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Pain & Inflammation

Best reviews

2021: A review of medical cannabis & CBD for headaches & migraines

Medical Cannabis, Headaches, and Migraines: A Review of the Current Literature

https://www.cureus.com/articles/67643-medical-cannabis-headaches-and-migraines-a-review-of-the-current-literature

2021: This review looks at cannabis & CBD in treating lower back pain in older adults

The Effectiveness of Cannabis and Cannabis Derivatives in Treating Lower Back Pain in the Aged Population: A Systematic Review

https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/518269

2021: Review by two pharmacists about using CBD & the other cannabinoids for pain

See, Be, Deceived…or Relieved? Evaluating CBD for Pain Management

https://cme.tarsusmedicaleducation.com/sites/default/files/PHM-03%20See%20Be%20Relieved%20or%20Deceived%20%28Brooks%20and%20Kominek%29.pdf

2021: A review of humans with chronic musculoskeletal pain found that they reported cannabis to be helpful & with only minor adverse events

Cannabis against chronic musculoskeletal pain: a scoping review on users and their perceptions

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34481519/

2021: A meta-analysis of cannabis for chronic pain & pain from cancer

Medical cannabis or cannabinoids for chronic non-cancer and cancer related pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34497047/

2021: This review gives a physician’s perspective on the cannabinoids for pain with an emphasis on CBD

The Role of Cannabis, Cannabidiol and Other Cannabinoids in Chronic Pain. The Perspective of Physicians

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34467511/

2021: This review of 16 studies looks at treating osteoarthritis with CBD

Efficacy of Cannabidiol in Treating Osteoarthritis

https://journals.lww.com/jbjsjopa/Abstract/2021/09000/Efficacy_of_Cannabidiol_in_Treating_Osteoarthritis.9.aspx

2021: A review of CBD for oxidative stress

Cannabidiol modulation of oxidative stress and signalling

https://portlandpress.com/neuronalsignal/article/doi/10.1042/NS20200080/229491/Cannabidiol-modulation-of-oxidative-stress-and

2021: CV Sciences medical adviser Dr. Jamie Corroon publishes a primer for clinicians on using topical CBD for pain

Topical CBD for Pain: A primer for clinicians

https://www.naturalmedicinejournal.com/journal/2021-07/topical-cbd-pain

2021: This review of cannabinoids for inflammation & oxidative stress find the preclinical work to be promising but that the clinical work still needs to be done

The Therapeutic Potential of Cannabis in Counteracting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34361704/

2021: A review of how the cannabinoids similarly affect inflammation of the guts, lungs & skin

Cannabinoids and Inflammations of the Gut-Lung-Skin Barrier

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34072930/

2021: A meta-review of the studies of pain with cannabinoids & the endocannabinoid system in animal models

Cannabinoids, the endocannabinoid system, and pain: a review of preclinical studies

https://journals.lww.com/pain/Abstract/9000/Cannabinoids,_the_endocannabinoid_system,_and.98090.aspx

2021: A study of the antioxidation strength of the major phytocannabinoids finds that when working in combination, they're as strong as Vitamin E

CBG, CBD, Δ9-THC, CBN, CBGA, CBDA and Δ9-THCA as antioxidant agents and their intervention abilities in antioxidant action

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33964342/

2021: This review looks at using the cannabinoids to treat pain with a special focus on CBD

Cannabis-based medicines and pain: a review of potential synergistic and entourage effects

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33703917/

2021: This review of 26 studies looking at cannabinoids & inflammatory cytokines found that CBD, CBG & CBD+THC all decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines, but not THC alone

The Effects of Cannabinoids on Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines: A Systematic Review of In Vivo Studies

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/can.2020.0105

2021: Another review looks at the pain-relieving effects of the other components in cannabis plants

Antinociceptive effects of minor cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids in Cannabis

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33709984/

2021: This review looks at the efficacy & safety profile of cannabinoids for chronic neuropathic pain

A multicriteria decision analysis comparing pharmacotherapy for chronic neuropathic pain, including cannabinoids and cannabis-based medical products

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/can.2020.0129

2020: This roundup of research showcases several articles on the use of cannabinoids in cancer and pain treatment

Editorial: The Canonical and Non-Canonical Endocannabinoid System as a Target in Cancer and Acute and Chronic Pain

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2020.00312/full

2020: PEA & pain

ALIAmides Update: Palmitoylethanolamide and Its Formulations on Management of Peripheral Neuropathic Pain

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32727084/

2020: CBD & pain

Cannabidiol for Pain Treatment: Focus on Pharmacology and Mechanism of Action

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33238607/

2020: A meta-review of targeting cannabinoid receptors for inflammation

Cannabinoid Receptor and Inflammation

https://d197for5662m48.cloudfront.net/documents/publicationstatus/47421/preprint_pdf/20fc5a31ad2e089b815ba346776d2330.pdf

2020: This review looks at 19 studies and found that omega-3 fatty acid "modulates endocannabinoid tone, which subsequently attenuates inflammation and cardiometabolic risk factors."

