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& Schizophrenia

Best reviews

2022: A review of targeting the CB2 receptor for helping to regulate the brain circuits of schizophrenia
Cannabinoid type-2 receptors: An emerging target for regulating schizophrenia-relevant brain circuits


2022: A review of targeting the endocannabinoid system to treat schizophrenia
Molecular Findings Guiding the Modulation of the Endocannabinoid System as a Potential Target to Treat Schizophrenia

2021: A review of CBD for schizophrenia finds that it helps to lower scores for positive symptoms (these includes delusions, conceptual disorganization, hallucinatory behavior, excitement, grandiosity, persecution & hostility)

Effect of cannabidiol on schizophrenia based on randomized controlled trials: A meta-analysis

2021: This reviews looks at using CBD for the early stages of psychosis

Cannabidiol (CBD) as a novel treatment in the early phases of psychosis

2021: A review of 11 studies looks at THC & CBD for schizophrenia

The Impact of THC and CBD in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review

2021: A review of targeting the ECS for treating schizophrenia

The endocannabinoid system as a therapeutic target for schizophrenia: Failures and potentials

2021: This review of clinical trials looks at CBD's reducing psychotic symptoms of THC as well as effects on schizophrenia & cannabis addiction (10 trials)

Efficacy of Cannabidiol for Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-Induced Psychotic Symptoms, Schizophrenia, and Cannabis Use Disorders: A Narrative Review

2021: This review of cannabinoids & psychosis suggests CBD as protective of THC-induced psychotic symptoms via the modulation of dopamine

Cannabinoids, reward processing, and psychosis

2020: CB2 receptors as a target for schizophrenia

Are CB2 Receptors a New Target for Schizophrenia Treatment?

2020: A review of CBD & schizophrenia

The role of cannabidiol oil in schizophrenia treatment. a systematic review and meta-analysis

2020: Modulating the ECS & schizophrenia

Impact of Endocannabinoid System Manipulation on Neurodevelopmental Processes Relevant to Schizophrenia

2020: The CB1 receptors & & schizophrenia

The Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor in Schizophrenia

2020: A review of the studies on CBD & schizophrenia

Cannabidiol as a treatment option for schizophrenia: recent evidence and current studies

2020: A review of 8 studies using CBD for schizophrenia

Cannabidiol for the treatment of psychosis among patients with schizophrenia and other primary psychotic disorders: A systematic review with a risk of bias assessment

2020: In animal models, the contribution of CB2 to schizophrenia symptoms

Contribution of CB2 receptors in schizophrenia-related symptoms in various animal models: Short review

2019: A review of the clinical studies suggests CBD as a potential treatment for psychosis & addiction

The Potential of Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Psychosis and Addiction: Who Benefits Most? A Systematic Review

2019: CBD & psychosis

Cannabidiol as a potential treatment for psychosis

2018: A review of glial cells & the cannabinoids in schizophrenia

Cannabinoids and glial cells: possible mechanism to understand schizophrenia

2018: CBD & recent-onset psychosis

The Potential of Cannabidiol Treatment for Cannabis Users With Recent-Onset Psychosis

2018: in primates, CBD can be tested on prepulse inhibition of acustic startle reflex to model its effects on schizophrenia

Cannabidiol effects on prepulse inhibition in nonhuman primates

2017: CBD & psychosis

The Efficacy of Cannabidiol (CBD) as Potential Antipsychotic Medication

2017: CBD & the dopamine system in regards to schizophrenia

Neuronal and molecular effects of cannabidiol on the mesolimbic dopamine system: Implications for novel schizophrenia treatments

2017: CBD & schizophrenia

A systematic review of the effect of cannabidiol on cognitive function: Relevance to schizophrenia

2017: The ECS & schizophrenia

Role of the Endocannabinoid System in the Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia

Chart Gallery

Timeline of Research

2023: In schizophrenia, perhaps the activation of the endocannabinoid system is a reaction against the neuroinflammation of the disease
Activation of the endocannabinoid system in schizophrenia: A compensatory mechanism of subclinical inflammation?

