clinical trial showed that CBD enhanced their verbal episodic memory

Cannabidiol enhances verbal episodic memory in healthy young participants: A randomized clinical trial

2021: In a rodent model of depression, CBD prevented “both behavioral & neuro-immunological changes associated” with depression as well as modulating neuroinflammation

Cannabidiol prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced sickness behavior and alters cytokine and neurotrophic factor levels in the brain

2021: In the mouse brain, THC promotes remyelination

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol promotes functional remyelination in the mouse brain

2021: In neurons, activating the endocannabinoid system protected from the damage of the potent neuroexcitatory amino acid kainic acid

Kainate-Induced Degeneration of Hippocampal Neurons. Protective Effect of Activation of the Endocannabinoid System


2021: Former football player Steve Gleason, who has ALS, testified to Louisiana lawmakers about how medical marijuana saved him from a “downward spiral” of side effects from prescription medications

​2021: In mice disoriented by an anesthetic, activating the CB2 receptor protects their brain & behavior via changes in hippocampal neuroinflammation, neurogenesis & neuroplasticity

Cannabinoid receptor 2 deficiency enhances isoflurane-induced spatial cognitive impairment in adult mice by affecting neuroinflammation, neurogenesis and neuroplasticity

2021: Research in mice shows 2-AG to be the endocannabinoid neurotransmitter most associated with the control of neurotransmitter release & neuronal signaling

In vivo endocannabinoid dynamics at the timescale of physiological and pathological neural activity

2021: In brain slices from rats, the ECS helps to regulate synaptic plasticity via the PPARs (nuclear receptors that control the regulation of genetic transcription)

Tonic Endocannabinoid Signaling Gates Synaptic Plasticity in Dorsal Raphe Nucleus Serotonin Neurons Through Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

2021: In mice, the brain’s medium spiny neurons – which contain the highest levels of CB1 receptors in the CNS – control exploration & motor coordination partially via the ECS

Control of exploration, motor coordination and amphetamine sensitization by cannabinoid CB 1 receptors expressed in medium spiny neurons

2021: In brain tissue, CB1 receptors on the mitochondria (the powerhouse of the cell) regulates the calcium signaling of the brain’s astrocytes

ER-mitochondria contacts underline cannabinoid regulation of calcium signaling in astrocytes

2021: In mice disoriented by an anesthetic, activating the CB2 receptor protects their brain & behavior via changes in hippocampal neuroinflammation, neurogenesis & neuroplasticity

Cannabinoid receptor 2 deficiency enhances isoflurane-induced spatial cognitive impairment in adult mice by affecting neuroinflammation, neurogenesis and neuroplasticity

2021: In a mouse model of stroke, CBG & CBDV protective of the blood-brain barrier

Protective Effects of Cannabidivarin and Cannabigerol on Cells of the Blood-Brain Barrier Under Ischemic Conditions

2021: In a rat model of stroke (cerebral ischemia), CBD helped them to remember how to navigate a maze, increased their brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNFs, a key molecule for brain growth) & protected their hippocampus (memory center of the brain)

Cannabidiol confers neuroprotection in rats in a model of transient global cerebral ischemia: impact of hippocampal synaptic neuroplasticity

2021: In a mouse model of stroke, combining CBD & beta-caryophyllene helped to protect from neuroinflammation & improved immune system response

Effects of Cannabidiol and Beta-Caryophyllene Alone or in Combination in a Mouse Model of Permanent Ischemia

2021: In rats with traumatic brain injuries, activation of the CB2 receptor protects against the loss of white matter

Selective Activation of Cannabinoid Receptor-2 Reduces White Matter Injury via Perk Signaling in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury

2021: In mice with traumatic brain injuries, THC promoted recovery via various brain growth factors such as BDNF & GDNF

Recovery from Traumatic Brain Injury Following Treatment with Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Is Associated with Increased Expression of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor and Other Neurotrophic Factors

2021: In rats with spinal cord injuries, PEA alleviated the injury, inhibited inflammation, mitigated oxidative stress, reduced cell death & promoted motor function recovery

PPARα agonist relieves spinal cord injury in rats by activating Nrf2/HO-1 via the Raf-1/MEK/ERK pathway

2020: In patients with Parkinson’s disease, nabilone (a synthetic pharmaceutical THC derivative) helped with anxiety & sleep problems
Non-Motor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease are Reduced by Nabilone

2020: PEA for neurological disorders

Food supplements based on palmitoylethanolamide plus hydroxytyrosol from olive tree or Bacopa monnieri extracts for neurological diseases

2020: In a mouse model of Rett syndrome (a rare neurological genetic disorder), CBDA helped with pain, stress, & nausea

Chronic Treatment with Cannabidiolic Acid (CBDA) Reduces Thermal Pain Sensitivity in Male Mice and Rescues the Hyperalgesia in a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome

2020: In this pilot double-blind study of using CBD for children with intellectual disabilities, they found that families & their children adhered to the study well and that "there was an efficacy signal in favour of active drug"

A Pilot Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial of Cannabidiol to Reduce Severe Behavioural Problems in Children and Adolescents With Intellectual Disability

2020: GW releases another paper showing transdermal CBD gels helped in children with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (rare neurodevelopmental disorders)

Quality of Life and Qualitative Caregiver Assessments in Children and Adolescents with Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathies Treated with Cannabidiol Transdermal Gel: An Open-label Clinical Trial


2020: in mice with TBI, how CB2 helps recovery

Role of CB2 Receptor in the Recovery of Mice after Traumatic Brain Injury

2020: In mice with bone cancer pain, activation of the CB2 receptor lowered pain & improved the functioning of the blood-spinal cord barrier

Spinal cannabinoid receptor 2 activation reduces hypersensitivity associated with bone cancer pain and improves the integrity of the blood–spinal cord barrier

2020: In mice with nerve injuries, their CB1 levels raise in a certain part of their cortex & the activation of those CB1 receptors causes pain relief

Activation of CB1 receptors on GABAergic interneurons in the ventrolateral orbital cortex induces analgesia

2020: In rats, nerve injuries upregulate glutamate receptors & CB1 receptors

Disability-Specific Genes NR1, NMDA-2D and CB1 Show Injury-Dependent Protein Expression in the Lumbar Spinal Cord of CCI Rats

2020: In rats with spinal cord injuries, activation of the CB2 receptor lowered the neurological damage & helped to mitigate disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier

Exogenous activation of cannabinoid-2 receptor modulates TLR4/MMP9 expression in a spinal cord ischemia reperfusion rat model

2020: In rats with nerve damage, this paper elucidates the epigenetic control of CB receptors in response - nerve injury seems to lower CB1 levels & raise CB2 levels

Histone methyltransferase G9a diminishes expression of cannabinoid CB 1 receptors in primary sensory neurons in neuropathic pain

2020: In humans with stroke, elevated levels of 2-AG were found in their blood

The Endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) Is Elevated In Acute Ischemic Stroke

2020: In mice with epilepsy, treatment with CBD caused longer survival & improved co-morbidities

Cannabidiol improves survival and behavioural co-morbidities of Dravet syndrome in mice

2020: In mouse model of Lafora disease (progressive infantile epilepsy), CBD-rich extracts helped with the dementia but not the seizures

Cannabidiol-Enriched Extract Reduced the Cognitive Impairment but Not the Epileptic Seizures in a Lafora Disease Animal Model

