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Best reviews

2023: A review of using the cannabinoids for pain, especially CBD
Beyond Pain Relief: A Review on Cannabidiol Potential in Medical Therapies


2023: A review of 11 studies on using PEA for chronic pain
Palmitoylethanolamide in the Treatment of Chronic Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trials

2023: A review of PEA for facial pain
Orofacial Pain Management: An Overview of the Potential Benefits of Palmitoylethanolamide and Other Natural Agents

2023: A review on how the antioxidant effects of CBD probably underlie much of its benefit for many diseases
Cannabidiol: Bridge between Antioxidant Effect, Cellular Protection, and Cognitive and Physical Performance

2023: A review of the widespread antioxidant effects of CBD & THC as well as the many diseases this relates to
Cannabinoids in the Modulation of Oxidative Signaling

2023: For endometriosis & its pain, a paper on how we need to start seeing cannabis as a treatment
Cannabis for endometriosis-related pain and symptoms: It's high time that we see this as a legitimate treatment

2022: A review of why THC & CBD are so powerful as antioxidants & anti-inflammatories
Cannabis sativa L. Bioactive Compounds and Their Protective Role in Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

2022: In this review, 31 studies on CBD for chronic facial pain & disorders of the jaw muscles & joints
CBD in orofacial pain and TMD - a literature review

2022: A review of using CBD for chronic pain
Analysing the perspectives of health professionals and legal cannabis users on the treatment of chronic pain with cannabidiol (CBD): A scoping review

2022: A review of animal studies on using CBD for chronic pain finds it causes “analgesic [painkilling] effects, decreasing hyperalgesia [extreme sensitivity to pain] & mechanical/thermal allodynia [pain from a a stimulus that does not normally provoke pain]”
Chronic Pain and Cannabidiol in Animal Models: Behavioral Pharmacology and Future Perspectives

2022: A review of using CBD for chronic pain
Efficacy, Safety, and Regulation of Cannabidiol on Chronic Pain: A Systematic Review

2022: A review of THC & CBD for pain & mental health conditions
Tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol medicines for chronic pain and mental health conditions

2022: For musculoskeletal pain, a review of using topical cannabinoids
Topical cannabinoids for the management of musculoskeletal pain: Understanding and review

2022: A living review of 20+ studies on cannabinoids & chronic pain
Living Systematic Review on Cannabis and Other Plant-Based Treatments for Chronic Pain: 2022 Update

2022: A great review of the vanilloid TRPV1 & how the cannabinoids interact with this ion channel for lowering pain & nausea
TRPV1: A Common Denominator Mediating Antinociceptive and Antiemetic Effects of Cannabinoids

2022: A review of all the pathways that the terpene β-caryophyllene (the most common terpene in hemp) uses to help with inflammation, oxidation & microbes
A mechanistic review on immunomodulatory effects of selective type two cannabinoid receptor β-caryophyllene

2022: A book chapter in ‘Clinical Pain Management’ on using the cannabinoids for pain
Cannabis and cannabinoid for pain

2022: A review of clinical trials of chronic pain patients found cannabinoids especially effective for neuropathic pain & the spasticity of MS & less helpful for cancer pain
Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials of cannabinoid products in chronic pain conditions and for symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis: what do they tell us?

2022: A review of studies on cannabis for palliative end-of-life care found positive treatment effects for “pain, nausea and vomiting, appetite, sleep, fatigue, chemosensory perception and paraneoplastic night sweats in patients with cancer, appetite and agitation in patients with dementia and appetite, nausea and vomiting in patients with AIDS”
Cannabis in palliative care: a systematic review of current evidence

2022: A review of using the endocannabinoid system for the chronic pain of Alzheimer's
Chronic pain in Alzheimer's disease: Endocannabinoid system

2022: A review of 8 studies on human with chronic neuropathic pain found that it helped with their sleep & pain
Evaluating the impact of cannabinoids on sleep health and pain in patients with chronic neuropathic pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