2022: In patients with early psychosis, one dose of CBD lowered activity in the insula (a brain region associated with motivation & sensory processing)
Cannabidiol attenuates insular activity during motivational salience processing in patients with early psychosis

2022: In an intriguingly designed Human Laboratory Study, CBD seems to ‘dial down’ the mental effects of THC relevant to psychosis
Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabidiol, and Acute Psychotomimetic States: A Balancing Act of the Principal Phyto-Cannabinoids on Human Brain and Behavior

2022: In humans with schizophrenia, PEA combined with risperidone (a common treatment) helped with their negative symptoms (functional, verbal, and social performance loss) but little change in their positive symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, confused thoughts, disorganized speech)
Adjuvant palmitoylethanolamide therapy with risperidone improves negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

2022: In people taking antipsychotics, it causes damage to their heart & this seems to be mediated by the CB1 receptors interacting with the inflammasomes, suggesting the targeting of CB1 to lower the cardiac side effects of antipsychotics
CB1R-stabilized NLRP3 inflammasome drives antipsychotics cardiotoxicity

2022: In humans with their first episode of schizophrenia, they have decreased levels of 2-AG & higher levels of PEA

The Expanded Endocannabinoid System Contributes to Metabolic and Body Mass Shifts in First-Episode Schizophrenia: A 5-Year Follow-Up Study

2022: In rats taking haloperidol (a common antipsychotic), CBD lowered the weight & fasting blood sugar increase that usually occurs
Effects of cannabidiol on weight and fasting blood sugar with chronic and subchronic haloperidol administration

2022: In mouse models of schizophrenia, the effects of CBD & THC
Cannabidiol, but Not Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, Has Strain- and Genotype-Specific Effects in Models of Psychosis

2022: In a rat model of schizophrenia being treated by risperidone (an increaser of dopamine that leads to movement disorders), oral CBD lowered their blood sugar, lessened their repetitive chewing motions, increased antioxidation & mitigated the metabolic dysregulation & movement problems of risperidone without producing cognitive impairments
Effects of cannabidiol on vacuous chewing movements, plasma glucose and oxidative stress indices in rats administered high dose risperidone

2022: In a mouse model of schizophrenia, a drug that activates the CB2 receptor produced antipsychotic effects
HU-910, a CB2 receptor agonist, reverses behavioral changes in pharmacological rodent models for schizophrenia

2022: In two rat models of schizophrenia, early blockade of the CB1 receptor inhibited their symptoms via the increasing of 2-AG levels

Early Blockade of CB1 Receptors Ameliorates Schizophrenia-like Alterations in the Neurodevelopmental MAM Model of Schizophrenia

2022: In a rat model of schizophrenia, inhibition of anandamide breakdown reversed the long-term behavioral symptoms & genetic expressions via the CB1 & CB2 receptor

Anandamide Hydrolysis Inhibition Reverses the Long-Term Behavioral and Gene Expression Alterations Induced by MK-801 in Male Rats: Differential CB1 and CB2 Receptor-Mediated Effects

2021: Humans at an ultra-high risk of psychosis have lower blood levels of endocannabinoids

Plasmatic endocannabinoids are decreased in subjects with ultra-high risk of psychosis

2021: In a rat model of schizophrenia, a positive modulator of the CB1 receptor (a feature of CBD) limited the hyper-dopamine signaling while THC did not
Antipsychotic potential of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor positive allosteric modulator GAT211: preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies

2021: In rats, the movement problems from long-term use of the antipsychotic haloperidol could be protected against by increasing endocannabinoid levels

Protective role of endocannabinoid signaling in an animal model of haloperidol-induced tardive dyskinesia

2021: In a mouse model of schizpohrenia, the ability of CBD to methylate DNA (deactivate it) may underly some of its antipsychotic effects

Cannabidiol prevents disruptions in sensorimotor gating induced by psychotomimetic drugs that last for 24-h with probable involvement of epigenetic changes in the ventral striatum

2021: In humans with psychosis, a single dose of 600 mg of CBD increased levels of glutamate in the hippocampus & significantly decreased symptom severity

Cannabidiol modulation of hippocampal glutamate in early psychosis

2021: In humans with acute schizophrenia, CBD worked as well as amisulpride for the improvement of neurocognitive parameters in young acutely ill patients

Cannabidiol and Amisulpride Improve Cognition in Acute Schizophrenia in an Explorative, Double-Blind, Active-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial

2021: In a case study of a man with schizophrenia & substance use disorder, high CBD-low THC cigarettes helped lessen his cannabis use & stop his cocaine use

Case Report: CBD Cigarettes for Harm Reduction and Adjunctive Therapy in a Patient With Schizophrenia and Substance Use Disorder

2021: Wellcome is funding a clinical trial to test CBD in youth at risk for psychosis

Cannabidiol for at risk for psychosis youth: A randomized controlled trial

2021: In rats, the administration of second-generation antipsychotics altered the endocannabinoid system & this may be related to the adverse metabolic effects of these drugs

Protein level alteration of endocannabinoid system components after chronic, oral self-administration of three second-generation antipsychotics in rat

2020: In humans with a high risk for psychosis, one dose of 600 mg of CBD modulated brain areas related to emotional processing (34 participants in a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group design)

A single dose of cannabidiol modulates medial temporal and striatal function during fear processing in people at clinical high risk for psychosis

2020: A case report of using CBD for anxiety & psychosis

Treatment of social anxiety disorder and attenuated psychotic symptoms with cannabidiol

2020: This imaging study of patients with first episode psychosis find a relationship between the ECS & glutamate

Association between cannabinoid 1 receptor availability and glutamate levels in healthy controls and drug-free patients with first episode psychosis: a multi-modal PET and 1H-MRS study

2020: In mice, heteromer complexes of CB1 & dopamine 2 are altered by treatment with cannabinoids & antipsychotics

Heteromer formation between cannabinoid type 1 and dopamine type 2 receptors is altered by combination cannabinoid and antipsychotic treatments

2020: In this clinical trial of 33 people liable to psychosis, brain scans showed that 600 mg of CBD helped with emotional processing 


2020: In a mouse model of schizophrenia, CBD helped as a preventative treatment


2020: In humans with schizophrenia, this analysis shows links to dysregulated CB1 receptors and to certain variants of the CNRN1 gene which encodes CB1

Cannabinoid receptor CNR1 expression and DNA methylation in human prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and caudate in brain development and schizophrenia

2020: In mice with a tendency towards schizophrenia, early treatment with CBD altered the transcription of a dopamine gene, suggesting CBD as a potential treatment

Altered dopamine D3 receptor gene expression in MAM model of schizophrenia is reversed by peripubertal cannabidiol treatment

2020: In rats treated with haloperidol (a medication for schizophrenia), CBD reduced the motor impairments and other negative side effects

Investigation of the Effects of Cannabidiol on Vacuous Chewing Movements, Locomotion, Oxidative Stress and Blood Glucose in Rats Treated with Oral Haloperidol

2020: In a mouse model of schizophrenia, CBD helped with behavioral changes not through the CB1 or CB2 receptors but via a serotonin receptor (5-HT1A)

Cannabidiol attenuates behavioral changes in a rodent model of schizophrenia through 5-HT1A, but not CB1 and CB2 receptors

2020: In humans, a brain imaging study shows how 600 mg of CBD causes its antipsychotic effects (34 participants in a double-blind, randomized, PLB-controlled, repeated-measures, within-subject cross-over design)

Normalization of mediotemporal and prefrontal activity, and mediotemporal-striatal connectivity, may underlie antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol in psychosis

2020: In humans with a high risk for psychosis, CBD helped in the social stress response to public speaking (58 participants)

Effects of short-term cannabidiol treatment on response to social stress in subjects at clinical high risk of developing psychosis

2020: In human double-blind study, 600 mg of CBD showed help for cortisol levels in those at risk for psychosis

Effects of short-term cannabidiol treatment on response to social stress in subjects at clinical high risk of developing psychosis

2019: In rats, the harms in a model of schizophrenia induced by repeated doses of ketamine seem to be attenuated by CBD

Cannabidiol Improves Cognitive Impairment and Reverses Cortical Transcriptional Changes Induced by Ketamine, in Schizophrenia-Like Model in Rats

2019: In rat model of schizophrenia, CBD normalized muscarinic signaling

Effect of cannabidiol on muscarinic neurotransmission in the pre-frontal cortex and hippocampus of the poly I:C rat model of schizophrenia