2020: Epilepsy patients vastly prefer natural CBD over synthetic CBD

Plant Derived Versus Synthetic Cannabidiol: Wishes and Commitment of Epilepsy Patients

2020: In a multicenter study in Georgia, children with treatment-resistant epilepsy who did not qualify for the Epidiolex trials were given CBD in an expanded access program & the data showed that it was helpful & well-tolerated

Long-term safety and efficacy of cannabidiol in children and adults with treatment resistant Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or Dravet syndrome: Expanded access program results

2020: A study of 607 epilepsy patients at 25 centers found CBD effective & well-tolerated

Long‐term safety and treatment effects of cannabidiol in children and adults with treatment‐resistant epilepsies: Expanded access program results

2020: Patients with epilepsy experience problems with their working memory & this clinical study showed that CBD did not cause those problems to worsen & that it stimulated the brain regions related to working memory

Effects of highly purified cannabidiol (CBD) on fMRI of working memory in treatment-resistant epilepsy

2020: In using CBD for epilepsy, this intriguing study looks at the dynamics of a brain's network to predict their responsiveness to CBD

Global brain network dynamics predict therapeutic responsiveness to cannabidiol treatment for refractory epilepsy

2020: In mouse models of febrile seizure (a seizure, common in children, caused by a spike in body temperature), CBD lessened the chance of seizure via glutamate & AMPA receptors, reducing the excitability of the neurons in the hippocampus

Cannabidiol inhibits febrile seizure by modulating AMPA receptor kinetics through its interaction with the N-terminal domain of GluA1/GluA2

2020: In epilepsy, the brain's resting-state functional connectivity is often dysfunctional and in this study of 27 patients, CBD helped to normalize it

Cannabidiol normalizes resting-state functional connectivity in treatment-resistant epilepsy

2020: In a one-year study following 38 young people with epilepsy using high doses of CBD, they found no negative effects on cognition or adaptive function

Cognitive function and adaptive skills after a one-year trial of cannabidiol (CBD) in a pediatric sample with treatment-resistant epilepsy

2020: This study of 72 patients with epilepsy found that about 25% of them needed to increase their dose of CBD after some months

Cannabidiol-enriched oil in children and adults with treatment-resistant epilepsy-does tolerance exist?

2020: In mice, CBD seems to cause its strong anticonvulsant effect via the PI3Kγ pathway

Cannabidiol anticonvulsant effect is mediated by the PI3Kγ pathway

2020: In 3 patients with rare epilepsies, adding CBD significantly decreased their seizures

Add‐on cannabidiol significantly decreases seizures in 3 patients with SYNGAP1 developmental and epileptic encephalopathy

2020: In cells, CBD helps to inhibit the overactive sodium channels that cause problems in epilepsy

Differential Inhibition of Human Nav1.2 Resurgent and Persistent Sodium Currents by Cannabidiol and GS967

2020: In a review of the rare childhood epilepsy KCNT-1, the best therapies seemed to be CBD, diet therapy and the dug quinidine

KCNT1-related epilepsy: An international multicenter cohort of 27 pediatric cases

2020: In a study of 9 patients with refractory childhood-onset epileptic spasms (ES), isolated CBD found to be effective and safe

Cannabidiol in treatment of refractory epileptic spasms: An open-label study

2020: From GW Pharma study of dose effects, they found that for children with Dravet's, 10 mg/kg/day is as effective and better tolerated than 20 mg/kg/day

Dose-Ranging Effect of Adjunctive Oral Cannabidiol vs Placebo on Convulsive Seizure Frequency in Dravet Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial

2020: CBD helps mice with Dravet syndrome

Cannabidiol improves survival and behavioural co‐morbidities of Dravet syndrome in mice

2020: In rare type of infant epilepsy, CBD a helpful addition for their seizures (3 patients in an open-label, prospective, interventional study)

Response to cannabidiol in epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures associated with KCNT1 mutations: An open-label, prospective, interventional study

2020: The anti-seizure properties of CBD seem dependent on TRPV1

Anticonvulsive Properties of Cannabidiol in a Model of Generalized Seizure Are Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Dependent

2020: CBD helpful in refractory epilepsy (47 patients in an open-label study)

Efficacy of cannabidiol in subjects with refractory epilepsy relative to concomitant use of clobazam

2020: Zynerba's poster on using transdermal CBD for treating Fragile X Syndrome

Post Hoc Analysis—An Open-Label Study of Transdermal Cannabidiol (ZYN002) for the Treatment of Fragile X Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: Estimating Health State Utility Scores

2020: In humans with Tourette’s, in their spinal fluid they had increased levels of AEA, PEA, 2-AG, AA - with 2-AG correlating to severity of ADHD symptoms

Cerebrospinal fluid endocannabinoid levels in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

2020: Genome association study found that a variant of CB1 is a risk factor for Tourette’s (541 participants)

Association of a Variant of CNR1 Gene Encoding Cannabinoid Receptor 1 With Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

2017: in several models of seizures, CBD suggested to be helpful

Evaluation of Cannabidiol in Animal Seizure Models by the Epilepsy Therapy Screening Program (ETSP)

2017: significant changes seen to the serum levels of common antiepileptic drugs – stresses importance of monitoring serum drug levels

Interactions between cannabidiol and commonly used antiepileptic drugs

2017: In 3 case studies of epilepsy related to brain tumors, all 3 saw improvements

The use of cannabidiol for seizure management in patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy

2017: In mouse model of Dravet, CBD helped with the seizures and autistic behaviors

Cannabidiol attenuates seizures and social deficits in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome

2017: GW trial of CBD for Dravet Syndrome

Trial of Cannabidiol for Drug-Resistant Seizures in the Dravet Syndrome.

2017: In children with FIRES, open-label case series shows CBD as a potential treatment

Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES) in the Acute and Chronic Phases

2017: in neurons, CBD protected from the damage of oxygen deprivation

Cannabidiol attenuates OGD/R-induced damage by enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetics and modulating glucose metabolism via pentose-phosphate pathway in hippocampal neurons

2017: In a mouse with traumatic brain injury, PEA protected the brain

Palmitoylethanolamide Reduces Neuropsychiatric Behaviors by Restoring Cortical Electrophysiological Activity in a Mouse Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

2016: In piglets with ischemia, CBD & hypothermia combined well to protect the brain

Effects of Cannabidiol and Hypothermia on Short-Term Brain Damage in New-Born Piglets after Acute Hypoxia-Ischemia

2016: In mice, CBD protected from the damages of brain ischemia via an increase of BDNF, neurogenesis & dendritic restructuring

Cannabidiol reduces neuroinflammation and promotes neuroplasticity and functional recovery after brain ischemia

2016: GW trial of CBD across 11 epilepsy centers – 162 patients – reduction in seizure frequency – three most common side effects were tiredness, decreased appetite & diarrhea

Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial


2016: In epilepsy model, CBD promotes neuroprotection via autophagy

Cannabidiol Post-Treatment Alleviates Rat Epileptic-Related Behaviors and Activates Hippocampal Cell Autophagy Pathway Along with Antioxidant Defense in Chronic Phase of Pilocarpine-Induced Seizure

2016: In tissue culture, CBD altered sodium channel activity

Aberrant epilepsy-associated mutant Nav1.6 sodium channel activity can be targeted with cannabidiol

2016: In humans with Huntington’s disease, Sativex found to be safe but didn’t change symptoms (24 patients in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled, pilot trial)

A double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled, pilot trial with Sativex in Huntington's disease

