Isolated CBD studies

2021: In healthy young humans, this randomized clinical trial showed that CBD enhanced their verbal episodic memory

Cannabidiol enhances verbal episodic memory in healthy young participants: A randomized clinical trial


2021: Zynerba presents their new Phase 2 data on their transdermal CBD gel for treating autism

Longer Term Tolerability and Efficacy of ZYN002 Cannabidiol Transdermal Gel in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): An Open-Label Phase 2 Study


2021: This long-term study of patients with Dravet syndrome (a rare childhood epilepsy) showed that “long-term CBD treatment had an acceptable safety profile and led to sustained, clinically meaningful reductions in seizure frequency in patients with treatment-resistant [Dravet syndrome]”

Add-on cannabidiol in patients with Dravet syndrome: Results of a long-term open-label extension trial


2021: In humans with arthritis, 30 mg of synthetic CBD not helpful for the pain

Cannabidiol treatment in hand osteoarthritis and psoriatic arthritis: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial



2021: In children with treatment resistant epilepsy, found that CBD “significantly reduces seizure frequency, and improves QOL [quality of life] , behavior deficits, and sleep disruption” while remaining efficacious over a 2-year period

Seizure frequency, quality of life, behavior, cognition, and sleep in pediatric patients enrolled in a prospective, open-label clinical study with cannabidiol


2021: In a study of the genetics of those with treatment resistant-epilepsy taking CBD, they found genetic pathways related to cholesterol metabolism & glutathione conjugation

Pharmacogenetic predictors of cannabidiol (CBD) response and tolerability in treatment-resistant epilepsy


2021: In children with rare epilepsies, a CBD gel was safe, well-tolerated & lessened seizures & disease burden

Safety and Tolerability of Transdermal Cannabidiol Gel in Children With Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathies: A Nonrandomized Controlled Trial


2021: In frontline healthcare professionals working with COVID-19 patients, 1 month of CBD reduced symptoms of burnout & emotional exhaustion

Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol Plus Standard Care vs Standard Care Alone for the Treatment of Emotional Exhaustion and Burnout Among Frontline Health Care Workers During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Randomized Clinical Trial


2021: In humans with Dravet syndrome, CBD caused therapeutic effects within two weeks

Time to onset of cannabidiol treatment effects in Dravet syndrome: Analysis from two randomized controlled trials


2021: In humans, CBD did not decrease reaction times in a visual stimulus test

The effect of cannabidiol (CBD) on simple and complex reaction times


2021: In a case study of a man with schizophrenia & substance use disorder, high CBD-low THC cigarettes helped lessen his cannabis use & stop his cocaine use

Case Report: CBD Cigarettes for Harm Reduction and Adjunctive Therapy in a Patient With Schizophrenia and Substance Use Disorder


2021: A survey of why people are using CBD

The emerging role of cannabidiol (CBD) products; a survey exploring the public's use and perceptions of CBD


2021: A long-term study of patients with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome found CBD to be a safe & effective add-on to current treatments

Long-term safety and efficacy of add-on cannabidiol in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: Results of a long-term open-label extension trial


2021: A survey of cancer patients using CBD

Cannabidiol: Knowledge, Beliefs, and Experiences of Patients With Cancer


2021: In humans with cocaine use disorder, CBD caused anti-inflammatory effects

Exploring cannabidiol effects on inflammatory markers in individuals with cocaine use disorder: a randomized controlled trial


2021: A survey of spinal patients found that many of them found CBD helpful for treating their pain, improving their sleep & reducing their anxiety

Prevalence of Cannabidiol Use in Patients With Spine Complaints: Results of an Anonymous Survey


2021: In diabetic humans with painful neuropathy in their feet, 20 mg of water solubilized CBD reduced pain, improved sleep & reduced anxiety

Cannabidiol (CBD) For the Treatment of Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy of the Feet: A Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Randomized Trial


2021: In humans with epilepsy, CBD caused positive changes in their EEG patterns relating to interictal epileptiform discharge frequency

Longitudinal impact of cannabidiol on EEG measures in subjects with treatment-resistant epilepsy


2021: A survey of families with CDKL5 (a genetic disorder leading to early seizures) reports that they find cannabis & CBD products to be helpful

The perceived effects of cannabis products in the management of seizures in CDKL5 Deficiency Disorder


2021: In children with epilepsy & autism, Zynerba’s CBD transdermal gel helped with sleep

Impact of ZYN002 Cannabidiol Transdermal Gel on Sleep in Children and Adolescents With Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathies and Comorbid Autism Spectrum Disorder


2021: In humans, a test of CBD for pain found it safe & well-tolerated

The dose-dependent analgesic effects, abuse liability, safety and tolerability of oral cannabidiol in healthy humans


2021: This review of clinical trials finds that CBD helps to decrease appetite

Approved cannabinoids for medical purposes - Comparative systematic review and meta-analysis for sleep and appetite


2021: In humans, one dose of 800 mg of CBD did not alter their pain levels

Pain response to cannabidiol in induced acute nociceptive pain, allodynia, and hyperalgesia by using a model mimicking acute pain in healthy adults in a randomized trial (CANAB I)


2021: In humans, one dose of 150 mg of CBD did not alter their emotional reactivity to stimuli

Effect of two oral formulations of cannabidiol on responses to emotional stimuli in healthy human volunteers: pharmaceutical vehicle matters


2021: In humans, taking your CBD after a fatty meal helps with absorption

The Effects of Food on Cannabidiol Bioaccessibility


2021: In humans taking anxiety medications, CBD at high doses (200-800 mg per day) did not affect the metabolism of sertraline, fluoxetine & mirtazapine but did increase the levels of citalopram or escitalopram via the liver enzymes CYP3A4 & CYP2C19

Citalopram and Cannabidiol: In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence of Pharmacokinetic Interactions Relevant to the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders in Young People


2021: In two epilepsy centers, half of the participants found help for their Dravet syndrome with CBD

Two-center experience of cannabidiol use in adults with Dravet syndrome


2021: A case study of a 3-year-old with multi-drug resistant epilepsy who saw his seizures reduced by 90% with a combination of a ketogenic diet, vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) AspireSR (SR-seizure response) & oral CBD

A 3-year-old child with multi-drug resistant epilepsy responding to pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments


2021: In humans with epilepsy, Epidiolex (isolated CBD drug) usually starts to work within a week

Time to onset of cannabidiol (CBD) treatment effect in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: Analysis from two randomized controlled trials


2021: CBD is helpful for those with seizures from tuberous sclerosis complex (a genetic disorder characterized by benign tumors all over the body. Symptoms can include seizures)

Long-term Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol (CBD) in Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC): 4-year Results from the Expanded Access Program (EAP)


Long-term Safety and Efficacy of Add-on Cannabidiol (CBD) for Treatment of Seizures Associated with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) in an Open-Label Extension (OLE) Trial (GWPCARE6)


2021: CBD reduced seizures in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex with both that did & did not have a history of infantile spasms

Efficacy of Add-on Cannabidiol (CBD) Treatment in Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) and a History of Infantile Spasms (IS): Post Hoc Analysis of Phase 3 Trial GWPCARE6