2019: In humans with psychosis, 600 mg of CBD helped with memory and connectivity in the brain as well as a decrease in symptoms (34 participants)

The neurocognitive and neurochemical effects of cannabidiol in psychosis

2019: Endocannabinoid levels are increased in people with high risk for psychosis

Childhood trauma and being at-risk for psychosis are associated with higher peripheral endocannabinoids

2019: In humans at high risk for psychosis, CBD attenuates dysfunction of a certain brain region (54 in a a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study)

Cannabidiol attenuates insular dysfunction during motivational salience processing in subjects at clinical high risk for psychosis

2019: In a female rat model of schizophrenia, “CBD restored recognition memory, social withdrawal and NMDAR binding deficits” & "CBD is an efficacious treatment for behavioural and neurochemical changes”

Cannabidiol improves behavioural and neurochemical deficits in adult female offspring of the maternal immune activation (poly I:C) model of neurodevelopmental disorders

2019: In humans with schizophrenia, their prefrontal cortex show an imbalanced endocannabinoid system

Endocannabinoid system imbalance in the postmortem prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia

2019: In humans with psychosis, cannabis use did not alter the efficacy of their antipsychotic medication

The influence of substance use on the effectiveness of antipsychotic medication: a prospective, pragmatic study

2019: In mice, the use of FAAH & MAGL inhibitors show that symptoms of schizophrenia may be regulated by the ECS

Effects of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitors Acute Administration on the Positive and Cognitive Symptoms of Schizophrenia in Mice

2019: In humans with schizophrenia, cannabis protected against gut disorders

Cannabis use disorders may protect against certain disorders of the digestive organs in people with schizophrenia but not in healthy controls

2019: In rat model of schizophrenia, CBD restored cannabinoid & GABA signaling deficits

Effect of cannabidiol on endocannabinoid, glutamatergic and GABAergic signalling markers in male offspring of a maternal immune activation (poly I:C) model relevant to schizophrenia

2018: in humans with schizophrenia, CBD well-tolerated but did not improve scores

The effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on cognition and symptoms in outpatients with chronic schizophrenia a randomized placebo controlled trial

2018: In humans, CBD did not attenuate the THC effects of memory impairment or acute psychosis

Individual and combined effects of acute delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on psychotomimetic symptoms and memory function

2019: comment

Lost in translation: an overinterpretation of the acute effects of cannabinoids

2018: in humans at risk for psychosis, brain scans showed how 600 mg of CBD normalized function (52 participants in a parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial)

Effect of Cannabidiol on Medial Temporal, Midbrain, and Striatal Dysfunction in People at Clinical High Risk of Psychosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

2018: In humans, double-blind study looks at CBD for schizophrenia

Cannabidiol (CBD) as an Adjunctive Therapy in Schizophrenia: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

2018: In a rat model of schizophrenia, CBD administered during adolescence prevented behavioral abnormalities

Cannabidiol Administered During Peri-Adolescence Prevents Behavioral Abnormalities in an Animal Model of Schizophrenia

2018: In humans, CBD increased fronto-striatal connectivity

Probing the endocannabinoid system in healthy volunteers: Cannabidiol alters fronto-striatal resting-state connectivity

2017: In postmortem human brains, the ECS dysregulated oppositely in schizophrenics & depressed people

Schizophrenia and depression, two poles of endocannabinoid system deregulation

2017: In rat model of schizophrenia, CBD attenuated the social interaction and cognitive deficits

Improved Social Interaction, Recognition and Working Memory with Cannabidiol Treatment in a Prenatal Infection (poly I:C) Rat Model

2016: In rats, CBD counteracted the negative effects of amphetamine on the mesolimbic dopamine pathway

Cannabidiol Counteracts Amphetamine-Induced Neuronal and Behavioral Sensitization of the Mesolimbic Dopamine Pathway through a Novel mTOR/p70S6 Kinase Signaling Pathway

2016: In a double-blind human study of 42 patients with schizophrenia, 800 mg of CBD showed significant symptom reduction after 2-4 weeks – also fewer side effects compared to amilsupride

Cannabidiol as a Potential New Type of an Antipsychotic. A Critical Review of the Evidence