2015: A case report of a 10 month old with severe seizure helped by CBD

Pure cannabidiol in the treatment of malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy: a case report

2015: In a survey of 117 parents of children with epilepsy, CBD-rich extracts saw “eighty-five percent of all parents reported a reduction in seizure frequency, and 14% reported complete seizure freedom”

Perceived efficacy of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis extracts for treatment of pediatric epilepsy: A potential role for infantile spasms and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome

2015: CBD seems to raise clobazam in children with epilepsy but with monitoring, it seems like a safe and effective treatment

Drug-drug interaction between clobazam and cannabidiol in children with refractory epilepsy

2015: CBD rescues the brain in mouse cerebral malaria – suggests protection via upregulation of BDNF in the hippocampus and decreasing TNFα & IL1-6

Cannabidiol increases survival and promotes rescue of cognitive function in a murine model of cerebral malaria

2015: MAGL inhibition helps mice with TBI

Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase prevents chronic traumatic encephalopathy-like neuropathology in a mouse model of repetitive mild closed head injury

2014: in humans, TBI mortality down in patients using THC

Effect of marijuana use on outcomes in traumatic brain injury

2014: in mice subjected to brain ischemia, CBD protective of hippocampus

Protective effects of cannabidiol against hippocampal cell death and cognitive impairment induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion in mice (PDF)

2014: in mice with induced spinal disc injury, CBD decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines associated with T-cell differentiation and invasion – most helpful for regaining thermal sensitivity

Protective effects of cannabidiol on lesion-induced intervertebral disc degeneration

2014: CBD may help epilepsy via the TRPV1

Nonpsychotropic plant cannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and cannabidiol (CBD), activate and desensitize transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels in vitro: potential for the treatment of neuronal hyperexcitability

2013: In mouse and rat model of epilepsy, CBDV rich extracts caused a significant reduction in seizures – but not via CB1

Cannabidivarin-rich cannabis extracts are anticonvulsant in mouse and rat via a CB1 receptor-independent mechanism

2013: In a survey, reports from parents on treatment with high CBD cannabis for epilepsy

Report of a parent survey of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis use in pediatric treatment-resistant epilepsy

2013: in rats, when a nerve is severed, CBD protects and it reduces the reaction of the glial cells

Neuroprotection and reduction of glial reaction by cannabidiol treatment after sciatic nerve transection in neonatal rats

2013: in baby pigs, brain damage from lack of oxygen lessened by CBD via CB2 receptor and serotonergic 5-HT1A receptor (may be forming heteromers)

Mechanisms of cannabidiol neuroprotection in hypoxic-ischemic newborn pigs: role of 5HT(1A) and CB2 receptors

2012: CBD works in rodent models of seizure

Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures

2012: in rats, CBD protected them during induced spinal injuries

Cannabidiol-treated Rats Exhibited Higher Motor Score After Cryogenic Spinal Cord Injury

2012: In rats with ischemia, CBD protected the brain

Cannabidiol administration after hypoxia-ischemia to newborn rats reduces long-term brain injury and restores neurobehavioral function

2012: In a rat model of Huntington’s disease, Sativex appears helpful for HD and CB1 & CB2 receptors may be involved

Sativex-like combination of phytocannabinoids is neuroprotective in malonate-lesioned rats, an inflammatory model of Huntington's disease: role of CB1 and CB2 receptors

2012: In a mouse model of Huntington’s disease, CB1 agonism and how CB1 levels are reduced in GABA neurons but not glutamate

Unbalance of CB1 receptors expressed in GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease

2011: In a rat model of Huntington’s disease, brain scans show early regional dysfunctions in endocannabinoid signaling – CB1 measurements may be useful early biomarker

Metabolic and type 1 cannabinoid receptor imaging of a transgenic rat model in the early phase of Huntington disease

2011: in rat model of Huntington’s disease, CBD and THC found neuroprotective

Neuroprotective effects of phytocannabinoid-based medicines in experimental models of Huntington's disease

2011: In mouse model of Huntington’s disease, CB1 loss in brain is a key factor

Loss of striatal type 1 cannabinoid receptors is a key pathogenic factor in Huntington's disease

2011: in pigs, CBD protected the brain from ischemia

Cannabidiol reduces brain damage and improves functional recovery after acute hypoxia-ischemia in newborn pigs

2011: in mice, the damage from a model of liver failure is lessened by CBD

Cannabidiol improves brain and liver function in a fulminant hepatic failure-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy in mice

2010: in mice, CBD protects the brain from damage when the bile duct is cut (BDL) via serotonergic 5-HT1A receptor

Cannabidiol ameliorates cognitive and motor impairments in bile-duct ligated mice via 5-HT1A receptor activation

2010: in mice, CBD protects from hypoxic brain damage via CB2 & adenosine receptors

The neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol in an in vitro model of newborn hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in mice is mediated by CB(2) and adenosine receptors

2010: Efficacy of CBD against seizures in animals and cell culture models

Cannabidiol displays antiepileptiform and antiseizure properties in vitro and in vivo’

2010: In cell culture, CB1 agonism suggested as therapeutic target for Huntington’s disease

Neuroprotective potential of CB1 receptor agonists in an in vitro model of Huntington's disease

2010: In humans with Huntington’s disease, scans show large widespread reduction of CB1 levels

Widespread decrease of type 1 cannabinoid receptor availability in Huntington disease in vivo

2009: In humans with Huntington’s disease, nabilone helpful for symptoms (44 patients in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over)

A pilot study using nabilone for symptomatic treatment in Huntington's disease

2009: In a rat model of Huntington’s disease, CB2 agonists helpful

Cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonists protect the striatum against malonate toxicity: relevance for Huntington's disease

2009: In a mouse model of Huntington’s disease, CB2 receptors on the microglia are protective

Microglial CB2 cannabinoid receptors are neuroprotective in Huntington's disease excitotoxicity.

2009: In mouse model of Huntington’s disease, loss of CB1 precedes the onset of symptoms

Altered CB1 receptor and endocannabinoid levels precede motor symptom onset in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease

2009: In humans with Huntington’s disease, changes in the CB1 and GABA receptors

Cannabinoid (CB(1)), GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor subunit changes in the globus pallidus in Huntington's disease

2009: AEA is low in patients who just developed temporal lobe epilepsy – possible dysregulation involved in its pathogenesis

Cerebrospinal fluid levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide are reduced in patients with untreated newly diagnosed temporal lobe epilepsy

2008: in pig brains deprived of oxygen, CBD cuts damaging effects by 50%

Neuroprotective Effects of the Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid Cannabidiol in Hypoxic-Ischemic Newborn Piglets

2007: In mice with ischemia, CBD protects the brain without developing tolerance

Repeated treatment with cannabidiol but not Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol has a neuroprotective effect without the development of tolerance

2007: In a rat model of Huntington’s disease, CBD reduced brain atrophy – increased superoxide dismutase (antioxidant) machinery

Cannabidiol reduced the striatal atrophy caused 3-nitropropionic acid in vivo by mechanisms independent of the activation of cannabinoid, vanilloid TRPV1 and adenosine A2A receptors

2006: In a case report, nabilone helpful for symptoms of Huntington’s disease

Nabilone could treat chorea and irritability in Huntington's disease

2006: in dopamine neurons, the ECS protects them during ischemia

Protective activation of the endocannabinoid system during ischemia in dopamine neurons

2005: in mice, neuroprotective effect of CBD may be related to increase of cerebral flood flow via serotonergic 5-HT1A receptor