2022: Targeting the ECS for the pain of irritable bowel syndrome
Targeting the endocannabinoid system for the treatment of abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome

2022: In a mouse model of neuropathic pain, a spinal cord pump of CBD & THC reduced their mechanical & cold sensitivities while causing no psychoactive effects
Intrathecal Actions of the Cannabis Constituents Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol in a Mouse Neuropathic Pain Model

2022: A review on using cannabis for chronic pain
Cannabis for Treatment of Chronic Pain

2022: BMJ on cannabinoids for chronic pain

Medical Cannabis or Cannabinoids for Chronic Pain: BMJ Rapid Recommendation

2022: A review of the knowledge & practices of healthcare practitioners using cannabis for chronic pain
Healthcare professionals' perspectives on the use of medicinal cannabis to manage chronic pain: A systematic search and narrative review

2022: A review of using the cannabinoids for chronic pain
Cannabinoids for the treatment of chronic pain - an overview of current medical knowledge

2022: A review of using cannabinoids to treat the orofacial pain of dentistry
Cannabinoid Therapeutics in orofacial pain management: A Systematic Review

2022: A review of how the endocannabinoid system modulates pain in cancer patients
Endocannabinoid System and Its Neuromodulatory Effects in Pain Management in Oncology Patients-A Systemic Review

2022: A review of substituting cannabis for opioids for gynecological pain
Making a joint decision: Cannabis as a potential substitute for opioids in obstetrics and gynecology

2022: A review of using cannabinoids to help with the pain of orthopedic surgery
Cannabinoids for Pain Modulation in Orthopedic Surgery

2022: An editorial on using cannabis & cannabinoids for treating the pain of endometriosis
Is it the Ideal Time to Start Prescribing Cannabis Derivatives to Treat Endometriosis-associated Pain?

2022: A systematic review on translating the chronic pain research into clinical cannabinoid action
Cannabinoids for Chronic Pain: Translating Systematic Review Findings Into Clinical Action

2022: A review of clinical trials of chronic pain patients found cannabinoids especially effective for neuropathic pain & the spasticity of MS & less helpful for cancer pain
Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials of cannabinoid products in chronic pain conditions and for symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis: what do they tell us?

2022: A review of treating complex pain with ketamine, psilocybin & the cannabinoids
Alternative Options for Complex, Recurrent Pain States Using Cannabinoids, Psilocybin, and Ketamine: A Narrative Review of Clinical Evidence

2022: A review of using the cannabinoids for pain
Cannabis, cannabinoids, and cannabis-based medicines: future research directions for analgesia

2022: According to this review, cannabinoids may be helpful for the pain of plastic surgery but more clinical research is needed
Cannabinoids and Pain for the Plastic Surgeon: What Is the Evidence?

2022: An excellent review of CBD’s effect on the TRP ion channels & how this might relate to its effects on seizure, inflammation, pain, acne, and vasorelaxation
Pharmacological effects of cannabidiol by transient receptor potential channels

2022: This collection of studies finds cannabis helpful for a number of different types of non-cancer pain
Long-term observational studies with cannabis-based medicines for chronic non-cancer pain: A systematic review and meta-analysis of effectiveness and safety

2022: A review article on cannabinoids & pain with a more neurochemical focus
Chronic Pain and the Endocannabinoid System: Smart Lipids – A Novel Therapeutic Option?