2021: CBD safe & effective for treatment-resistant epilepsy

Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol (CBD) in Patients with Treatment-Resistant Epilepsies (TREs) in the Expanded Access Program (EAP): Additional Efficacy Data for Convulsive and Nonconvulsive Seizure Types


2021: A survey finds that patients believe CBD helps with their epilepsy

Investigation of the differential impact of cannabinoid compounds on seizure frequency and quality of life in patients with epilepsy


2021: In humans with psychosis, a single dose of 600 mg of CBD increased levels of glutamate in the hippocampus & significantly decreased symptom severity

Cannabidiol modulation of hippocampal glutamate in early psychosis


2021: This retrospective study looked at 78 children with severe epilepsy treated with CBD & found positive results

Cannabidiol treatment of severe refractory epilepsy in children and young adults


2021: In a case study of a man with treatment-resistant bruxism (grinding of the teeth at night), CBD capsules provided almost complete relief when he began them

Cannabidiol in the management of bruxism in behavioral variant of frontotemporal degeneration


2021: In humans with acute schizophrenia, CBD worked as well as amisulpride for the improvement of neurocognitive parameters in young acutely ill patients

Cannabidiol and Amisulpride Improve Cognition in Acute Schizophrenia in an Explorative, Double-Blind, Active-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial


2021: This meta-review of clinical trials looks at CBD's efficacy in reducing psychotic symptoms of THC, schizophrenia & cannabis addiction (10 trials)

Efficacy of Cannabidiol for Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-Induced Psychotic Symptoms, Schizophrenia, and Cannabis Use Disorders: A Narrative Review


2021: In humans, smoking high-CBD cannabis was associated with less alcohol use

THC and CBD effects on alcohol use among alcohol and cannabis co-users


2021: In humans with glioblastomas, the addition of ~400 mg of CBD per day to their standard treatment almost doubled their survival time

Cannabidiol Μay Prolong Survival in Patients With Glioblastoma Multiforme


2021: A case report of using CBD to treat withdrawal from a severe opioid addiction

Case Report: Cannabidiol in the Management of Acute Opioid Withdrawal


2021: CBD well-tolerated by patients with Parkinson disease

Tolerability and Efficacy of Cannabidiol on Motor Symptoms in Parkinson Disease: Interim Report on Tolerability


2021: This study from Brazil suggests using CBD to prevent burnout for health care workers on the frontline of the COVID pandemic

Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Mental Health Outcomes Among Health Care Workers During the Coronavirus Disease Pandemic


2021: In humans with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD - a common symptom of Parkinson's), CBD helped with sleep satisfaction but not to lessen manifestations of RBD

Cannabidiol for Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder


2021: In humans with epilepsy, this study shows that treatment with CBD has little effect on the brain's white matter

White matter integrity after cannabidiol administration for treatment resistant epilepsy


2021: The runner's high is not from endorphins & it might be from endocannabinoids

Exercise-induced euphoria and anxiolysis do not depend on endogenous opioids in humans


2021: A long-term study of using CBD to treat epilepsy found it effective & with no build-up of tolerance to its positive effects

Long-term safety and efficacy of highly purified cannabidiol for treatment refractory epilepsy


2021: In five cases of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, cannabis helped with disruptive behavior & the authors note that CBD shows a "marked and statistically significant improvement"

Use of Cannabis in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder


2021: In humans with epilepsy, the researchers examined their brain wave patterns when taking CBD & they found "less segregation and greater integration"

Functional Connectivity Derived From Electroencephalogram in Pharmacoresistant Epileptic Encephalopathy Using Cannabidiol as Adjunctive Antiepileptic Therapy


2021: This review of the effects of eating food on CBD absorption found that people who are recently fed absorb more CBD into their system

Food Effects on the Formulation, Dosing, and Administration of Cannabidiol (CBD) in Humans: A Systematic Review of Clinical Studies


2021: In humans, CBD gum was not an effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome

Perceived Pain and Well-Being of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients: A Placebo-Controlled Crossover Exploratory Intervention Study with Symptom-Driven Dosing


2021: The combination of melatonin & CBD seemed to keep COVID patients out of the hospital

COVID-19 Disease as an Acute Angiotensin 1-7 Deficiency: A Preliminary Phase 2 Study with Angiotensin 1-7 in Association with Melatonin and Cannabidiol in Symptomatic COVID19 -Infected Subjects


2021: This clinical study of isolated CBD saw no help for muscle damage recovery in men

The Effects of Cannabidiol Oil on Noninvasive Measures of Muscle Damage in Men


2021: In this case series of children with epilepsy, most saw CBD oils help reduce their seizures

Artisanal cannabidiol as adjunct treatment for refractory epilepsy: A Brazilian experience


2021: This review looks at the 4 published case studies of drug interactions between CBD & oral anticoagulants such as warfarin

Potential Drug Interactions Between Cannabinoids and Its Derivatives and Oral Anticoagulants


2021: A clinical study of the pharmacokinetics & heart effects of various CBD preparations

Comparison of Five Oral Cannabidiol Preparations in Adult Humans: Pharmacokinetics, Body Composition, and Heart Rate Variability


2021: A case report of a man using CBD to help control his type 2 diabetes

Cannabidiol (CBD) Use in Type 2 Diabetes: A Case Report


2021: In humans with Parkinson's, isolated CBD decreased symptoms in half those treated (15 participants in an open label, dose escalation study)

Safety and Tolerability of Cannabidiol in Parkinson Disease: An Open Label, Dose-Escalation Study


2021: In humans with seizures from tuberous sclerosis complex, the addition of CBD to their regular medications significantly reduced seizures (255 patients in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial)

Add-On Cannabidiol Treatment for Drug-Resistant Seizures in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: A Placebo-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial


2021: In humans with atopic dermatitis (eczema), a topical CBD gel helped in the majority of cases (20 patients in an observational study)

An Observational Study of the Application of a Topical Cannabinoid Gel on Sensitive Dry Skin


2021: In young epilepsy patients, a pilot study on using CBD (34 patients)

Pilot Study on Cannabidiol for Treating Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome and Dravet Syndrome in Korea


2021: In children with epilepsy, this study monitored the pharmacokinetics of their CBD

Pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol in children with refractory epileptic encephalopathy


2021: Three case studies of CBD helping someone with treatment-resistant epilepsy

Efficacy of CBD oral solution in an adult patient with Dravet syndrome and long-lasting drug-resistant epilepsy


Use of Epidyolex® in a case of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: experience in clinical practice


Epidyolex® therapeutic drug monitoring in Dravet syndrome


2021: On the effects of CBD & THC on emotion & attention

Effects of Cannabidiol and Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Emotion, Cognition, and Attention: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Experimental Trial in Healthy Volunteers


2020: CBD & THC on driving performance

Effect of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Driving Performance: A Randomized Clinical Trial


2020: In humans, a study of how even the high levels of isolated CBD used in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy causes no negative cognitive or behavioral effects

Cognitive and behavioral effects of cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy


2020: In humans, this small clinical trial suggests a combination of CBD & oxytocin for patients with untreatable, advanced cancers

A Preliminary Study on the Anticancer Properties of Oxytocin: A Neuroendocrine Regimen with Oxytocin, Antitumor Pineal Indoles, and Cannabidiol in Untreatable Advanced Cancer Patients Progressing on Pineal Indoles and Cannabidiol Alone