Cannabidiol prevents cerebral infarction via a serotonergic 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptor-dependent mechanism

2004: in rats, ischemia causes AEA levels to rise and blockage of the CB1 receptor is protective

Anandamide content is increased and CB1 cannabinoid receptor blockade is protective during transient, focal cerebral ischemia

2004: in mice, a CB1 blocker stopped the neuroprotection of THC but not CBD

Cannabidiol prevents infarction via the non-CB1 cannabinoid receptor mechanism

2003: in gerbils, CBD protected against ischemia

Post-ischemic treatment with cannabidiol prevents electroencephalographic flattening, hyperlocomotion and neuronal injury in gerbils

2003: in mice, PEA potentiates the ability of AEA to induce microglia migration – not mediated by CB1 or CB2

Palmitoylethanolamide increases after focal cerebral ischemia and potentiates microglial cell motility

2003: In a rat model of Huntington’s disease, CB1 agonists protect against excitotoxicity

Effects of cannabinoids in the rat model of Huntington's disease generated by an intrastriatal injection of malonate

2003: In humans with Tourette syndrome, double-blind study finds THC safe and effective for treatment of tics

Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial

2003: In humans with Tourette syndrome, a double blind placebo study found THC caused no negative cognitive defects

Treatment of Tourette syndrome with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC): no influence on neuropsychological performance

2003: In humans, cannabis reduced the symptoms of Tourette’s (12 patients in a  single-dose, cross-over study & 24 patients in a 6-week, randomised trial)

Cannabinoids reduce symptoms of Tourette's syndrome

2002: In humans with Tourette syndrome, no neurocognitive deficits from THC use

Combined Treatment of Tourette Syndrome with ∆9-THC and Dopamine Receptor Antagonists

2002: In a rat model of Huntington’s disease, loss of CB1 may be linked to pathology

Loss of mRNA levels, binding and activation of GTP-binding proteins for cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the basal ganglia of a transgenic model of Huntington's disease

2002: in rats with no CB1 receptors, strokes are more damaging

Increased severity of stroke in CB1 cannabinoid receptor knock-out mice

2002: in a human after a stroke, levels of AEA, PEA & OEA rise

Release of fatty acid amides in a patient with hemispheric stroke: a microdialysis study

2001: in mice after brain injuries, 2AG levels rise and the injection of 2AG is protective

An endogenous cannabinoid (2-AG) is neuroprotective after brain injury

2000: In humans with Huntington’s disease, the pattern of neurodegeneration for different neurotransmitters

The pattern of neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease: a comparative study of cannabinoid, dopamine, adenosine and GABA(A) receptor alterations in the human basal ganglia in Huntington's disease

2000: in rats, AEA & 2AG protected the brain during ischemia via pathways independent of CB1 & CB2

Endocannabinoids protect cerebral cortical neurons from in vitro ischemia in rats

2000: in rats, the varying effects of THC neuroprotection in different parts of the brain

The effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on forebrain ischemia in rat

1998: In humans with Tourette’s syndrome, a survey of 64 patients found that many of them who used marijuana saw a reduction or complete remission of tics & OCD urges

Cannabinoids: possible role in patho-physiology and therapy of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

1997: In humans, a survey of Tourette’s patients found the majority saw relief from smoked marijuana

Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Effect of nicotine, alcohol and marihuana on clinical symptoms

1995: at death in animals, levels of anandamide levels begin to rise

Occurrence and postmortem generation of anandamide and other long-chain N-acylethanolamines in mammalian brain

1991: In 15 Huntington’s disease patients, CBD at 700 mg/day for 6 weeks was nontoxic but not effective for symptoms

Controlled clinical trial of cannabidiol in Huntington's disease

1987: early structure-function work on CBD analogs for convulsions

Structure-anticonvulsant activity relationships of cannabidiol analogs

1981: early evidence on lipid production during insult

On the biosynthesis and metabolism of N-acylethanolamine phospholipids in infarcted dog heart

1981: CBD analogs for epilepsy

Antiepileptic potential of cannabidiol analogs

1982: Early CBD seizure work in mice

Effects of cannabidiol on behavioral seizures caused by convulsant drugs or current in mice

1980: in human study, chronic administration of CBD was well tolerated & showed efficacy for epilepsy

Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients

1974: CBD & convulsions

Anticonvulsant properties of cannabidiol

2019: An online survey and retrospective analysis suggests cannabis medicines for the treatment of Tourette syndrome

Treatment of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome with Cannabis-Based Medicine: Results from a Retrospective Analysis and Online Survey

2019: A case series of 3 humans with Fragile X Syndrom using CBD + brief literature review

Treatment of Fragile X Syndrome with Cannabidiol: A Case Series Study and Brief Review of the Literature

2019: In pediatric humans with Fragile X Syndrome, transdermal CBD helped with anxiety & behavioral symptoms (20 children in an open-label, multi-site, trial of ZYN002)

A phase 1/2, open-label assessment of the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of transdermal cannabidiol (ZYN002) for the treatment of pediatric fragile X syndrome

2019: In mouse model of Fragile X syndrome, CBD reduced anxiety but not other behavioral abnormalities

Cannabidiol (CBD) reduces anxiety-related behavior in mice via an FMRP-independent mechanism

2019: A wideranging study in mice and rats found "CBD treatment improved seizures, motor  function and cognition without producing any adverse effect on gait" and "extended survivability."

Cannabidiol improves survivability, seizures and associated behavioural comorbidities in a range of animal models of epilepsy

2019: In microglia cells (immune cells of the brain), CBD altered their circadian rhythm while THC did not

Cannabidiol affects circadian clock core complex and its regulation in microglia cells


2019: In healthy humans, a drug interaction study of CBD and antiepileptic drugs (26 adults in a phase I, open-label, randomized, single-dose, 3-period crossover study)

A phase I, randomized, open-label, single-dose, 3-period crossover study to evaluate the drug-drug interaction between ZX008 (fenfluramine HCl oral solution) and a regimen of stiripentol, clobazam, and valproate in healthy subjects

2019: A drug interaction study of CBD and the epileptic drug Fenfluramine

A Phase 1, Single-Dose, Open-Label Pharmacokinetic Study to Investigate the Drug-Drug Interaction Potential of ZX008 (Fenfluramine HCl Oral Solution) and Cannabidiol

2019: In humans with epilepsy, CBD modulated attention control processing

fMRI study of cannabidiol-induced changes in attention control in treatment-resistant epilepsy

2019: In a patient with recurrent gliomas, CBD helped with her seizures

Potential role of cannabidiol for seizure control in a patient with recurrent glioma

2019: In infants with spasms, CBD was not particularly effective in highly refractory cases (9 in a multicenter phase-2 study)

Synthetic pharmaceutical grade cannabidiol for treatment of refractory infantile spasms: A multicenter phase-2 study

2019: In humans with epilepsy, synthetic CBD seems to work just as well as plant-derived CBD for severe epilepsy (35 patients in a prospective, open-label study)

Efficacy and Tolerance of Synthetic Cannabidiol for Treatment of Drug Resistant Epilepsy

2019: in mice, lowering CB2 receptor activity led to more seizures

Reduced cannabinoid 2 receptor activity increases susceptibility to induced seizures in mice

2019: In humans, a study found "no effect of CBD on gray matter volume and cortical thickness" (27 patients)

A preliminary study of the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on brain structure in patients with epilepsy

