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Known as the “mother cannabinoid”, CBG is the chemical precursor to THC, CBD, and the other cannabinoids in the plant. CBG occurs only at low levels in cannabis because it tends to be quickly converted to other cannabinoids. Binding slightly to the CB1 and CB2 receptor, it also inhibits the enzymes that break down anandamide and 2-AG, hence raising the levels of those endocannabinoids. CBG interacts with an adrenaline receptor (α-2 adrenoceptor) and a serotonin receptor (5-HT1A Receptor) as well as modulating the expression of glutamate, GABA, and dopamine via the PPAR receptors on the nucleus that control genetic transcription. CBG is also active at the TRP channels involved in the sensations of temperature, pressure, pH, smell, taste, vision, and pain perception whose dysfunction are linked to neuropathic pain, inflammation, and respiratory disorders.

Surveys show patients reporting help for anxiety, chronic pain, depression, and disturbed sleep. In preclinical trials, it's been  studied for eye pressure, gut problems, appetite modulation, blood pressure lowering, bladder control, oral care, muscle spasms, airway inflammation, arthritis, painkilling, and most notably for brain health and neuroinflammation. In adult neural stem cells, CBG increased their viability. The breakdown products of CBG have been shown to reduce inflammation via the brain’s immune cells.

2022: A hearty review of CBG
The Origin and Biomedical Relevance of Cannabigerol

2022: A review of how CBD & CBG interact with the sodium channels that are vital to electrical signaling in the nervous system
Non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid interactions with voltage-gated sodium channels: An update on cannabidiol and cannabigerol

2022: A review of CBG research

Cannabigerol: a bibliometric overview and review of research on an important phytocannabinoid

2021: A pharmacological review of CBG
The Pharmacological Case for Cannabigerol

Timeline of Research


2023: In a mouse model of pain, how CBG lowers pain via the CB2 & TRPV1 receptors

The antinociceptive activity and mechanism of action of cannabigerol

2023: In a mouse model of osteoarthritis, using oils high in CBD or CBG to examine the entourage effect as well as sex-dependent outcomes

Effects Of Cannabis Extracts On Pain And Ptoa Progression In Mice, Involvement Of Entourage And Sex-Dependent Effects

2023: CBG causes part of its antibiotic effects by disruption of bacterial communication

The Antibacterial Effect of Cannabigerol toward Streptococcus mutans Is Influenced by the Autoinducers 21-CSP and AI-2

2023: In a cellular model of rheumatoid arthritis, CBG lowered inflammation via the TRPA1 receptors
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Cannabigerol in Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fibroblasts and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Cultures Are Partly Mediated by TRPA1

2023: In motor neuron cells, CBG increased the genetic expression for remodeling the skeleton of this cell & guiding their axons
Cannabigerol Activates Cytoskeletal Remodeling via Wnt/PCP in NSC-34: An In Vitro Transcriptional Study

2023: Computer modeling of what happens to CBD & CBG in different human tissues
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation of cannabinoids in human plasma and tissues

2023: CBG seems to be a reliable biomarker of recent cannabis smoking
The minor cannabinoid cannabigerol (CBG) is a highly specific blood biomarker of recent cannabis smoking

2022: In guinea pigs, CBD & CBG for airway inflammation
The anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol and cannabigerol alone, and in combination

2022: In lung cells, a mix of CBD, CBG & THCV worked synergistically with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen to reduce inflammation
Phytocannabinoids Act Synergistically with Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Reducing Inflammation in 2D and 3D In Vitro Models

2022: In mice, CBG lowers blood pressure
Acute Cannabigerol Administration Lowers Blood Pressure in Mice

2022: When liver enzymes break down CBG, those breakdown products are bioactive, such as causing the reduction of inflammation
Metabolites of Cannabigerol Generated by Human Cytochrome P450s Are Bioactive


2022: An array of techniques determines when the body breaks down CBG, the resulting metabolites are also active in our system & when applied to brain immune cells, they reduce inflammation
Metabolites of Cannabigerol (CBG) Generated by Human Cytochrome P450s are Bioactive

2022: In a mouse model of neuropathic body pain from chemotherapy, CBG reduced their hypersensitivity to touch

Cannabigerol (CBG) attenuates mechanical hypersensitivity elicited by chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy

2022: In a mouse model of osteoarthritis, both CBD oil & CBG oil helped with pain & inflammation as well as improved gait & locomotion
Distinctive Therapeutic Effects of Non-Euphorigenic Cannabis Extracts in Osteoarthritis

2022: In neuronal cells, CBG slows sodium channels & leads to decreased excitability, suggesting its use as a painkiller
Inhibition of sodium conductance by cannabigerol contributes to a reduction of dorsal root ganglion neuron excitabilityI

2022: CBG generates bioactive metabolites
Metabolites of Cannabigerol Generated by Human Cytochrome P450s Are Bioactive

2022: In gingival fibroblasts (the stem cells of your gums), CBD, CBG & CBDV had a range of anti-inflammatory & pro-inflammatory activities
Phytocannabinoids regulate inflammation in IL-1β-stimulated human gingival fibroblasts

2021: A survey of CBG-rich cannabis users found it helpful for anxiety, chronic pain, depression & insomnia & often more helpful than conventional medicines

Survey of Patients Employing Cannabigerol-Predominant Cannabis Preparations: Perceived Medical Effects, Adverse Events, and Withdrawal Symptoms


2021: In tissue model of stroke at the blood-brain barrier, CBG & CBDV lessened inflammation & CBG lessened DNA damage while CBDV worsened it

Protective Effects of Cannabidivarin and Cannabigerol on Cells of the Blood-Brain Barrier Under Ischemic Conditions

2020: In brain cells, we already knew that CBD affected the genetic expression of glutamate, GABA, & dopamine - and now it appears that CBG does as well

The Transcriptomic Analysis of NSC-34 Motor Neuron-Like Cells Reveals That Cannabigerol Influences Synaptic Pathways: A Comparative Study with Cannabidiol

2018: CBG a partial agonist at CB2 but not CB1

Cannabigerol Action at Cannabinoid CB 1 and CB 2 Receptors and at CB 1-CB 2 Heteroreceptor Complexes

2017: In rats, CBG cannabis extract increased feeding

A cannabigerol-rich Cannabis sativa extract, devoid of [INCREMENT]9-tetrahydrocannabinol, elicits hyperphagia in rats

2016: In human sebocytes model of acne, CBC & THCV suppressed lipid synthesis, CBDV had only minor effects & CBG & CBGV increased it - CBC, CBDV & THCV reduced arachidonic acid-induced 'acne-like' lipogenesis – THCV suppressed proliferation – all cannabinoids exerted remarkable anti-inflammatory effects

Differential effectiveness of selected non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment

2015: In a mouse model of Huntington’s, CBG helped with motor improvements & aggression via the regulation of several genes
Neuroprotective properties of cannabigerol in Huntington's disease: studies in R6/2 mice and 3-nitropropionate-lesioned mice


2015: In bladder cells, CBG ( & THCV>CBD>CBDV) reduced contractility

Effect of Non-psychotropic Plant-derived Cannabinoids on Bladder Contractility: Focus on Cannabigerol

2014: For the brain swelling in a mouse model of MS, the CBG derivative VCE-003 helps via inflammation & autoimmune corrections

A cannabigerol derivative suppresses immune responses and protects mice from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

2013: CBD, CBC & CBG increase viability of adult neural stem cells in mice via upregulation of ATP and adenosine signaling

The effect of cannabichromene on adult neural stem/progenitor cells

2013: CBG for IBD

Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease

2012: In a rodent model of obsessive-compulsive disorder, CBD helped with obsessive behaviors & CBD, CBDV, THCV & CBG all penetrated into the brain whether via oral or abdominal injection

Plasma and brain pharmacokinetic profile of cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarine (CBDV), Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and cannabigerol (CBG) in rats and mice following oral and intraperitoneal administration and CBD action on obsessive-compulsive behaviour.

2010: A review of CBG at PPARs for inflammation
Cannabinoid activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: potential for modulation of inflammatory disease

2010: CBG “can activate alpha(2)-adrenoceptors, bind to cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptors and block CB(1) and 5-HT(1A) receptors”
Evidence that the plant cannabinoid cannabigerol is a highly potent alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist and moderately potent 5HT1A receptor antagonist

2008: CBN + CBC + CBG + THC show antibiotic activity against MRSA strains
Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: a structure-activity study

1990: Eye effects of CBG & THC

A comparison of the ocular and central effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabigerol

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