2020: 3 case studies of using CBD for epilepsy

Cannabidiol in epilepsy: The indications and beyond


2020: A case report in the dramatic improvements to the EEG a young boy with Lennox–Gastaut Syndrome after using CBD

Effect of Cannabinoids on Electroencephalography of a Child with Lennox–Gastaut Syndrome


2020: In humans, 300 mg of CBD for ten days "was unable to interfere with symptoms of crack-cocaine withdrawal"

Cannabidiol for the treatment of crack-cocaine craving: an exploratory double-blind study


2020: A case study of an elderly woman getting diarrhea from CBD

Cannabidiol Oil-Associated Microscopic Colitis


2020: In 50 humans with itchy scalps, CBD shampoo reduced "both severity and symptoms of scalp inflammation within 2 weeks, with excellent tolerability and treatment satisfaction"

Efficacy and Tolerability of a Shampoo Containing Broad-Spectrum Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Scalp Inflammation in Patients with Mild to Moderate Scalp Psoriasis or Seborrheic Dermatitis


2020: In humans, a brain imaging study shows how 600 mg of CBD causes its antipsychotic effects (34 participants in a a double-blind, randomized, PLB-controlled, repeated-measures, within-subject cross-over design)

Normalization of mediotemporal and prefrontal activity, and mediotemporal-striatal connectivity, may underlie antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol in psychosis


2020: In humans with a high risk for psychosis, one dose of 600 mg of CBD modulated brain areas related to emotional processing (34 participants in a  a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group design)

A single dose of cannabidiol modulates medial temporal and striatal function during fear processing in people at clinical high risk for psychosis


2020: A case report of using CBD for anxiety & psychosis

Treatment of social anxiety disorder and attenuated psychotic symptoms with cannabidiol


2020: In a case report, a patient taking Warfarin who began taking Epidiolex for his epilepsy needed to have his Warfarin dosage lowered by 20%

Warfarin dose adjustment required after cannabidiol initiation and titration


2020: In healthy humans, 1500 mg of CBD may be hard on the liver (16 healthy adults in a phase 1, open‐label, fixed single‐sequence drug‐drug interaction trial)

Cannabidiol and Abnormal Liver Chemistries in Healthy Adults: Results of a Phase 1 Clinical Trial


2020: Smoking cannabis helped with symptoms of OCD - and higher levels of CBD were linked to larger reductions in compulsive behaviors

Acute Effects of Cannabis on Symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder


2020: In a multicenter study in Georgia, children with treatment-resistant epilepsy who did not qualify for the Epidiolex trials were given CBD in an expanded access program & the data showed that it was helpful & well-tolerated

Long-term efficacy and safety of cannabidiol (CBD) in children with treatment-resistant epilepsy: Results from a state-based expanded access program


2020: A study of 607 epilepsy patients at 25 centers found CBD effective & well-tolerated

Long‐term safety and treatment effects of cannabidiol in children and adults with treatment‐resistant epilepsies: Expanded access program results


2020: Case report of a 15 year old with autism & epilepsy helped by low doses of CBD

A pediatric patient with autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy using cannabinoid extracts as complementary therapy: a case report


2020: Research from Dr. Cinnamon Bidwell's lab shows that while high-THC cannabis impairs memory performance, the use of cannabis with THC & CBD was not associated with impairment

Acute effects of naturalistic THC vs. CBD use on recognition memory: a preliminary study


2020: In humans with psoriasis, the antioxidant effects of CBD caused less formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET)

Cannabidiol Modifies the Formation of NETs in Neutrophils of Psoriatic Patients


2020: In humans with psoriasis, CBD helped treatment with UVB light to work better & causes the psoriatic keratinocytes (skin stem cells) to die while protecting the healthy keratinocytes

Cannabidiol-Mediated Changes to the Phospholipid Profile of UVB-Irradiated Keratinocytes from Psoriatic Patients


2020: In a survey of patients with Hidradenitis Suppurativa (a painful skin condition, often long-term), the majority who tried oral CBD or CBD baths found them helpful for managing pain 

Pain Management Modalities for Hidradenitis Suppurativa: A Patient Survey


2020: Case report of a 22-year-old patient with OCD helped by medical cannabis - includes a review of the literature on OCD & an explanation of how the ECS might be involved

Cannabis Improves Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder-Case Report and Review of the Literature


2020: Patients with epilepsy experience problems with their working memory & this clinical study showed that CBD did not cause those problems to worsen & that it stimulated the brain regions related to working memory

Effects of highly purified cannabidiol (CBD) on fMRI of working memory in treatment-resistant epilepsy


2020: In using CBD for epilepsy, this intriguing study looks at the dynamics of a brain's network to predict their responsiveness to CBD

Global brain network dynamics predict therapeutic responsiveness to cannabidiol treatment for refractory epilepsy


2020: According to this case report, it seems like CBD can increase lithium levels & lead to toxicity

Drug-Drug Interactions Between Cannabidiol and Lithium


2020: Nice imaging study finds that 600 mg of CBD increases blood flow to areas of the brain related to memory like the hippocampus

The effects of acute cannabidiol on cerebral blood flow and its relationship to memory: An arterial spin labelling magnetic resonance imaging study


2020: A meta-review looking at how THC & CBD affect the recognition of emotions in facial expressions

The effects of Cannabidiol (CBD) and Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on the recognition of emotions in facial expressions: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials


2020: In epilepsy, the brain's resting-state functional connectivity is often dysfunctional and in this study of 27 patients, CBD helped to normalize it

Cannabidiol normalizes resting-state functional connectivity in treatment-resistant epilepsy


2020: In healthy humans, brain scans & tests showed that 600 mg of CBD did not seem to change reward anticipation & feedback 

The acute effects of cannabidiol on the neural correlates of reward anticipation and feedback in healthy volunteers


2020: In this clinical trial of 33 people liable to psychosis, brain scans showed that 600 mg of CBD helped with emotional processing 



2020: A study found that "in the first randomised clinical trial of cannabidiol for cannabis use disorder, cannabidiol 400 mg and 800 mg were safe and more efficacious than placebo at reducing cannabis use"

Cannabidiol for the treatment of cannabis use disorder: a phase 2a, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, adaptive Bayesian trial


2020: In a one-year study following 38 young people with epilepsy using high doses of CBD, they found no negative effects on cognition or adaptive function

Cognitive function and adaptive skills after a one-year trial of cannabidiol (CBD) in a pediatric sample with treatment-resistant epilepsy


2020: This study of 72 patients with epilepsy found that about 25% of them needed to increase their dose of CBD after some months

Cannabidiol-enriched oil in children and adults with treatment-resistant epilepsy-does tolerance exist?