2019: In pediatric humans with epilepsy, CBD preparation was effective in reducing seizures (16 patients in a phase II, open-label, single-center study)

The safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of PTL-101, an oral cannabidiol formulation, in pediatric intractable epilepsy: A phase II, open-label, single-center study

2019: effect of food on CBD pharmacokinetics in epilepsy patients

Food effect on pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol oral capsules in adult patients with refractory epilepsy

2019: In humans with epilepsy, CBD found to be well tolerated for cognition

Cognitive functioning following long-term cannabidiol use in adults with treatment-resistant epilepsy

2019: In mice with epilepsy induced by a virus, CBD reduced frequency and severity of seizures but not overall seizure outcome

Cannabidiol reduces seizures following CNS infection with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus

2019: In pediatric humans with epilepsy, this study found CBD effective & safe (29 patients in a single-center, prospective, open-label study)

Purified Cannabidiol for Treatment of Refractory Epilepsies in Pediatric Patients with Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy

2019: In humans with pediatric epilepsy, CBD affected clobazam levels but overall was well-tolerated (61 patients in open-label study)

Pharmacokinetics and Tolerability of Multiple Doses of Pharmaceutical-Grade Synthetic Cannabidiol in Pediatric Patients with Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy

2019: In dogs with seizures, 12 weeks of CBD lessened seizures (26 dogs in randomized blinded controlled clinical trial)

Randomized blinded controlled clinical trial to assess the effect of oral cannabidiol administration in addition to conventional antiepileptic treatment on seizure frequency in dogs with intractable idiopathic epilepsy

2019: In humans with epilepsy, higher blood concentrations of CBD were associated with better seizure control (100 participants in an open-label single-center study)

Higher cannabidiol plasma levels are associated with better seizure response following treatment with a pharmaceutical grade cannabidiol

2019: In humans with epilepsy, CBD improved quality of life & mood (53 participants in open-label study)

Quality of life in adults enrolled in an open-label study of cannabidiol (CBD) for treatment-resistant epilepsy

2019: In three dogs with epilepsy, CBD helped two of them

Cannabidiol as a potential anti-epileptic dietary supplement in dogs with suspected epilepsy: three case reports

2019: In humans, GW looks at adverse events between CBD and the common anti epilepsy medications

A Phase 1, Open-Label, Pharmacokinetic Trial to Investigate Possible Drug-Drug Interactions Between Clobazam, Stiripentol, or Valproate and Cannabidiol in Healthy Subjects

2019: In humans, CBD showed long-term efficacy in the treatment of epilepsy due to Lenox-Gastaut syndrome

Cannabidiol in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: Interim analysis of an open-label extension study

2019: in 8 patients with 'neuronal ceroidlipofuscinoses' (a neurodegenerative disease caused by problems with lysosomal storage), CBD was found to be helpful and well-tolerated

Experiences with Cannabidiol in Patients with NCL Disease

2019: In this case study, a patient with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (a painful genetic disorder), CBD helped with mood and pain

Cannabidiol (CBD) for Treatment of Neurofibromatosis-related Pain and Concomitant Mood Disorder: A Case Report

2019: in mice with traumatic brain injury, CBD restored their behavioral alterations & partially normalized the neurochemical changes

Oral Cannabidiol Prevents Allodynia and Neurological Dysfunctions in a Mouse Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

2019: in mice with brain injuries, a FAAH inhibitor raised AEA levels, improved locomotion, learning & memory

Therapeutic Effect of a Novel Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitor PF04457845 in the Repetitive Closed Head Injury Mouse Model

2019: in newborn rats, CBD prevented the brain from damage due to lack of oxygen

Cannabidiol Administration Prevents Hypoxia-Ischemia-Induced Hypomyelination in Newborn Rats

2019: In piglets with ischemia, CBD worked alone and with hypothermia to protect the brain

Neuroprotection by cannabidiol and hypothermia in a piglet model of newborn hypoxic-ischemic brain damage

2019: in humans, a study finds "cannabis is used to reduce pain after [spinal cord injury] and enable increased community participation."

Using cannabis for pain management after spinal cord injury: a qualitative study

2018: in mice with spinal cord injuries, 10 weeks of CBD injections lowered inflammatory cytokines & decreased T-call invasion to injury – no effect on locomotionor bladder function – helped with thermal sensitivity

The non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) attenuates pro-inflammatory mediators, T cell infiltration, and thermal sensitivity following spinal cord injury in mice

2018: In animal models of stroke, CBD enhanced morphine’s analgesia, diminished seizures & protected

Cannabidiol enhances morphine antinociception, diminishes NMDA-mediated seizures and reduces stroke damage via the sigma 1 receptor

2018: In humans with epilepsy, CBD-rich extracts effective & safe (108 patients in a retrospective study)

Efficacy of artisanal preparations of cannabidiol for the treatment of epilepsy: Practical experiences in a tertiary medical center

2018: In model of temporal lobe epilepsy, CBD works via the hippocampus interneurons

Cannabidiol exerts antiepileptic effects by restoring hippocampal interneuron functions in a temporal lobe epilepsy model

2018: in humans with Lennox-Gastaut, a double-blind phase 3 trial saw CBD as efficacious and generally well-tolerated

Cannabidiol in patients with seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (GWPCARE4): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial

2018: in children with Dravet, CBD study on safety and pharmacokinetics

Randomized, dose-ranging safety trial of cannabidiol in Dravet syndrome.

2018: in humans with Lennox–Gastaut, CBD found to be effective addition to conventional medications for lessening drop seizures

Effect of Cannabidiol on Drop Seizures in the Lennox–Gastaut Syndrome

2018: in humans with severe childhood-onset epilepsy, CBD shows efficacy

Open-label use of highly purified CBD (Epidiolex®) in patients with CDKL5 deficiency disorder and Aicardi, Dup15q, and Doose syndromes

2018: In humans with treatment-resistant epilepsy, a review from 25 studies confirms the safety & efficacy of CBD (607 patients in safety dataset)

Long-term safety and treatment effects of cannabidiol in children and adults with treatment-resistant epilepsies: Expanded access program results


2023: In Alzheimer's disease, the ability of CBD to prevent the aging of the astrocytes (important immune/support cells of the brain) seems to be mediated by parkin (a protein used by the cell for recycling old components) as well as its ability to protect the mitochondria (powerhouse of the cell)
Parkin Mediates Cannabidiol Prevention of Amyloid-Beta-Induced Senescence in Human Astrocytes

2023: In a mouse model of cognitive decline & Alzheimer’s disease, PEA protected memory & lessened shrinking of the hippocampus (memory center of the brain)
Chronic administration of palmitoylethanolamide counteracts cognitive decline in Tg2576 Mice

2023: In a mouse model of nerve injury, a cannabis extract sped up muscle function recovery
Comparative evaluation of ethyl acetate and n-Hexane extracts of Cannabis sativa L. leaves for muscle function restoration after peripheral nerve lesion

2023: In a songbird model of developmental delays via brain trauma, CBD improved their singing ability & reduced inflammation & oxidative stress in the brain
Cannabidiol Inhibits Neuroinflammatory Responses and Circuit-Associated Synaptic Loss Following Damage to a Songbird Vocal Pre-motor Cortical-Like Region


2023: In a study of mast cells & astrocytes (2 key support cells of the brain), PEA delayed their tolerance to morphine
Ultramicronized N-Palmitoylethanolamine Regulates Mast Cell-Astrocyte Crosstalk: A New Potential Mechanism Underlying the Inhibition of Morphine Tolerance