Endocannabinoid system and cardiometabolic risk factors: A comprehensive systematic review insight into the mechanistic effects of omega-3 fatty acids

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32184122

2020: A meta-review on why CBD is so intriguing for treating inflammation

Cannabinoids as Promising Anti-inflammatory Agent

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-981-15-5917-4_5

2020: This review looks at the mechanisms of CBD for inflammation & scar tissue formation (fibrosis)

A molecular basis for the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis properties of cannabidiol

https://faseb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1096/fj.202000975R

2020: A review of CBD’s mechanisms

A molecular basis for the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis properties of cannabidiol

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32885502/

2020: A meta-review of interactions between cannabinoids & pain medications

Potential Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug Interactions between Cannabinoids and Drugs Used for Chronic Pain

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2020/3902740/

2020: This meta-review rounds up why the endocannabinoid system is being targeted for treating rheumatoid arthritis

The endocannabinoid signaling pathway as an emerging target in pharmacotherapy, earmarking mitigation of destructive events in rheumatoid arthritis

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0024320520308602

2020: A review of using CBD for pain

Use of cannabidiol (CBD) for the treatment of chronic pain

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1521689620300458

2020: A review of how the cannabinoids interact with the opioids and tend to help them work better

The role of the cannabinoid system in opioid analgesia and tolerance

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32167427

2020: A review of cannabinoids in the treatment of back pain

Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Back Pain

https://academic.oup.com/neurosurgery/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/neuros/nyz573/5758016

2020: A review of 36 clinical trials (representing 4,006 patients) finds moderate evidence supporting cannabinoids for treating chronic, non-cancer pain

Cannabinoids in Chronic Non-Cancer Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1179544120906461

2020: A review of targeting the cannabinoid receptors for neuropathic pain

Targeting Peripherally Restricted Cannabinoid Receptor 1, Cannabinoid Receptor 2, and Endocannabinoid-Degrading Enzymes for the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain Including Neuropathic Orofacial Pain

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/21/4/1423

2020: A review of CBD for chronic pain

The Role of Cannabidiol (CBD) in Chronic Pain Management: An Assessment of Current Evidence

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31980957

2020: Review of CBD's antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties

Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31881765

2019: This meta-review of 24 studies pain studies found cannabinoids effective as replacement/adjunctive options

Effects of cannabinoid administration for pain: A meta-analysis and meta-regression

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31120281/

2018: The ECS & migraines

Endocannabinoid System and Migraine Pain: An Update

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29615860/

Timeline of Research

2021: In a rat model of osteoarthritis, PEA reduced knee joint swelling, cartilage degradation & inflammatory markers

Anti-inflammatory activity of palmitoylethanolamide ameliorates osteoarthritis induced by monosodium iodoacetate in Sprague-Dawley rats

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34468900/

2021: In the blood of dogs, they measured the effects of CBD & found it to be anti-inflammatory & immuno-modulating

Effect of Cannabidiol (CBD) on Canine Inflammatory Response: An Ex Vivo Study on LPS Stimulated Whole Blood

https://www.mdpi.com/2306-7381/8/9/185

2021: In rats with nerve injuries, the ability of exercise to lower their pain seems to be at least partially mediated by the endocannabinoid system lowering their inflammatory response

Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia Profile in a Rat Neuropathic Pain Model Predicts Pain Severity Following Infraorbital Nerve Injury and Is Associated with Local Cytokine Levels, Systemic Endocannabinoids, and Endogenous Opioids

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34398938/

2021: In a mouse model of inflammatory pain, treatment with JNK (a novel pain inhibitor) works via the CB2 receptor in females & by both the CB1 & CB2 receptor in males

Sex and dose-dependent antinociceptive effects of the JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) inhibitor SU 3327 are mediated by CB2 receptors in female, and CB1/CB2 receptors in male mice in an inflammatory pain model