2020: Another Phase 2 study from GW looking at interactions between CBD & the epilepsy medication clobazam finds the safety profile acceptable

A Phase 2, Double‐Blind, Placebo‐Controlled Trial to Investigate Potential Drug‐Drug Interactions Between Cannabidiol and Clobazam


2020: In pediatric epileptic patients, the combination of valproic acid treatment with CBD led to low platelet counts in 9 patients out of the 87 reviewed

Thrombocytopenia in Pediatric Patients on Concurrent Cannabidiol and Valproic Acid


2020: New pharmacokinetics study of synthetic CBD 

Pharmacokinetic Investigation of Synthetic Cannabidiol Oral Formulations in Healthy Volunteers


2020: A case report of a man successfully using CBD for multiple system atrophy

Effects of Self-Administered Cannabidiol in a Patient With Multiple System Atrophy


2020: Case report of CBD helping an infant with severe epilepsy

Report of a 6 month old Asian infant with early-infantile epileptic encephalpathy whose seizures were eliminated by cannabidiol


2020: In 3 patients with rare epilepsies, adding CBD significantly decreased their seizures

Add-on cannabidiol significantly decreases seizures in 3 patients with SYNGAP1-developmental and epileptic encephalopathy


2020: In this pilot double-blind study of using CBD for children with intellectual disabilities, they found that families & their children adhered to the study well and that "there was an efficacy signal in favour of active drug"

A Pilot Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial of Cannabidiol to Reduce Severe Behavioural Problems in Children and Adolescents With Intellectual Disability


2020: In a 13-year-old with cancer, CBD's effect on liver metabolism caused an increased level of her prescription methadone in the blood

Clinically Significant Drug-Drug Interaction Between Methadone and Cannabidiol


2020: A CBD clinical trial confirms the favorable safety profile - interestingly, they found that CBD might last in the system for two to three weeks

A Phase 1, Randomised, Placebo-Controlled, Dose Escalation Study to Investigate the Safety, Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of Cannabidiol in Fed Healthy Volunteers


2020: Two patient case reports describe the use of CBD for back pain

Cannabidiol (CBD) as a Treatment of Acute and Chronic Back Pain: A Case Series and Literature Review


2020: Positive case study of using CBD oil to treat a rare eye disease

Successful Treatment of Superior Oblique Myokymia With Cannabidiol Oil


2020: A transdermal CBD gels helped in children with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (rare neurodevelopmental disorders)

Quality of Life and Qualitative Caregiver Assessments in Children and Adolescents with Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathies Treated with Cannabidiol Transdermal Gel: An Open-label Clinical Trial


2020: GW releases a paper showing the safety of CBD for treating the seizures resulting from Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

Long-term Safety and Efficacy of Cannabidiol (CBD) for the Treatment of Seizures in Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) in an Open-label Extension (OLE) Trial


2020: In humans with psoriasis and those without, this study looks at the effects of CBD on the keratinocytes (the skin stem cells)

Cannabidiol Effects on Phospholipid Metabolism in Keratinocytes from Patients with Psoriasis Vulgaris


2020: In a review of the rare childhood epilepsy KCNT-1, the best therapies seemed to be CBD, diet therapy & the dug quinidine

KCNT1-related epilepsy: An international multicenter cohort of 27 pediatric cases


2020: In a study of humans with Parkinson's, high levels of isolated CBD (Epidiolex) helped with their symptoms, caused no serious side effects but did elevate the liver enzymes

Safety and Tolerability of Cannabidiol in Parkinson Disease: An Open Label, Dose-Escalation Study


2020: In a study of 9 patients with refractory childhood-onset epileptic spasms (ES), isolated CBD found to be effective and safe

Cannabidiol in treatment of refractory epileptic spasms: An open-label study


2020: From GW Pharma study of dose effects, they found that for children with Dravet's, 10 mg/kg/day is as effective and better tolerated than 20 mg/kg/day

Dose-Ranging Effect of Adjunctive Oral Cannabidiol vs Placebo on Convulsive Seizure Frequency in Dravet Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial


2020: In a double-blind human study, CBD & PEA (an endogenous cannabinoid) both helped reduce permeability in the colon & appear helpful for IBS

Palmitoylethanolamide and Cannabidiol Prevent Inflammation-induced Hyperpermeability of the Human Gut In Vitro and In Vivo-A Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind Controlled Trial


2020: In a study looking at children with autism, help was seen by the addition of CBD, melatonin & oxytocin (30 patients)

A Neuroendocrine Therapeutic Approach with the Pineal Hormone Melatonin, Cannabidiol and Oxytocin (MCO regimen) in the Treatment of the Autism Spectrum disorders


2020: In children with autism & nd in animal models of autism, there's less endocannabinoid signaling & this study suggests boosting 2-AG levels

The Alternations of Endocannabinoid System and its Therapeutic Potential in Autism Spectrum Disorder


2020: Review of CBD bioavailability as drawn from 15 clinical studies

Model‐Based Analysis of Cannabidiol Dose‐Exposure Relationship and Bioavailability


2020: In a human case study, CBD found helpful for a teen with depression & drug abuse - after taking high levels of CBD, they quit their depression medication & stopped abusing illegal drugs

Cannabidiol treatment in an adolescent with multiple substance abuse, social anxiety and depression


2020: "In healthy volunteers, no evidence of withdrawal syndrome was found with abrupt discontinuation of short-term treatment with [750 milligrams of] CBD"

Abrupt withdrawal of cannabidiol (CBD): A randomized trial


2020: In human randomized placebo trials, low doses of CBD helped to enhance the effects of THC while high levels of CBD reduced the intoxicating effects of THC

A randomised controlled trial of vaporised Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alone and in combination in frequent and infrequent cannabis users: acute intoxication effects



2020: A survey of how patients in palliative care are using CBD & THC

Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol Use in an Outpatient Palliative Medicine Population


2020: In 5 cases of fetal alcohol syndrome, CBD associated with significant relief

Use of Cannabis in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder


2020: A brain imaging study looks at CBD's effect on autism via the GABA & glutamate pathways

Effects of cannabidiol on brain excitation and inhibition systems; a randomised placebo-controlled single dose trial during magnetic resonance spectroscopy in adults with and without autism spectrum disorder


2020: In patients with a high risk for psychosis, CBD helped in the social stress response to public speaking (58 participants)

Effects of short-term cannabidiol treatment on response to social stress in subjects at clinical high risk of developing psychosis


2020: In a rare type of infant epilepsy, CBD can be a helpful addition for their seizures (3 patients in an open-label, prospective, interventional study)

Response to cannabidiol in epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures associated with KCNT1 mutations: An open-label, prospective, interventional study


2020: Open-label study finds CBD a helpful addition for pediatric epilepsy patients

Efficacy and Tolerability of Add-on Cannabidiol in Pediatric Patients with Drug-Resistant Epilepsy: An Open Exploratory Interventional Study in México


2020: CBD helpful in refractory epilepsy (47 patients in an open-label study)

Efficacy of cannabidiol in subjects with refractory epilepsy relative to concomitant use of clobazam


2020: A metareview of Epidiolex studies

Cannabidiol Drugs Clinical Trial Outcomes and Adverse Effects



2020: Observational study to find pharmacokinetic data of CBD rich extracts in children with epilepsy (prospective observational study of 29 patients)

Disposition of Oral Cannabidiol-Rich Cannabis Extracts in Children with Epilepsy


2020: In a double-blind human study, CBD & PEA (an endogenous cannabinoid) both helped reduce permeability in the colon & appear helpful for IBS