2016: On CBD and the effect on prepulse inhibition of startle

Cannabidiol, among Other Cannabinoid Drugs, Modulates Prepulse Inhibition of Startle in the SHR Animal Model: Implications for Schizophrenia Pharmacotherapy

2016: In mice, CBD attenuated the catalepsy from haloperidol via serotonin

Cannabidiol attenuates haloperidol-induced catalepsy and c-Fos protein expression in the dorsolateral striatum via 5-HT1A receptors in mice

2016: In rats, the ability of CBD to occupy dopamine receptors may alter psychosis

Cannabidiol is a partial agonist at dopamine D2High receptors, predicting its antipsychotic clinical dose

2015: In humans, fMRI scans showed that CBD increased function connectivity while THC decreased it

Cannabinoid modulation of functional connectivity within regions processing attentional salience

2015: CBD’s reduction of glial activity could cause antipsychotic effects

Decreased glial reactivity could be involved in the antipsychotic-like effect of cannabidiol

2014: In mice, CBD attenuates the damage from chronic use of a NMDAR

Cannabidiol attenuates sensorimotor gating disruption and molecular changes induced by chronic antagonism of NMDA receptors in mice

2013: in humans, “pre-treatment with CBD inhibited THC-elicited psychosis and cognitive impairment”

Cannabidiol inhibits THC-elicited paranoid symptoms and hippocampal-dependent memory impairment

2013: In humans, they found those with psychosis had increased FAAH & MAGL levels (185 participants)

Peripheral endocannabinoid system dysregulation in first-episode psychosis

2012: in human double blind study, CBD increased AEA and helped with schizophrenia – better side effects than amisulpride

Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia

2012: THC & CBD differentially modulate prefrontal, striatal, and hippocampal function during attentional salience processing

Induction of psychosis by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol reflects modulation of prefrontal and striatal function during attentional salience processing

2012: In rats on a drug model of schizophrenia, CBD normalized their social relations and lowered hyperactivity

Cannabidiol and clozapine reverse MK-801-induced deficits in social interaction and hyperactivity in Sprague-Dawley rats

2012: In rat model of schizophrenia, CBD helped with the impairment of emotional processing

Antipsychotic profile of cannabidiol and rimonabant in an animal model of emotional context processing in schizophrenia

2011: In rats on a drug model of schizophrenia, CBD “showed both propsychotic activity and partial antipsychotic activity”

Effect of cannabidiol in a MK-801-rodent model of aspects of schizophrenia

2011: THC psychotic effects might be caused by impaired communication between right and left frontal lobes

Disruption of frontal θ coherence by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol is associated with positive psychotic symptoms

2011: THC may break down the synchronized neural oscillations necessary for speech

Communication breakdown: delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol effects on pre-speech neural coherence

2011: On combo of CBD and ketamine for schizophrenia

The interplay of cannabinoid and NMDA glutamate receptor systems in humans: preliminary evidence of interactive effects of cannabidiol and ketamine in healthy human subjects

2010: in humans, a one-time dose of CBD didn’t show help for a responsiveness to auditive stimuli in patients with schizophrenia

Performance of schizophrenic patients in the Stroop Color Word Test and electrodermal responsiveness after acute administration of cannabidiol (CBD)

2009: In a mouse model of schizophrenia, chronic CBD lessened anxiety & psychosis

A behavioural comparison of acute and chronic Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in C57BL/6JArc mice

2008: In humans, hair samples from schizophrenia patients saw more positive symptoms in those with only THC in their hair and no CBD

Effects of cannabidiol on schizophrenia-like symptoms in people who use cannabis

2006: In mice, CBD reverses a drug that disrupts the prepulse inhibition model of schizophrenia

Cannabidiol reverses MK-801-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition in mice

2006: In three patients with schizophrenia, CBD was well tolerated but after ~30 days, only one showed minor improvement

Cannabidiol monotherapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia

2004: In rats, CBD increased Fos in the limbic area but not the motor control area

Cannabidiol increases Fos expression in the nucleus accumbens but not in the dorsal striatum

1995: Case study saw CBD help schizophrenia

Antipsychotic effect of cannabidiol

1991: early tests on rats of CBD versus haloperidol for antipsychotic activity

Effects of cannabidiol in animal models predictive of antipsychotic activity

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