2022: On targeting the ECS for treating migraines

The endocannabinoid system and related lipids as potential targets for the treatment of migraine-related pain

2022: This study of cancer & pain patients using medical cannabis found a high adherence to following doctors orders, an improved quality of life, a decrease in pain levels & a low incidence of serious adverse events

Adherence, Safety, and Effectiveness of Medical Cannabis and Epidemiological Characteristics of the Patient Population: A Prospective Study

2022: A review of the phytocannabinoids for neuropathic pain

Applications of Cannabinoids in Neuropathic Pain : An updated review,forthcoming,38592.html


2022: This review of the literature suggests that the combination of spinal cord stimulation & cannabinoids work for chronic pain

Dorsal Column Stimulation and Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Chronic Nociceptive and Neuropathic Pain: a Review of the Clinical and Pre-clinical Data

2022: This review confirms the efficacy of cannabis for back pain in this review of 4 studies covering 110 patients

The Efficacy of Cannabis in Reducing Back Pain: A Systematic Review

2022: This review looks at cannabinoids for treating spinal disorders

Analyzing the Impact of Cannabinoids on the Treatment of Spinal Disorders

2022: A review of how clinicians are using cannabis for pain

Chronic Pain Clinical and Prescriptive Practices in the Cannabis Era

2022: A patient registry shows the efficacy of cannabis & cannabinoid medicines for neuropathic pain

Cannabis-based medicines and medical cannabis for patients with neuropathic pain and other pain disorders: Nationwide register-based pharmacoepidemiologic comparison with propensity score matched controls

2022: In pain patients, a combination of CBD & THC helped as an add-on treatment for neuropathic pain

Comparison of the Effectiveness and Tolerability of Nabiximols (THC:CBD) Oromucosal Spray versus Oral Dronabinol (THC) as Add-on Treatment for Severe Neuropathic Pain in Real-World Clinical Practice: Retrospective Analysis of the German Pain e-Registry

2022: A review on using cannabis & CBD for chronic pain

Living Systematic Review on Cannabis and Other Plant-Based Treatments for Chronic Pain

2021: CBDA as an antioxidant

Is cannabidiolic acid an overlooked natural antioxidant? – insights from quantum chemistry calculations

2021: In fibromyalgia, this review looks at how cannabis can help with pain, sleep & quality of life
Efficacy of cannabinoids in fibromyalgia: a literature review

2021: In the treatment of fibromyalgia, a review of 10 studies found that cannabis may be beneficial to patients & that no serious adverse events occurred
Safety and Efficacy of Medicinal Cannabis in the Treatment of Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review

2021: A review of using cannabinoids for pain

Cannabinoids, the endocannabinoid system, and pain: a review of preclinical studies

2021: This review of migraines & neural inflammation has a focus on the pain-relieving ability of the endocannabinoids

Neurogenic Inflammation: One of the Participants of Migraine and the Contribution of Translational Research

2021: This review looks at the pain fighting ability of the terpenes from cannabis

Analgesic Potential of Terpenes Derived from Cannabis sativa

2021: This review by a physician highlights the efficacy of CBD - and small amounts of THC – against chronic pain

Oral Cannabidiol (CBD) for the treatment of non-cancer chronic pain

2021: This review looks at the cannabinoids for nociplastic pain (where the nervous system gets overly sensitized to pain signals, such as fibromyalgia)

Cannabis-Based Medicines and Medical Cannabis in the Treatment of Nociplastic Pain

2021: A review of using the cannabinoids for chronic neuropathic pain

Cannabis-Based Medicines and Medical Cannabis for Chronic Neuropathic Pain

2021: The research plan for studying the use of cannabinoids for pain

International Association for the Study of Pain Presidential Task Force on Cannabis and Cannabinoid Analgesia: research agenda on the use of cannabinoids, cannabis, and cannabis-based medicines for pain management

2021: A review of studies using cannabinoids for pain found “THC and THC/CBD interventions provided a significant improvement in pain intensity and were more likely to provide a 30% reduction in pain”

Efficacy of cannabis-based medications compared to placebo for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain: a systematic review with meta-analysis

2021: This review looks at cannabis & CBD in treating lower back pain in older adults

The Effectiveness of Cannabis and Cannabis Derivatives in Treating Lower Back Pain in the Aged Population: A Systematic Review

2021: A review of medical cannabis & CBD for headaches & migraines

Medical Cannabis, Headaches, and Migraines: A Review of the Current Literature

2021: This review looks at cannabis & CBD in treating lower back pain in older adults