2023: In astrocytes (key brain support cells), CBD lowered damage in a model of neurodegeneration via several pathways
Effect of Cannabidiol in LPS-induced toxicity in astrocytes: Possible role for cannabinoid type-1 receptors

2023: In a mouse model of toxic brain damage from HIV antiretrovirals, activating the CB2 receptor protects the brain, causes painkilling effects & reverses morphine tolerance
Peripheral sensory neuron CB2 cannabinoid receptors are necessary for both CB2-mediated antinociceptive efficacy and sparing of morphine tolerance in a mouse model of anti-retroviral toxic neuropathy

2022: In songbirds with brain damage, we already knew that CBD helped them to recovery their singing ability & then this research demonstrates that a low dose of THC helps the CBD to work better
Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Differentially Alters Cannabidiol Efficacy in Recovery of Phonology and Syntax Following Damage to a Songbird Cortical-Like Brain Region

2022: An array of techniques determines when the body breaks down CBG, the resulting metabolites are also active in our system & when applied to brain immune cells, they reduce inflammation
Metabolites of Cannabigerol (CBG) Generated by Human Cytochrome P450s are Bioactive

2022: In rats with a traumatic spinal cord injury, CBD lowered their oxidative stress, reduced their hypersensitivity & lessened pain levels
Cannabidiol attenuates hypersensitivity and oxidative stress after traumatic spinal cord injury in rats

2022: In a survey of caregivers for patients with Fragile X Syndrome (a genetic developmental disorder that causes intellectual disability), they reported that CBD improved symptoms with less side effects than traditional medications
Parent and Caregiver Perspectives towards Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Fragile X Syndrome

2022: In kids with Fragile X Syndrome (a genetic developmental disorder that causes intellectual disability), a pharmaceutical CBD gel helped with isolation, irritability, disruptive behaviors & social interactions in the subset with the relevant gene most silenced (most severe cases)
A randomized, controlled trial of ZYN002 cannabidiol transdermal gel in children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome (CONNECT-FX)

2022: In brain cells, the toxicity of the chemo treatment paclitaxel is lessened by PEA
Palmitoylethanolamide Mitigates Paclitaxel Toxicity in Primary Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

2022: In neurons of the striatum (a movement & reward center of the brain frequently damaged in neurodegenerative disorders), CBD protects them via lowering of stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (protein production site of the cell)
Cannabidiol Protects Striatal Neurons by Attenuating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

2022: In the brain cells responsible for creating the essential myelin sheaths around your neurons, the CB1 receptors are critical for their differentiation (maturation) & operation
Cannabinoid CB1 receptor expression in oligodendrocyte progenitors of the hippocampus revealed by the NG2-EYFP-knockin mouse

2022: For inhibiting phosphodiesterases (a drug class investigated for their use against neurodegeneration), computer simulations & assays showed CBD to be a promising option
Virtual screening and in vitro experiments highlight cannabidiol as a drug-like phosphodiesterase 9 inhibitor

2022: A tissue test of the antioxidative & neuroprotective properties of two cannabis extracts
Evaluation of two different Cannabis sativa L. extracts as antioxidant and neuroprotective agents

2022: In human brain cells, CBDA from hemp seeds altered the microRNAs that regulate gene expression related to important functions such as axon guidance, hippocampal signaling & neurotrophin signaling
Effect of Cannabidiolic Acid, N- Trans-Caffeoyltyramine and Cannabisin B from Hemp Seeds on microRNA Expression in Human Neural Cells

2022: In rats with loss of blood flow to their brains, CBD lowered cell death & protected against dysfunction of the mitochondria (powerhouse of the cell)
Mitofusin-2 mediates cannabidiol-induced neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia in rats

2022: In a mouse model of the loss of myelin (the sheaths around nerves that facilitate electrical signalling), activating their TRPV1 (a function of anandamide) increasing the functioning of the microglia (immune guardian cells of the brain)
Activation of TRPV1 receptor facilitates myelin repair following demyelination via the regulation of microglial function

2022: In a rat model of a heart attack causing blood loss to the brain, inhibiting the MGL enzyme (which breaks down 2-AG) was as effective as therapeutic hypothermia for fixing cerebral microcirculation, smaller brain swellings & protecting the blood brain barrier
The monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor, JZL184, has comparable effects to therapeutic hypothermia, attenuating global cerebral injury in a rat model of cardiac arrest

2022: In a rat model of methamphetamine abuse, CBD protected from the neurotoxicity via dopamine receptors
Cannabidiol prevents methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity by modulating dopamine receptor D1-mediated calcium-dependent phosphorylation of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2

2022: In the brains of rats, endocannabinoids play a role in their synaptic plasticity
Electrophysiological study of the interactive role of the cannabinoid breakdown inhibitors and L-type calcium channels on granular neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in rats

2022: In a patient with a genetic variant that causes epilepsy & neurodevelopmental problems, CBD helped to alter the voltage problems across their neurons
Cannabidiol counters the effects of a dominant-negative pathogenic Kv7.2 variant

2022: In a roundworm model of neurodegeneration, both THC & CBD oil helped to protect their neurons
Neuroprotective potential of Cannabis sativa-based oils in Caenorhabditis elegans

2022: The rare cannabinoid cannabinerol (CBNR) helps neuronal cells to differentiate
Cannabinerol and NSC-34 Transcriptomic Analysis: Is the Dose Who Makes Neuronal Differentiation?

2022: In certain brain regions of rats, CBD increases BDNF (a brain growth factor)
Single and Repeated Exposure to Cannabidiol Differently Modulate BDNF Expression and Signaling in the Cortico-Striatal Brain Network

2022: A study in former professional football players found that hemp extracts may help with cognitive performance & emotional processing
Automated Detection of Cognitive Performance and Resilience Changes in Former Professional American Football Players Following the Administration of a Hemp Extract

2022: In a computer simulation, the main cannabinoids seem to help with neurodegeneration via the alleviation of stress on the endoplasmic reticulum (the site of protein & lipid synthesis)
Promising Action of Cannabinoids on ER Stress-Mediated Neurodegeneration: An In Silico Investigation

2022: In human sodium channels (which help control electrical signals in epilepsy), CBD-rich hemp extracts inhibited the channel at much lower doses than isolated CBD
A nutraceutical product, extracted from Cannabis sativa, modulates voltage-gated sodium channel function

2022: In a mouse model of epilepsy, giving CBD extracts before inducing seizures caused the microglial cells (immune system guardians of the brain) to not move as much & not over accumulate in the hippocampus (memory center) causing a decrease in inflammation
Prophylactic Administration of Cannabidiol Reduces Microglial Inflammatory Response to Kainate-Induced Seizures and Neurogenesis

2022: In oligodendrocytes (creators of the myelin sheaths around the axons of neurons), the cannabinoids cause a range of actions including cell proliferation, migration, regulation of carbohydrate & lipid metabolism, control of mitochondrial function & differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells
Cannabinoids modulate proliferation, differentiation, and migration signaling pathways in oligodendrocytes

2022: This computer simulation study looked at the ability of THC, CBD, AEA & 2-AG to bind to the endoplasmic reticulum (final processing center for proteins) & how this helps to increase the breakdown of misfolded proteins
Promising action of cannabinoids on ER stress mediated neurodegeneration: An In Silico Investigation,forthcoming,40055.html