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0361923021002677

2021: In mice with no Alpha/Beta-Hydrolase Domain 6 (ABHD6 – an enzyme that degrades 2-AG), they had to urinate more frequently & were more sensitive to mechanical pain

Phenotypic Characterization of the Endocannabinoid-Degrading Enzyme Alpha/Beta-Hydrolase Domain 6 Knockout Rat

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34468198/

2021: In humans with arthritis, 30 mg of synthetic CBD not helpful for the pain

Cannabidiol treatment in hand osteoarthritis and psoriatic arthritis: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34510141/

2021: In a rat model of migraines, the CB1 receptor & orexin receptor were involved with the resulting anxiety & social dysfunction

The involvement of orexin 1 and cannabinoid 1 receptors within the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter in the modulation of migraine-induced anxiety and social behavior deficits of rats

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34560171/

2021: In rat livers, NSAIDs act as inhibitors of the FAAH enzyme & that may be part of the reason for their modulation of pain

Assessment of NSAIDS as Potential Inhibitors of the Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase I (FAAH-1) using Three Different Primary Fatty Acid Amide Substrates In Vitro

https://assets.researchsquare.com/files/rs-728085/v1/9d99d13a-44b8-4acf-9e76-d8ce70ae8584.pdf?c=1628260454

2021: In people with chronic pain, cannabis reduced their use of opioids

Risk and benefit of cannabis prescription for chronic non-cancer pain

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34338621/

2021: A survey of spinal patients found that many of them found CBD helpful for treating their pain, improving their sleep & reducing their anxiety

Prevalence of Cannabidiol Use in Patients With Spine Complaints: Results of an Anonymous Survey

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34285125/

2021: In diabetic humans with painful neuropathy in their feet, 20 mg of water solubilized CBD reduced pain, improved sleep & reduced anxiety

Cannabidiol (CBD) For the Treatment of Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy of the Feet: A Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Randomized Trial

https://www.longdom.org/abstract/cannabidiol-cbd-for-the-treatment-of-painful-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy-of-the-feet-a-placebocontrolled-doubleblind--77161.html

2021: In a rat model of tonic pain, the injection of CBD into the brain’s nucleus accumbens (a major mediating center of analgesics for pain) lessened the pain response & suggests CBD as a treatment for inflammatory pain

Cannabidiol microinjection into the nucleus accumbens attenuated nociceptive behaviors in an animal model of tonic pain

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34324957/

2021: In humans with nerve pain due to rheumatic disease, a combination of PEA & acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC – a dietary supplement that is naturally produced in the human body) caused a significant decrease in pain

The synergistic effect of palmitoylethanolamide and acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of peripheral neuropathies secondary to rheumatic diseases

https://www.minervamedica.it/en/journals/minerva-orthopedics/article.php?cod=R14Y2021N03A0336

2021: In a rat’s aorta, the drug affinin (a painkiller with a structure similar to anandamide) appears to act via the CB1, TRPV1 & TRPA1 receptors to cause vasodilation in the heart

Endothelial TRP channels and cannabinoid receptors are involved in affinin-induced vasodilation

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34237389/

2021: In rats with depression from traumatic nerve pain, the injury seems to lower the levels of cannabinoids & lead to behavioral depression

Dynamic Change of Endocannabinoid Signaling in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Controls the Development of Depression after Neuropathic Pain

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34244365/

2021: In humans, a test of CBD for pain found it safe & well-tolerated

The dose-dependent analgesic effects, abuse liability, safety and tolerability of oral cannabidiol in healthy humans

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34223660/

2021: In a mouse model of post-surgical pain, β-Caryophyllene (the terpene most often found in the hemp plant & our products) inhibited the MAGL enzyme & thus increased 2-AG levels to help treat the pain

β-Caryophyllene inhibits monoacylglycerol lipase activity and increases 2-AG levels: a new mechanism of endocannabinoid-mediated analgesia?

https://www.authorea.com/doi/full/10.22541/au.162539258.80061327

2021: In rats with nerve injuries, CBD helped with pain & symptoms of depression via the serotonin receptors & CB1 receptors

Cannabidiol in the prelimbic cortex modulates the comorbid condition between the chronic neuropathic pain and depression-like behaviour in rats: The role of medial prefrontal cortex 5-HT 1A and CB 1 receptors

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34192579/

2021: In a rat model of neuropathic pain, CBD helped on several different measures of pain & anxiety

Cannabidiol effectively reverses mechanical and thermal allodynia, hyperalgesia, and anxious behaviors in a neuropathic pain model: Possible role of CB1 and TRPV1 receptors