The Effectiveness of Cannabis and Cannabis Derivatives in Treating Lower Back Pain in the Aged Population: A Systematic Review

2021: Review by two pharmacists about using CBD & the other cannabinoids for pain

See, Be, Deceived…or Relieved? Evaluating CBD for Pain Management

2021: A review of humans with chronic musculoskeletal pain found that they reported cannabis to be helpful & with only minor adverse events

Cannabis against chronic musculoskeletal pain: a scoping review on users and their perceptions

2021: A meta-analysis of cannabis for chronic pain & pain from cancer

Medical cannabis or cannabinoids for chronic non-cancer and cancer related pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials

2021: This review gives a physician’s perspective on the cannabinoids for pain with an emphasis on CBD

The Role of Cannabis, Cannabidiol and Other Cannabinoids in Chronic Pain. The Perspective of Physicians

2021: This review of 16 studies looks at treating osteoarthritis with CBD

Efficacy of Cannabidiol in Treating Osteoarthritis

2021: A review of CBD for oxidative stress

Cannabidiol modulation of oxidative stress and signalling

2021: CV Sciences medical adviser Dr. Jamie Corroon publishes a primer for clinicians on using topical CBD for pain

Topical CBD for Pain: A primer for clinicians

2021: This review of cannabinoids for inflammation & oxidative stress find the preclinical work to be promising but that the clinical work still needs to be done

The Therapeutic Potential of Cannabis in Counteracting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

2021: A review of how the cannabinoids similarly affect inflammation of the guts, lungs & skin

Cannabinoids and Inflammations of the Gut-Lung-Skin Barrier

2021: A meta-review of the studies of pain with cannabinoids & the endocannabinoid system in animal models

Cannabinoids, the endocannabinoid system, and pain: a review of preclinical studies,_the_endocannabinoid_system,_and.98090.aspx

2021: A study of the antioxidation strength of the major phytocannabinoids finds that when working in combination, they're as strong as Vitamin E

CBG, CBD, Δ9-THC, CBN, CBGA, CBDA and Δ9-THCA as antioxidant agents and their intervention abilities in antioxidant action

2021: This review looks at using the cannabinoids to treat pain with a special focus on CBD

Cannabis-based medicines and pain: a review of potential synergistic and entourage effects

2021: This review of 26 studies looking at cannabinoids & inflammatory cytokines found that CBD, CBG & CBD+THC all decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines, but not THC alone

The Effects of Cannabinoids on Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines: A Systematic Review of In Vivo Studies

2021: Another review looks at the pain-relieving effects of the other components in cannabis plants

Antinociceptive effects of minor cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids in Cannabis

2021: This review looks at the efficacy & safety profile of cannabinoids for chronic neuropathic pain

A multicriteria decision analysis comparing pharmacotherapy for chronic neuropathic pain, including cannabinoids and cannabis-based medical products

2020: This roundup of research showcases several articles on the use of cannabinoids in cancer and pain treatment

Editorial: The Canonical and Non-Canonical Endocannabinoid System as a Target in Cancer and Acute and Chronic Pain

2020: PEA & pain

ALIAmides Update: Palmitoylethanolamide and Its Formulations on Management of Peripheral Neuropathic Pain

2020: CBD & pain

Cannabidiol for Pain Treatment: Focus on Pharmacology and Mechanism of Action

2020: A meta-review of targeting cannabinoid receptors for inflammation

Cannabinoid Receptor and Inflammation

2020: This review looks at 19 studies and found that omega-3 fatty acid "modulates endocannabinoid tone, which subsequently attenuates inflammation and cardiometabolic risk factors."