Palmitoylethanolamide and Cannabidiol Prevent Inflammation-induced Hyperpermeability of the Human Gut In Vitro and In Vivo-A Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind Controlled Trial


2020: Heart effects of CBD

The effects of acute and sustained cannabidiol dosing for seven days on the haemodynamics in healthy men: a randomised controlled trial


2020: In a double-blind study of humans with Parkinson’s, 300 mg of CBD decreased anxiety and tremors during a simulation of public speaking

Effects of acute cannabidiol administration on anxiety and tremors induced by a Simulated Public Speaking Test in patients with Parkinson's disease


2020: In a human double-blind study, 600 mg of CBD showed help for cortisol levels in those at risk for psychosis

Effects of short-term cannabidiol treatment on response to social stress in subjects at clinical high risk of developing psychosis


2019: In humans, 600 mg of CBD altered brain connectivity in those with autism (34 participants)

The effect of cannabidiol (CBD) on low-frequency activity and functional connectivity in the brain of adults with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD)


2019: In children with autism, CBD improved many behaviors (53 participants)

Oral Cannabidiol Use in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder to Treat Related Symptoms and Co-morbidities


2019: In tuberous sclerosis complex (a genetic disease that causes non-cancerous tumors to form), a drug interaction can occur between CBD and the mTOR inhibitors used to treat the disease

Cannabidiol Elevates mTOR Inhibitor Levels In Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Patients


2019: In this case study, a patient with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (a painful genetic disorder), CBD helped with mood and pain

Cannabidiol (CBD) for Treatment of Neurofibromatosis-related Pain and Concomitant Mood Disorder: A Case Report


2019: In healthy humans, a drug interaction study of CBD and antiepileptic drugs (26 adults in a phase I, open-label, randomized, single-dose, 3-period crossover study)

A phase I, randomized, open-label, single-dose, 3-period crossover study to evaluate the drug-drug interaction between ZX008 (fenfluramine HCl oral solution) and a regimen of stiripentol, clobazam, and valproate in healthy subjects


2019: In humans with epilepsy, CBD modulated attention control processing

fMRI study of cannabidiol-induced changes in attention control in treatment-resistant epilepsy


2019: A case study of treating the anxiety of a Chrohn's patient with CBD

A Case Report of Cannabidiol Treatment of a Crohn's Disease Patient With Anxiety Disorder


2019: Case report of CBD causing clobazam toxicity

A Case Report of Clobazam Toxicity Related to Cannabidiol and Clobazam Drug-drug Interaction



2019: In 8 patients with 'neuronal ceroidlipofuscinoses' (a neurodegenerative disease caused by problems with lysosomal storage), CBD was found to be helpful & well-tolerated

Experiences with Cannabidiol in Patients with NCL Disease


2019: In infants with spasms, CBD was not particularly effective in highly refractory cases (9 in a multicenter phase-2 study)

Synthetic pharmaceutical grade cannabidiol for treatment of refractory infantile spasms: A multicenter phase-2 study


2019: Topical CBD for neuropathy of lower extremities (29 patients in a randomized placebo study)

The Effectiveness of Topical Cannabidiol Oil in Symptomatic Relief of Peripheral Neuropathy of the Lower Extremities


2019: A single dose of 200 mg of CBD safe for renal patients (16 patients in a phase I, Open-Label, Parallel-Group, Single-Dose Trial)

A Phase I, Open-Label, Parallel-Group, Single-Dose Trial of the Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Tolerability of Cannabidiol in Subjects with Mild to Severe Renal Impairment


2019: In humans, a study found "no effect of CBD on gray matter volume and cortical thickness" (27 patients)

A preliminary study of the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on brain structure in patients with epilepsy


2019: In humans with psychosis, 600 mg of CBD helped with memory and connectivity in the brain as well as a decrease in symptoms (34 participants)

The neurocognitive and neurochemical effects of cannabidiol in psychosis


2019: An anecdotal story of an autistic boy to started to speak for the first time after a few days of CBD oil


2019: A case report of CBD helping with skin graft

A Case Report of the Benefit of Cannabidiol (Cannabidiol (CBD)-Predominant Medical Cannabis Preparation) in the Management of Refractory Skin Graft Vs Host Disease (GVHD)


2019: In brain cancer patients, a case series shows CBD associated with an increased life expectancy

Concomitant Treatment of Malignant Brain Tumours With CBD - A Case Series and Review of the Literature


2019: In humans, CBD attenuates dysfunction of a certain brain region in subjects at high risk for psychosis (54 in a a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study)

Cannabidiol attenuates insular dysfunction during motivational salience processing in subjects at clinical high risk for psychosis


2019: In humans with epilepsy, CBD did not reduce the efficacy of clobazam (132 patients in an open-label study)

Drug-drug interactions with cannabidiol (CBD) appear to have no effect on treatment response in an open-label Expanded Access Program


2019: In pediatric humans with Fragile X Syndrome, transdermal CBD helped with anxiety & behavioral symptoms (20 children in an open-label, multi-site, trial of ZYN002)

A phase 1/2, open-label assessment of the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of transdermal cannabidiol (ZYN002) for the treatment of pediatric fragile X syndrome


2019: In pediatric humans with epilepsy, CBD preparation was effective in reducing seizures (16 patients in a phase II, open-label, single-center study)

The safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of PTL-101, an oral cannabidiol formulation, in pediatric intractable epilepsy: A phase II, open-label, single-center study


2019: In this case study of ovarian cancer, a woman declined the regular course of treatment and saw dramatic results from a combination of CBD and Laetrile (amygdalin)

Dramatic response to Laetrile and cannabidiol (CBD) oil in a patient with metastatic low grade serous ovarian carcinoma


2019: In pediatric humans with epilepsy, this study found CBD effective & safe (29 patients in a single-center, prospective, open-label study)

Purified Cannabidiol for Treatment of Refractory Epilepsies in Pediatric Patients with Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy


2019: In this case series of 5 patients, CBD increased the blood level of brivaracetam
Effects of cannabidiol on brivaracetam plasma levels


2019: In humans with epilepsy, CBD found to be well tolerated for cognition

Cognitive functioning following long-term cannabidiol use in adults with treatment-resistant epilepsy


2019: In brain scans, THC disrupted default mode network and altered the posterior cingulate cortex while CBD restored balance in those areas (17 healthy volunteers)

Dissociable effects of cannabis with and without cannabidiol on the human brain's resting-state functional connectivity


2019: In one epilepsy patient, 3000 mg of CBD per day increased the plasma concentration of tacrolimus by 3x

Evidence of a clinically significant drug-drug interaction between cannabidiol and tacrolimus


2019: In humans with pediatric epilepsy, CBD affected clobazam levels but overall was well-tolerated (61 patients in open-label study)

Pharmacokinetics and Tolerability of Multiple Doses of Pharmaceutical-Grade Synthetic Cannabidiol in Pediatric Patients with Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy


2019: In humans with epilepsy, CBD improved quality of life & mood (53 participants in open-label study)

Quality of life in adults enrolled in an open-label study of cannabidiol (CBD) for treatment-resistant epilepsy


2019: In humans with psoriasis & atopic dermatitis, topical CBD improved skin parameters (20 patients in a spontaneous, anecdotal, retrospective study)