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34274349/

2021: This survey of Canadian cannabis clinics found CBD helped for pain, anxiety & depression in moderate & severe cases but not mild cases

Cannabidiol use and effectiveness: real-world evidence from a Canadian medical cannabis clinic

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34162446/

2021: In a rat model of Parkinson’s disease, CBD helped with their musculoskeletal pain

Cannabidiol has therapeutic potential for myofascial pain in female and male parkinsonian rats

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34246682/

2021: In rats getting chemotherapy, anandamide helped to protect against the neuropathic pain

Protective effects of anandamide against cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34118805/

2021: In pain sensing neurons of the mouse, CBD inhibited their firing via sodium channels, thus causing the cells to produce less pain signals

Cannabidiol inhibition of murine primary nociceptors: Tight binding to slow inactivated states of Nav1.8 channels

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34131037/

 

2021: In humans, one dose of 800 mg of CBD did not alter their pain levels

Pain response to cannabidiol in induced acute nociceptive pain, allodynia, and hyperalgesia by using a model mimicking acute pain in healthy adults in a randomized trial (CANAB I)

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34086631/

2021: In various cell types, CBD acted as an antioxidant in healthy cells & as a killer in cancer cells

New Insights on Hemp Oil Enriched in Cannabidiol: Decarboxylation, Antioxidant Properties and In Vitro Anticancer Effect

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34067035/

2021: In rodents, an extract of cannabis roots helped to control pain & inflammation as well as causing antiasthmatic activity

Investigation of antinociceptive, antipyretic, antiasthmatic and spasmolytic activities of Brazilian Cannabis sativa L. roots in rodents

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34058314/

2021: Among orthopedic doctors focused on trauma, a majority of them thought cannabis & CBD were useful for postoperative pain - although they didn't feel knowledgeable about the mechanisms

Knowledge and Opinion on Cannabinoids Among Orthopaedic Traumatologists

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33872227/

2021: A survey of 7 pain management clinics in SoCal found a predominantly positive attitude about CBD for pain relief

Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Chronic Pain: A Survey of Patients’ Perspectives and Attitudes

https://www.dovepress.com/cannabidiol-as-a-treatment-for-chronic-pain-a-survey-of-patientsrsquo--peer-reviewed-fulltext-article-JPR

2021: In rats, the use of morphine increased the number of CB2 in the spinal dorsal horn (one of the 3 columns of the spinal cord)

Morphine Induces Upregulation of Neuronally Expressed CB2 Receptors in the Spinal Dorsal Horn of Rats

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33912678/

2021: β-Caryophyllene, usually the most common terpene cannabis, improves oxidative stress & helps with malfunctioning mitochondria (powerhouse of the cell)

Improvement of Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction by β-Caryophyllene: A Focus on the Nervous System

https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3921/10/4/546

2021: In rats with neuropathic pain, an endocannabinoid reuptake inhibitor lessens the pain

Inhibitory effect of intrathecally administered AM404, an endocannabinoid reuptake inhibitor, on neuropathic pain in a rat chronic constriction injury model

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33783763/

2021: In rats, a look at the pharmacology of how endorphins & endocannabinoids control pain

Endogenous opioid and cannabinoid systems modulate the muscle pain: a pharmacological study into the peripheral site

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33826922/

2021: In a mouse model of pain, three of the main cannabis terpenes helped to reduce pain, possibly via the cannabinoid receptors

Evaluation of the Terpenes β-caryophyllene, α-terpineol, and γ-terpinene in the Mouse Chronic Constriction Injury Model of Neuropathic Pain: Possible Cannabinoid Receptor Involvement

https://faseb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1096/fasebj.2021.35.S1.01643

2021: In brain slices from rats, persistent inflammation lowers the number of CB1 receptors in the rostral ventromedial medulla (a brain region related to pain signaling)

Persistent Inflammation Reduces Cannabinoid 1 Receptor Function in the Ventrolateral Periaqueductal Gray

https://faseb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1096/fasebj.2021.35.S1.02474

2021: In a mouse model of neuropathic pain, THC & CBD both helped with pain - though they displayed less synergy than expected

Oral efficacy of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in a mouse neuropathic pain model

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33741405/

2021: In mouse models of pain, the combination of full-spectrum hemp extracts & PEA reduced pain greatly

Palmitoylethanolamide and hemp oil extract exert synergistic anti-nociceptive effects in mouse models of acute and chronic pain