2022: In a model of brain damage from sepsis, activating the CB2 receptor prevented overactivation by the microglial cells (immune cells of the brain) & lowered neuronal pyroptosis (cell death from extreme inflammation)
Protective Effects of Cannabinoid Type 2 Receptor Against Microglia Overactivation and Neuronal Pyroptosis in Sepsis-Associated Encephalopathy

2022: In a model of neuroinflammation, a CBD & terpene enriched cannabis extract lowered pro-inflammatory cytokines via several pathways
Non-psychotropic Cannabis sativa L. phytocomplex modulates microglial inflammatory response through CB2 receptors-, endocannabinoids-, and NF-κB-mediated signaling

2022: In a mouse model of traumatic brain injury, the alterations to the endocannabinoid system exacerbates problems at the blood brain barrier & causes more neural deficits, suggesting cannabinoids as a treatment
Altered endocannabinoid metabolism compromises the brain-CSF barrier and exacerbates chronic deficits after traumatic brain injury in mice

2022: In traumatic brain injury, endocannabinoids help to control neuroinflammation via the MGL enzymes (that break down 2-AG) in the astrocytes (brain support cells)
Endocannabinoid control of neuroinflammation in traumatic brain injury by monoacylglycerol lipase in astrocytes

2022: In a model of traumatic brain injury, enhancing the endocannabinoid signaling of 2-AG promotes recovery of the astrocytes (important support cells of the neurons), greater resilience to injury, lessened neuropathology & protected from cognitive declines
Enhancing endocannabinoid signalling in astrocytes promotes recovery from traumatic brain injury

2022: In patients with traumatic brain injury, the use of THC before their injury led to no negative changes in outcome & was correlated to a decreased rate of hemorrhagic stroke
Thromboembolic Outcomes in Tetrahydrocannabinol-Positive Trauma Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury

2022: A look at how CBD promotes new brain cell growth via the Akt & Erk pathways & the CB1 receptor
Cannabidiol Promotes Neuronal Differentiation Using Akt and Erk Pathways Triggered by Cb1 Signaling

2022: In a neuronal model of blood loss to the brain, CBD caused its benefits via lowering the amount of CB2/serotonin heteromer complexes (two receptors joined together)
Regulation of Expression of Cannabinoid CB2 and Serotonin 5HT1A Receptor Complexes by Cannabinoids in Animal Models of Hypoxia and in Oxygen/Glucose-Deprived Neurons

2022: In a mouse model of stroke, CBD prevented neurological impairment, reduced neural deficits & protected against neurodegeneration
Cannabidiol Exerts a Neuroprotective and Glia-Balancing Effect in the Subacute Phase of Stroke

2022: In a model of intracerebral hemorrhage (bleeding in the brain – the second most common cause of stroke), PEA lowered neuroinflammation & improved motor function via the PPAR-α receptors (nuclear receptors that control genetic transcription) in microglial cells (the immune cells of the brain)

Palmitoylethanolamide ameliorates neuroinflammation via modulating PPAR-α to promote the functional outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage

2022: In a rat model of stroke, β-caryophyllene (a predominant terpene of cannabis) caused significant neuroprotection via regulation of ferroptosis (a type of cell death, only recently discovered, caused by the accumulation of iron)
β-Caryophyllene Suppresses Ferroptosis Induced by Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion via Activation of the NRF2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway in MCAO/R rats

2022: In a rat model of stroke, giving them beta-caryophyllene (a main terpene of cannabis) before the neural insult lowered neuroinflammation
Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Beta-Caryophyllene Mediated by the Involvement of TRPV1, BDNF and trkB in the Rat Cerebral Cortex after Hypoperfusion/Reperfusion

2022: In patients with MS, nabiximols (1:1 THC:CBD spray) reduced spasticity as well as a range of spasticity-associated symptoms
A real-world evidence study of nabiximols in multiple sclerosis patients with resistant spasticity: Analysis in relation to the newly described 'spasticity-plus syndrome'

2022: In French people using cannabis for multiple sclerosis, they report symptom improvements
Symptom improvements following therapeutic use of cannabis-based products in French people with multiple sclerosis

2022: Many patients with multiple sclerosis use cannabinoids for pain relief
Cannabinoid use for pain relief among people with multiple sclerosis

2022: In microglial cells (guardian immune cells of the brain), treatment with CBD increased levels of the mitochondrial fusion protein Mitofusin 2 that deals with inflammation – and in mice, CBD lessened the anxiety response & cognitive deficits from an inflammatory challenge as well as helping in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis
Mitofusin 2 confers the suppression of microglial activation by cannabidiol: Insights from in vitro and in vivo models

2022: A survey of multiple sclerosis patients found that two-thirds of them used cannabis to help alleviate symptoms
Medical cannabis use in Canadians with multiple sclerosis


2022: In humans using medical cannabis, six months of use increased the coherence of their white matter while CBD reduced their mean diffusivity (higher water content in their brain, neuroprotective against demyelination diseases like Parkinson’s)
Increased White Matter Coherence Following Three and Six Months of Medical Cannabis Treatment

2022: In a roundworm model of Parkinson’s, CBD protected the neurons that produce dopamine, decreased their food-sensing disabilities, reduced oxidation & increased their lifespan
Neuroprotective effects of cannabidiol on dopaminergic neurodegeneration and α-synuclein accumulation in C. elegans models of Parkinson's disease

2022: In a rat model of Parkinson’s disease, injection of CBD into the brain improved their fine motor skills via the GPR55 receptor & GABA
Intrapallidal injection of cannabidiol or a selective GPR55 antagonist decreases motor asymmetry and improves fine motor skills in hemiparkinsonian rats

2022: In a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease, activating the CB2 receptor reduced their anxious & depressive behaviors & improved motor deficits
CB2 Agonist GW842166x Protected against 6-OHDA-Induced Anxiogenic- and Depressive-Related Behaviors in Mice

2022: In a survey of Parkinson’s patients, the use of cannabis was associated with improvements in motor function, sleep & pain
Cannabis use in Parkinson’s disease—A nationwide online survey study

2022: In a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease, CBD improved cognitive dysfunction & increased locomotion, decreased neuroinflammation & protected the dopamine producing neurons
Cannabidiol Alleviates the Damage to Dopaminergic Neurons in 1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine-Induced Parkinson's Disease Mice Via Regulating Neuronal Apoptosis and Neuroinflammation

2022: In patients with Parkinson’s disease using transcranial magnetic stimulation, the decrease in neuroinflammation seems to be mediated by increasing the level of CB2 receptors as well as increased levels of anandamide & 2-AG
High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Regulates Astrocyte Activation by Modulating the Endocannabinoid System in Parkinson's Disease

2022: In Parkinson’s patients, an eye-tracking study found that nabilone (a pharmaceutical THC analog) did not cause any negative effects on cognition
Eye Tracking in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Treated with Nabilone-Results of a Phase II, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group Pilot Study

2022: In a mouse model of Parkinson’s, CBD significantly improved motor deficits & protected the midbrain via the gut-brain axis
Effects of Cannabidiol on Parkinson's Disease in a Transgenic Mouse Model by Gut-Brain Metabolic Analysis

2022: In a survey of Polish caregivers for dementia patients, they thought CBD oil safer & more effective than conventional methods
CBD Oil as a Miracle Drug: A Thematic Analysis of Caregivers’ Attitudes and Practices Towards Cannabidiol in Dementia Treatment