A therapeutic effect of cbd-enriched ointment in inflammatory skin diseases and cutaneous scars


2019: A case series of 3 humans with Fragile X Syndrom saw improvements + brief literature review

Treatment of Fragile X Syndrome with Cannabidiol: A Case Series Study and Brief Review of the Literature


2019: In humans, CBD degradation is slower in people with hepatic impairment

A Phase 1, Open-Label, Parallel-Group, Single-Dose Trial of the Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Cannabidiol (CBD) in Subjects With Mild to Severe Hepatic Impairment


2019: In patients with gastroparesis (where the stomach can't empty itself of food), THC & CBD were reported to be helpful by the patients

Cannabinoid Use in Patients With Gastroparesis and Related Disorders: Prevalence and Benefit


2019: A human case study of using CBD to treat lung cancer before trying chemo or radiation + a literature review

Striking lung cancer response to self-administration of cannabidiol: A case report and literature review


2019: In humans, GW looks at adverse events between CBD and the common antiepilepsy medications

A Phase 1, Open-Label, Pharmacokinetic Trial to Investigate Possible Drug-Drug Interactions Between Clobazam, Stiripentol, or Valproate and Cannabidiol in Healthy Subjects


2019: In human case reports, CBD may increase the effects of chemotherapy & radiation in glioblastoma

Case Report: Clinical Outcome and Image Response of Two Patients With Secondary High-Grade Glioma Treated With Chemoradiation, PCV, and Cannabidiol


2019: In humans, CBD increases THC’s psychedelic effects at low doses & decreases effects at high doses
A randomised controlled trial of vaporised Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alone and in combination in frequent and infrequent cannabis users: acute intoxication effects


2019: A pain survey from 7 pain clinics reports majority saw relief from symptoms and reduced their pain medications

Can CBD Reduce the Use of Pain Medication? Lessons from a Survey in a Pain Clinic Environment


2019: In humans, CBD showed long-term efficacy in the treatment of epilepsy due to Lenox-Gastaut syndrome

Cannabidiol in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: Interim analysis of an open-label extension study



2019: In a double-blind study of human teens with anxiety, 300 mg of CBD helped significantly

Anxiolytic Effects of Repeated Cannabidiol Treatment in Teenagers With Social Anxiety Disorders


2019: In a human case series, CBD helped with anxiety & sleep

Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series


2019: In humans with epilepsy, synthetic CBD seems to work just as well as plant-derived CBD for severe epilepsy (35 patients in a prospective, open-label study)

Efficacy and Tolerance of Synthetic Cannabidiol for Treatment of Drug Resistant Epilepsy


2019: In a human study, U shaped curve found for CBD’s help for public speaking anxiety

Cannabidiol presents an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve in a simulated public speaking test


2019: Epidiolex pharmacokinetics study in patients with liver impairments

A Phase 1, Open‐Label, Parallel‐Group, Single‐Dose Trial of the Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Cannabidiol (CBD) in Subjects With Mild to Severe Hepatic Impairment


2019: The effect of food on CBD pharmacokinetics in epilepsy patients

Food effect on pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol oral capsules in adult patients with refractory epilepsy


2019: In humans with heroin use disorder, CBD reduced cue-induced craving & anxiety

Cannabidiol for the Reduction of Cue-Induced Craving and Anxiety in Drug-Abstinent Individuals With Heroin Use Disorder: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial


2019: Out of 15 autism patients, only one failed to show improvements (18 person observational study)

Effects of CBD-Enriched Cannabis sativa Extract on Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms: An Observational Study of 18 Participants Undergoing Compassionate Use


2019: In humans with epilepsy, higher blood concentrations of CBD were associated with better seizure control (100 participants in an open-label single-center study)

Higher cannabidiol plasma levels are associated with better seizure response following treatment with a pharmaceutical grade cannabidiol


2019: In a tissue culture, CBD extracts & isolated CBD both inhibited inflammatory leukocytes – both effect cell migration and TNF-α production but the extract is more potent - but isolated CBD better for lowering reactive oxygen species production

A Novel Standardized Cannabis sativa L. Extract and Its Constituent Cannabidiol Inhibit Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Functions


2018: In humans who use cannabis, CBD protected against the structural brain changes of regular cannabis use (18 participants)

Prolonged Cannabidiol Treatment Effects on Hippocampal Subfield Volumes in Current Cannabis Users


2018: In humans who use cannabis, CBD improved psychological symptoms & cognition (25 participants)

Therapeutic Effects of Prolonged Cannabidiol Treatment on Psychological Symptoms and Cognitive Function in Regular Cannabis Users: A Pragmatic Open-Label Clinical Trial


2018: In humans with treatment resistant-epilepsy, they saw sustained improvements from CBD (72 children and 60 adults in an open-label add-on prospective study)

Cannabidiol improves frequency and severity of seizures and reduces adverse events in an open-label add-on prospective study


2018: In humans with treatment-resistant epilepsy, a review from 25 studies confirms the safety & efficacy of CBD (607 patients in safety dataset)

Long-term safety and treatment effects of cannabidiol in children and adults with treatment-resistant epilepsies: Expanded access program results


2018: A case study where someone taking a high level of CBD needed to decrease their warfarin prescription by a third

An interaction between warfarin and cannabidiol, a case report


2018: A CBD-rich extract for ulcerative colitis patients didn’t improve primary endpoints but did suggest beneficial symptom treatment (39 patients in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group pilot study)

A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group, Pilot Study of Cannabidiol-rich Botanical Extract in the Symptomatic Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis


2018: In a small human sample, one 300 mg dose of CBD had no acute effects on sleep-wake cycle

No Acute Effects of Cannabidiol on the Sleep-Wake Cycle of Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study


2018: An oral dose study of Epidiolex

A Phase I, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Single Ascending Dose, Multiple Dose, and Food Effect Trial of the Safety, Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of Highly Purified Cannabidiol in Healthy Subjects



2018: In humans, CBD did not attenuate the THC effects of memory impairment or acute psychosis

Individual and combined effects of acute delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on psychotomimetic symptoms and memory function


2019: comment

Lost in translation: an overinterpretation of the acute effects of cannabinoids


2018: In humans, double-blind study finds CBD helpful for schizophrenia (88 participants)

Cannabidiol (CBD) as an Adjunctive Therapy in Schizophrenia: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial


2018: In humans with Lennox-Gastaut, a double-blind phase 3 trial saw CBD as efficacious & generally well-tolerated (171 participants)

Cannabidiol in patients with seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (GWPCARE4): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial


2018: In children with Dravet, CBD study on safety and pharmacokinetics

Randomized, dose-ranging safety trial of cannabidiol in Dravet syndrome


2018: In humans with Lennox–Gastaut, CBD found to be an effective addition to conventional medications for lessening drop seizures (225 participants)

Effect of Cannabidiol on Drop Seizures in the Lennox–Gastaut Syndrome


2018: In humans with severe childhood-onset epilepsy, CBD shows efficacy

Open-label use of highly purified CBD (Epidiolex®) in patients with CDKL5 deficiency disorder and Aicardi, Dup15q, and Doose syndromes


2018: In humans with schizophrenia, CBD well-tolerated but did not improve scores (36 participants in a double‐blind, parallel group, RCT)

The effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on cognition and symptoms in outpatients with chronic schizophrenia a randomized placebo controlled trial


2018: In humans, CBD increased fronto-striatal connectivity, possibly pointing towards its antipsychotic effects

Probing the endocannabinoid system in healthy volunteers: Cannabidiol alters fronto-striatal resting-state connectivity


2018: In humans at risk for psychosis, brain scans showed how 600 mg of CBD normalized function (52 participants in a parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial)

Effect of Cannabidiol on Medial Temporal, Midbrain, and Striatal Dysfunction in People at Clinical High Risk of Psychosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial


2017: CBD caused significant changes seen to the serum levels of common antiepileptic drugs & stresses the importance of monitoring serum drug levels

Interactions between cannabidiol and commonly used antiepileptic drugs


2017: A case study of using CBD for ALS

[Self-medication with cannabidiol oil in a patient with primary lateral sclerosis]


2017: One dose of CBD reduced blood pressure

A single dose of cannabidiol reduces blood pressure in healthy volunteers in a randomized crossover study


2017: In adults, CBD did not dampen emotional responses

Cannabidiol Does Not Dampen Responses to Emotional Stimuli in Healthy Adults


2017: GW trial of CBD for Dravet Syndrome

Trial of Cannabidiol for Drug-Resistant Seizures in the Dravet Syndrome.


2017: In drug-resistant epilepsy, monthly motor seizures decreased by 35% (137 participants in a prospective, open‐label trial)

Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial


2017: In children with FIRES, C­­BD caused improvements in frequency and duration of seizures (7 participants in an open‐label case series)

Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES) in the Acute and Chronic Phases


2017: In young people with epilepsy, CBD improved quality of life as well as memory and control (48 participants in an open label clinical study)

Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy in pediatric patients enrolled in a prospective, open-label clinical study with cannabidiol


2017: An RCT trial of CBD for Crohn’s (19 participants on 20 mg per day)

Low-Dose Cannabidiol Is Safe but Not Effective in the Treatment for Crohn's Disease, a Randomized Controlled Trial


2017: In 3 case studies of epilepsy related to brain tumors, all 3 saw improvements

The use of cannabidiol for seizure management in patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy


2017: CBD reduced seizures in Sturge-Weber syndrome (5 participants in a case‐series)

Cannabidiol Treatment for Refractory Seizures in Sturge-Weber Syndrome


2017: In a survey of parents in Mexico, CBD extracts very helpful for seizures (53 parents)

Report from a Survey of Parents Regarding the Use of Cannabidiol (Medicinal cannabis) in Mexican Children with Refractory Epilepsy


2016: In 5 Israeli children with intractable epilepsy, CBD-rich extracts caused “significant positive effect on seizure load”

CBD-enriched medical cannabis for intractable pediatric epilepsy: The current Israeli experience


2016: A case report of a 10-year-old child with increased sleep quality and duration & decreased anxiety secondary to PTSD

Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report


2016: In young people with drug‐resistant epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex, CBD decreased seizure frequency (18 participants in a prospective study)

Cannabidiol as a new treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex


2016: In humans with type 2 diabetes, 13 weeks of 100 mg of CBD led to less resistin hormone & more glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptides – also tested THCV and found it promising – but neither treatments had a significant impact on endpoints

Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study


2016: In a double-blind human study of 42 patients with schizophrenia, 800 mg of CBD showed significant symptom reduction after 2-4 weeks – also fewer side effects compared to amilsupride

Cannabidiol as a Potential New Type of an Antipsychotic. A Critical Review of the Evidence


2016: GW trial of CBD across 11 epilepsy centers – 162 patients – reduction in seizure frequency – three most common side effects were tiredness, decreased appetite & diarrhea

Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial


2016: In genes of humans, one variant of FAAH correlated to poorer sleep quality when using cannabis – the CB1 variant did not affect sleep quality

Dose-dependent cannabis use, depressive symptoms, and FAAH genotype predict sleep quality in emerging adults: a pilot study


2015: In a 6-month-old with malignant migrating partial seizure saw CBD cause developmental gains & demonstrated sustained seizure reduction

Pure cannabidiol in the treatment of malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy: a case report


2015: In humans, fMRI scans showed that CBD increased function connectivity while THC decreased it

Cannabinoid modulation of functional connectivity within regions processing attentional salience


2015: in humans, THC impairs the recognition of facial emotions while combining THC with CBD caused no impairment

Acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and their combination on facial emotion recognition: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in cannabis users


2015: In humans, CBD causes relaxation of the arteries in the heart via activation of CB1 & TRP channels

Cannabidiol causes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of human mesenteric arteries via CB1 activation


2015: In humans, 300 mg/kg of CBD helped with the transplantation of blood stem cells in those with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (48 participants in a prospective, phase II clinical trial)

Cannabidiol for the Prevention of Graft-versus-Host-Disease after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Results of a Phase II Study


2015: In a double-blind human study, co-administration of CBD with IV fentanyl was well tolerated

Safety and pharmacokinetics of oral cannabidiol when administered concomitantly with intravenous fentanyl in humans


2015: A review of CBD for psychosis

A systematic review of the antipsychotic properties of cannabidiol in humans


2015: Survey of 117 parents of children with epilepsy – “Eighty-five percent of all parents reported a reduction in seizure frequency, and 14% reported complete seizure freedom”

Perceived efficacy of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis extracts for treatment of pediatric epilepsy: A potential role for infantile spasms and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome


2014: Case study of Charlotte Figi

The case for medical marijuana in epilepsy


2014: In humans with Parkinson's disease, CBD helped with quality of life with no significant downsides (21 participants in a double‐blind exploratory RCT)

Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease: an exploratory double-blind trial


2014: In humans with Parkinson's disease, CBD helped with sleep & to decrease REM sleep behavior disorder (4 participants in a case series)

Cannabidiol can improve complex sleep-related behaviours associated with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson's disease patients: a case series


2014: GW’s clinical trial on liver effects found no difference from placebo (25 participants in a partially‐blinded, phase II RCT)

Study to Evaluate the Effect of GWP42003 on Liver Fat Levels in Participants With Fatty Liver Disease


2013: In a survey, reports from parents on treatment with high CBD cannabis for epilepsy

Report of a parent survey of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis use in pediatric treatment-resistant epilepsy


2013: In a human double-blind study, tobacco smokers given a vape with CBD smoked 40% less cigarettes

Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: preliminary findings


2013: In humans, CBD protects from the paranoia of THC as well as the memory impairment

Cannabidiol inhibits THC-elicited paranoid symptoms and hippocampal-dependent memory impairment


2013: In a human case study, CBD helped with the withdrawal symptoms of cannabis addiction

Cannabidiol for the treatment of cannabis withdrawal syndrome: a case report


2013: In humans, CBD helped with the conditioning, extinction & recall of fear

Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans


2013: In humans, “pre-treatment with CBD inhibited THC-elicited psychosis and cognitive impairment”

Cannabidiol inhibits THC-elicited paranoid symptoms and hippocampal-dependent memory impairment


2012: In humans, the effects of CBD did not differ from the placebo on any of the negative variables measured while THC increased many negatives