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33722712/

2021: In mice, inflammatory pain causes more CB1 receptors in the pain area of the brain

Effects of inflammatory pain on CB1 receptor in the midbrain periaqueductal gray

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33693301/

2021: These pain doctors surveyed their patients about the amount of pain relief reported from using cannabinoids

Perception and Belief on Cannabinoids: A Comparative Study of Rheumatology Patients and Primary Care Physicians on the Use of Cannabinoids for Pain Management

https://www.cureus.com/articles/42623-perception-and-belief-on-cannabinoids-a-comparative-study-of-rheumatology-patients-and-primary-care-physicians-on-the-use-of-cannabinoids-for-pain-management

2021: In a rat model of inflammatory pain, PEA combined well with acetyl-l-carnitine (LAC)

Effect of Ultra-Micronized-Palmitoylethanolamide and Acetyl-l-Carnitine on Experimental Model of Inflammatory Pain

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/22/4/1967/htm

2021: In rats, CBD combined with bioflavonoids for osteoarthritis

Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol Alone and in Combination with Standardized Bioflavonoid Composition

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33570460/

2021: In a survey of humans with osteoarthritis in their hips & knees, a quarter of them endorsed the use of CBD products

Prevalence of Cannabinoid Use in Patients With Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7861619/

2021: In a rat model of osteoarthritis, activating the CB2 receptor helped to control pain & bone degeneration

CB2 agonism controls pain and subchondral bone degeneration induced by mono-iodoacetate: Implications GPCR functional bias and tolerance development

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33482616/

2021: In rats exposed to heat stress, the endocannabinoid system interacts with the serotonin system to modulate the pain

Interactions between the cannabinoid and the serotonergic systems in modulation of pain perception

https://pharmacia.pensoft.net/article/49219/

2021: In a mouse model of neuropathic pain, the pain-relieving properties of gabapentin are mediated by the endocannabinoid system

Role of the endocannabinoid system on the antihyperalgesic action of gabapentin in animal model of neuropathic pain induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33331440/

2020: In neuronal cells, cannabinoids like AEA & 2-AG protect from the inflammation & cell death caused by oxidative stress

Cannabinoid-profiled agents improve cell survival via reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation, and Nrf2 activation in a toxic model combining hyperglycemia+Aβ1-42 peptide in rat hippocampal neurons

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0197018620302084

2020: In the islet cells of the pancreas (producers of insulin), THC & CBD both helped to reduce the level of free radicals

Cannabinoids as anti-ROS in aged pancreatic islet cells

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0024320520307190

2020: In brain cells of rats experiencing neurotoxicity, both CBD & CBG rescued serotonin levels & acted as antioxidants – but only CBD helped to repair the release of neurotransmitters

Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Effects Induced by Cannabidiol and Cannabigerol in Rat CTX-TNA2 Astrocytes and Isolated Cortexes

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32443623/

2020: We're still not exactly sure how NSAIDS like ibuprofen work - but this study suggests the involvement of the cannabinoid & opioid system in the limbic areas of the brain

Endogenous opioid and cannabinoid systems contribute to antinociception produced by administration of NSAIDs into the insular cortex of rats

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S075333222030915X

2020: In mice, activating the CB2 receptor helped with pain via the microglia (the brain's immune cells)

Low-dose cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist induces microglial activation in a cancer pain-morphine tolerance rat model

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0024320520313886

2020: In rat neurons, how CBD causes pain relief via the TRPV1 receptors

CBD Effects on TRPV1 Signaling Pathways in Cultured DRG Neurons

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32982390/

2020: In mice with bone cancer pain, activation of the CB2 receptor lowered pain & improved the functioning of the blood-spinal cord barrier

Spinal cannabinoid receptor 2 activation reduces hypersensitivity associated with bone cancer pain and improves the integrity of the blood–spinal cord barrier

https://rapm.bmj.com/content/early/2020/08/12/rapm-2019-101262.abstract

2020: In rats with induced diabetes, activation of the CB1 or CB2 receptor helps with pain

Spinal cannabinoid CB1 or CB2 receptors activation attenuates mechanical allodynia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32804775/

2020: In this intriguing study in cells, the presence of cholesterol is critical to the ability of the cannabinoids to lower pain

Cholesterol regulates cannabinoid analgesia through glycine receptors

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32712277/

This effect works via the glycine receptors - which is another system that CBD interacts with.