2022: In patients with dementia, this placebo-controlled trial showed that CBD oil reduced agitation with no serious side effects
Effects of rich cannabidiol oil on behavioral disturbances in patients with dementia: A placebo controlled randomized clinical trial

2022: THC/CBD oil for dementia patients
Cannabinoids for behavioral symptoms in severe dementia: Safety and feasibility in a long-term pilot observational study in nineteen patients

2022: In a tissue model of Alzheimer's disease, anandamide & noladin ether lessened the aggregation of the amyloid β plaques
Differential Effects of Endocannabinoids on Amyloid-Beta Aggregation and Toxicity

2022: In a mouse model of Alzheimer's, how the levels of CB1 receptors change on the glial cells (guardian immune cells of the brain)
Altered glial expression of the cannabinoid 1 receptor in the subiculum of a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

2022: How the endocannabinoid system might be used as biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease progression
Endocannabinoid System Biomarkers in Alzheimer's Disease

2022: In a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, the levels of CB2 receptors increased in glial cells (guardian immune cells of the brain) which suggest CB2 as a target for neuroinflammation
Evaluation of cannabinoid type 2 receptor expression and pyridine-based radiotracers in brains from a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

2022: In a mouse model of Alzheimer’s, an ultra-low dose of THC lessened cognitive impairments
An Ultra-Low Dose of ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Alleviates Alzheimer's Disease-Related Cognitive Impairments and Modulates TrkB Receptor Expression in a 5XFAD Mouse Model

2022: In a mouse model of Alzheimer’s, inhibiting ABHD6 (an enzyme that breaks down 2-AG) lessened synaptic dysfunction & memory impairment – though not neuroinflammation & plaque levels
ABHD6 inhibition alleviates memory deficits in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model

2022: In a rat model of Alzheimer’s, they saw increased activity in the enzymes that control the levels of 2-AG
An optimized spectrophotometric assay reveals increased activity of enzymes involved in 2-arachidonoyl glycerol turnover in the cerebral cortex of a rat model of Alzheimer's disease

2022: In a rat lesion model of Alzheimer’s disease, the neural insult causes upregulation of CB1 levels as well as a limited contribution from CB2
Cannabinoid Receptors and Glial Response Following a Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Lesion

2022: In an older mouse model of Alzheimer’s, low doses of intranasal THC for 3 months significantly slowed memory decline
The Memory Benefit to Aged APP/PS1 Mice from Long-Term Intranasal Treatment of Low-Dose THC

2022: In a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease focused on the cholinergic system (a key component of our parasympathetic nervous system), activating the CB2 receptor helped improve scores on various tests of memory
The Influence of CB2-Receptor Ligands on the Memory-Related Responses in Connection with Cholinergic Pathways in Mice in the Passive Avoidance Test

2022: In a patient with mild Alzheimer’s, microdosing of cannabis improved memory
Cannabinoid extract in microdoses ameliorates mnemonic and nonmnemonic Alzheimer's disease symptoms: a case report

2022: In a model of Alzheimer’s disease, CBD worked on the microglial (immune) cells to improve digestion of the amyloid-β plaques via the TRPV2 receptors as well as reducing neuroinflammation & improved functioning of the mitochondria (powerhouse of the cell)
Cannabidiol Enhances Microglial Beta-Amyloid Peptide Phagocytosis and Clearance via Vanilloid Family Type 2 Channel Activation

2022: In Alzheimer’s patients, 12 weeks of THC:CBD extract reduced agitation, apathy, irritability, sleep disturbances, eating disturbances, cognitive impairments & aggressive behaviors, leading to less caregiver distress
Oral Thc: Cbd Cannabis Extract in Main Symptoms of Alzheimer Disease: Agitation and Weight Loss

2022: In a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease, activating the CB2 receptor protected the neurons against hyperexcitation
Activation of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Protects Rat Hippocampal Neurons against Chronic, Oligomeric A_-induced Neuronal Hyperexcitation

2022: In a tissue model of Alzheimer’s disease, PEA & luteolin (a flavonoid commonly paired with PEA) reduces neuronal inflammation & astrocyte reactivity while restoring homeostasis of the oligodendrocytes via the PPAR nuclear receptors (controllers of genetic transcription)
Co-Ultramicronized Palmitoylethanolamide/Luteolin Restores Oligodendrocyte Homeostasis via Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-α in an In Vitro Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

2022: In a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, activating the CB2 receptor lowered overexcitation & protected the neurons of the hippocampus (brain’s memory area)
Activation of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Protects Rat Hippocampal Neurons against Chronic, Oligomeric Aβ-induced Neuronal Hyperexcitation

2022: In dementia patients, a cannabis oil with 30% CBD & 1% THC helped with agitation & aggression

Effects of Broad Spectrum Cannabidiol Oil on Behavioral Disturbances in Patients with Dementia: A Randomized Clinical Trial

2022: In a case series of dementia patients, 15 days of CBD improved their symptoms
Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Dementia. The Added Value of Cannabinoids. Are they a Safe and Effective Choice? Case Series with Cannabidiol 3%

2022: In a worm model of Alzheimer’s, CBD protected the brain via its antioxidation activities
Effect of Cannabidiol on the Neural Glyoxalase Pathway Function and Longevity of Several C. elegans Strains Including a C. elegans Alzheimer's Disease Model

2022: In this search for genetic underpinnings to Alzheimer’s disease, researchers found problems in endocannabinoid retrograde transmission to be a predictor of the disease
Molecular Signatures of Mitochondrial Complexes Involved in Alzheimer’s Disease via Oxidative Phosphorylation and Retrograde Endocannabinoid Signaling Pathways

2022: In a mouse model of Alzheimer’s, activating the CB2 receptor lowered inflammatory cytokines, increased BDNF (the brain growth factor), protected the brain from damage, decreased amyloid plaques & neuronal lesions as well as improving their recognition & learning memory
Improved cognition impairment by activating cannabinoid receptor type 2: Modulating CREB/BDNF expression and impeding TLR-4/NFκBp65/M1 microglia signaling pathway in D-galactose-injected ovariectomized rats

2022: In rats with spinal nerve injuries, activating the CB1 receptor reduced pain as well as altering the plasticity of the relevant neurons
Endogenous Cannabinoid Receptors Modulate Plasticity at Immature Synapses

2022: In certain brain regions of rats, CBD increases BDNF (a brain growth factor)
Single and Repeated Exposure to Cannabidiol Differently Modulate BDNF Expression and Signaling in the Cortico-Striatal Brain Network

2022: In patients with Autosomal Recessive Spastic Ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (an early neurodegenerative disease that causes pain & interferes with motion), a survey finds that there may be a role for cannabis in managing symptoms
Cannabis use in patients with Autosomal Recessive Spastic Ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay

2022: In rats with spinal cord injuries, the increased expression of CB2 receptors helped to reduce neuropathic pain by lowering the transmission of pain signals into the spinal cord
Cannabinoid CB2 receptors are upregulated via bivalent histone modifications and control primary afferent input to the spinal cord in neuropathic pain

2022: For Huntington’s disease, a look at why the disease’s disruption of the endocannabinoid system causes more disease progression
Cannabinoid signaling and risk in Huntington's disease

2022: In a mouse model of Huntington’s disease, as the disease progressed, the levels of CB1 decreased in their hippocampus (a memory center of the brain) & activating the CB1 receptor helped to prevent & rescue memory deficits
Cannabinoid receptor in hippocampal hippocampus as a potential therapeutic treatment for the cognitive deficits in Huntington diseases

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