Acute effects of a single, oral dose of d9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) administration in healthy volunteers


2012: In a human double-blind study, CBD increased AEA and helped with schizophrenia & with better side effects than amisulpride (42 participants in a phase II, double‐blind, parallel‐group, RCT)

Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia


2012: In humans, THC & CBD differentially modulate prefrontal, striatal, and hippocampal function during attentional salience processing

Induction of psychosis by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol reflects modulation of prefrontal and striatal function during attentional salience processing


2011: In humans, CBD correlated with protecting the gray matter of hippocampus from THC as well as promoting neurogenesis in the hippocampus

Diminished gray matter in the hippocampus of cannabis users: possible protective effects of cannabidiol


2011: In humans with anxiety, 400 mg of CBD reduced anxiety - scans showed decreased activity in left parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, and inferior temporal gyrus (anxiety mediating centers) & increased activity in right posterior cingulate gyrus (an emotional processing center) (10 participants in a double‐blind, placebo‐controlled study)

Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report


2011: In humans, complex interactions between ketamine & CBD for schizophrenia – CBD might help activate the effects of K but decrease the depersonalization

The interplay of cannabinoid and NMDA glutamate receptor systems in humans: preliminary evidence of interactive effects of cannabidiol and ketamine in healthy human subjects


2011: In humans, CBD helped with public speaking anxiety (24 participants in a double‐blind RCT)

Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naïve social phobia patients


2011: In humans, high CBD flower led to less psychotic experiences

Cannabis with high cannabidiol content is associated with fewer psychotic experiences


2011: In humans, fMRI scans showed how THC & CBD differentially modulated audio & visual processing

Modulation of auditory and visual processing by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol: an FMRI study


2010: In humans, CBD can block the fear response of THC & they seem to have opposite effects on regional brain function

Opposite effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on human brain function and psychopathology


2010: In two patients, high levels of CBD for ~30 days was well tolerated but not effective for their bipolar disorder

Cannabidiol was ineffective for manic episode of bipolar affective disorder


2010: In humans, CBD protected from the amnesia effects of THC

Impact of cannabidiol on the acute memory and psychotomimetic effects of smoked cannabis: naturalistic study: naturalistic study [corrected]


2010: comment

Does cannabidiol protect against the negative effects of THC?


2010: In humans, a one time dose of CBD of 300 mg or 600 mg didn’t show help for a responsiveness to auditive stimuli in patients with schizophrenia (28 participants in a placebo‐controlled study)

Performance of schizophrenic patients in the Stroop Color Word Test and electrodermal responsiveness after acute administration of cannabidiol (CBD)


2010: A review of CBD for stroke & as a cerebroprotective

Therapeutic potential of non-psychotropic cannabidiol in ischemic stroke


2009: Brain scans of effects from THC & CBD

Distinct effects of {delta}9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on neural activation during emotional processing


2009: In humans, brain scans showed how CBD altered anxiety when shown fearful faces

Modulation of effective connectivity during emotional processing by Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol


2009: In humans, a flexible oral dose of CBD (from 150 mg to 400 mg per day) showed less psychotic symptoms, no negative effect on cognitive and motor skills & no serious side effects (6 participants in an open‐label pilot study)

Cannabidiol for the treatment of psychosis in Parkinson's disease


2008: How THC & CBD modulated response inhibition in the brain

Neural basis of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol: effects during response inhibition


2006: Sublingual CBD at 40 mg caused slight rise in intraocular pressure (but not 20 mg) (6 participants in a double‐blind, 4‐way cross‐over RCT)

Effect of sublingual application of cannabinoids on intraocular pressure: a pilot study


2006: In humans, CBD as an antipsychotic

Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug


2006: In three patients with schizophrenia, CBD was well tolerated but after ~30 days, only one showed minor improvement

Cannabidiol monotherapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia


2005: In humans, the effects of CBD on the pharmacokinetics of THC

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study about the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on the pharmacokinetics of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) after oral application of THC verses standardized cannabis extract


2004: Many ‘n of 1’ studies on THC/CBD combos found that CBD did not help with the pain or sleep duration but did improve sleep quality (24 participants in a double‐blind, 4‐way cross‐over, RCT)

Initial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 'N of 1' studies


2004: In a small sample of humans, 15 mg of CBD seemed to be alerting & counteracted the sedative properties of 15 mg of THC

Effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on nocturnal sleep and early-morning behavior in young adults


2000: In humans, on binocular depth inversion (a schizophrenia model) & the effects of nabilone vs CBD

Different effects of nabilone and cannabidiol on binocular depth inversion in Man


1995: A case study saw CBD help schizophrenia

Antipsychotic effect of cannabidiol


1993: In humans, CBD for the anxiety of public speaking

Effects of ipsapirone and cannabidiol on human experimental anxiety


1993: In a double-blind human study, oral CBD prevented the typical reduction of cortisol levels in the morning

– prolactin and growth hormone levels unchanged

Effect of cannabidiol on plasma prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol in human volunteers


1991: In Huntington’s patients, CBD at 700 mg/day for 6 weeks was nontoxic but not effective for symptoms (15 patients in a double‐blind, cross‐over RCT)

Controlled clinical trial of cannabidiol in Huntington's disease


1986: In humans with dystonia, CBD caused all to see improvements (5 participants in a preliminary open pilot study)

Open label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders


1984: In adults with Meige Syndrome, 50% improvement in spasm frequency and severity

Treatment of Meige Syndrome with Cannabidiol

Google Scholar citation

According to this

1982: In a double-blind human study, CBD blocked the anxiety caused by THC

Action of cannabidiol on the anxiety and other effects produced by delta 9-THC in normal subjects


1981: In a double-blind human study, no chromosomal aberrations from CBD

In vivo cytogenetic effects of cannabinoids


1980: In humans, chronic administration of CBD was well tolerated & showed efficacy for epilepsy (15 subjects in double‐blind RCT study)

Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients


1980: In humans, CBD inhibited metabolism of the barbiturate hexobarbital

Metabolic and psychophysiologic studies of cannabidiol-hexobarbital interaction


1979: In a double-blind human study, a range of measures showed that while CBD helped to lower the blood alcohol level of someone drinking, it did not seem to help with the performance declines from alcohol

Interaction of cannabidiol and alcohol in humans


1979: In humans, a large amount of CBD did not interfere with alcohol or change the blood-alcohol levels

The effect of cannabidiol, alone and in combination with ethanol, on human performance


1976: In a double-blind study of humans using THC & CBD cigarettes, CBD lessened the euphoria of the THC & had no effect on the negative motor effects of THC

Influence of cannabidiol on delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol effects


1974: In a double-blind human study, CBD at 60 mg caused no side effects but it did block many of the effects of THC including anxiety

Cannabidiol interferes with the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in man


1973: CBD caused no side effects at 100 mg or 30 mg IV

Cannabidiol and cannabinol in man


1973: IV injections of CBD caused no effects on the criteria measured

A comparison of the pharmacological activity in man of intravenously administered delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabinol, and cannabidiol




1973: in humans, 21 days of 10 mg of CBD did not cause neurological changes, heart changes, or psychiatric changes

[Chronic administration of cannabidiol in man. Pilot study]