2020: In rats, treatment with morphine increased the CB2 receptors in their spine - this suggests a combination of opioids & cannabinoids like CBD for safer, more effective pain treatment

Morphine Induces Upregulation of Neuronally Expressed CB2 Receptors in the Spinal Dorsal Horn of Rats

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/can.2020.0004

2020: A review of how NSAIDs (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) may be lowering pain & inflammation via the ECS

Non-opioid Analgesics and the Endocannabinoid System

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32551466/

2020: Computer modeling of the pathways CBD uses to protect against inflammation

A Network Pharmacology Approach to Identify Potential Molecular Targets for Cannabidiol's Anti-Inflammatory Activity

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/can.2020.0025

2020: In mouth cells, activating the CB2 receptor helped with inflammation & suggests a use for oral inflammatory diseases

Cannabinoid type‐2 receptor agonist, inverse agonist, and anandamide regulation of inflammatory responses in IL‐1β stimulated primary human periodontal ligament fibroblasts

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jre.12765

2020: In mouth cells, the terpene β-Caryophyllene reduced inflammation via the CB2 receptor

β-Caryophyllene Reduces the Inflammatory Phenotype of Periodontal Cells by Targeting CB2 Receptors

https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/8/6/164

2020: In white blood cells, inhibition of breaking down 2-AG decreases inflammation

Endocannabinoid hydrolysis inhibition unmasks that unsaturated fatty acids induce a robust synthesis of 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol and its congeners in human myeloid leukocytes

https://www.jimmunol.org/content/204/1_Supplement/144.28

2020: In mice with mucositis (oral lesions, often from chemotherapy), CBD protected the mouth via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity as well as speeding repair

Cannabidiol on 5-FU-induced Oral Mucositis in Mice

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32400905/

2020: In mice, activation of CB1 increased secretion of IL-10 while reducing inflammation and organ injury

Activation of CB1R Promotes Lipopolysaccharide-Induced IL-10 Secretion by Monocytic Myeloid-Derived Suppressive Cells and Reduces Acute Inflammation and Organ Injury

https://www.jimmunol.org/content/jimmunol/early/2020/05/07/jimmunol.2000213.full.pdf

2020: In human monocytes (a type of white blood cell), the anti-inflammation effects of CBD are mediated by modulation of the P2X7 inflammasome receptor

Inhibitory Effect of Cannabidiol on the Activation of NLRP3 Inflammasome Is Associated with Its Modulation of the P2X7 Receptor in Human Monocytes

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32374168

2020: In mice, swimming exercise reduced inflammatory pain via the ECS

High-intensity swimming exercise reduces inflammatory pain in mice by activation of the endocannabinoid system

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32358841

2020: In macrophages (mobile white blood cell), the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) sense pathogens & then pass on their message via the myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) adaptor. Both CBD & THC modulate the MyD88 signaling to help with inflammation

MyD88-dependent and -independent signalling via TLR3 and TLR4 are differentially modulated by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in human macrophages

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0165572820300576

2020: In mice, CB1 receptors control pain via pathways in the thalamus

Incerta-thalamic Circuit Controls Nocifensive Behavior via Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptors

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32502461/

2020: In a rare study of gender differences, this mouse study showed that the pain-relieving effects of the cannabinoids was greater in males than females

Evaluation of the Preclinical Analgesic Efficacy of Naturally Derived, Orally Administered Oil Forms of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabidiol (CBD), and Their 1:1 Combination

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32497151/

2020: In rats, the CB1 receptors are involved in pain signals processed by the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter (the brain region known as the primary control center for descending pain modulation) & blocking the CB1 receptors before a painful stimulus increased the learning & memory impairments

Blockage of ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter cannabinoid 1 receptor increases dental pulp pain and pain-related subsequent learning and memory deficits in rats

https://journals.lww.com/behaviouralpharm/Abstract/9000/Blockage_of_ventrolateral_periaqueductal_gray.99177.aspx

2019: in tissue culture, CBD extracts & isolated CBD both inhibited inflammatory leukocytes – both effect cell migration and TNF-α production but the extract is more potent - but isolated CBD better for lowering reactive oxygen species production

A Novel Standardized Cannabis sativa L. Extract and Its Constituent Cannabidiol Inhibit Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Functions

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31013912/

2019: CB2 receptors in the spinal cord may be involved in pain-reducing effects of exercise

Involvement of Spinal Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors in Exercise-Induced Antinociception

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31473278

2018: In rats, CBDA & THC both lowered pain & inflammation

Effect of cannabidiolic acid and ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol on carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia and edema in a rodent model of inflammatory pain

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30225659/