Endocannabinoid system and cardiometabolic risk factors: A comprehensive systematic review insight into the mechanistic effects of omega-3 fatty acids

2020: A meta-review on why CBD is so intriguing for treating inflammation

Cannabinoids as Promising Anti-inflammatory Agent

2020: This review looks at the mechanisms of CBD for inflammation & scar tissue formation (fibrosis)

A molecular basis for the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis properties of cannabidiol

2020: A review of CBD’s mechanisms

A molecular basis for the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis properties of cannabidiol

2020: A meta-review of interactions between cannabinoids & pain medications

Potential Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug Interactions between Cannabinoids and Drugs Used for Chronic Pain

2020: This meta-review rounds up why the endocannabinoid system is being targeted for treating rheumatoid arthritis

The endocannabinoid signaling pathway as an emerging target in pharmacotherapy, earmarking mitigation of destructive events in rheumatoid arthritis

2020: A review of using CBD for pain

Use of cannabidiol (CBD) for the treatment of chronic pain

2020: A review of how the cannabinoids interact with the opioids and tend to help them work better

The role of the cannabinoid system in opioid analgesia and tolerance

2020: A review of cannabinoids in the treatment of back pain

Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Back Pain

2020: A review of 36 clinical trials (representing 4,006 patients) finds moderate evidence supporting cannabinoids for treating chronic, non-cancer pain

Cannabinoids in Chronic Non-Cancer Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

2020: A review of targeting the cannabinoid receptors for neuropathic pain

Targeting Peripherally Restricted Cannabinoid Receptor 1, Cannabinoid Receptor 2, and Endocannabinoid-Degrading Enzymes for the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain Including Neuropathic Orofacial Pain

2020: A review of CBD for chronic pain

The Role of Cannabidiol (CBD) in Chronic Pain Management: An Assessment of Current Evidence

2020: Review of CBD's antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties

Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol

2019: This meta-review of 24 studies pain studies found cannabinoids effective as replacement/adjunctive options

Effects of cannabinoid administration for pain: A meta-analysis and meta-regression

2018: The ECS & migraines

Endocannabinoid System and Migraine Pain: An Update

Timeline of Research

2023: In Danish patients with hard-to-treat chronic pain, oral cannabinoids were safe & helped with some of their pain - THC & CBD worked better together
Safety and effectiveness of cannabinoids to Danish patients with treatment refractory chronic pain-A retrospective observational real-world study

2023: A case report of using CBD-rich cannabis for a patient with hypophosphatasia (a rare genetic disorder of impaired mineralization of bones & teeth that includes muscle pain & neurological symptoms) found that it led to a significant pain reduction, a discontinuation of opioids & resumption of her work as a physician
Medical Cannabinoids as Treatment for Hypophosphatasia-Related Symptoms

2023: In patients with mastocytosis (a painful overabundance of mast cells), CBD allowed a third of the patients to discontinue their other pain medicines
The Effectiveness and Safety of Pharmaceutical-Grade Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Mastocytosis-Associated Pain: A Pilot Study

2023: In a model of cystitis & bladder pain (a disease of chronic inflammation of the urinary bladder), CBD reduced inflammation & oxidative stress
Cannabidiol as a Promising Therapeutic Option in IC/BPS: In Vitro Evaluation of Its Protective Effects against Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

2023: In mice, more THC got into their system when administered in a THC- rich extract. Also oral CBD helped with their mechanical pain hypersensitivity
Pharmacokinetics of Orally Applied Cannabinoids and Medical Marijuana Extracts in Mouse Nervous Tissue and Plasma: Relevance for Pain Treatment

2023: In a mouse model of neuropathic pain, CBD combined well with electric nerve stimulation of the skin to reduce pain, possibly via a spinal increase of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10
Synergistic effect of cannabidiol and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on neuropathic and inflammatory pain in mice

2023: On how CBD regulates the calcium channels that underlie the mechanism of pain
Differential regulation of Cav 3.2 and Cav 2.2 calcium channels by CB1 receptors and cannabidiol

2023: In female rats, inhaling high CBD cannabis vapor reduces their reward from opioids & caused painkilling effects
High-CBD Cannabis Vapor Attenuates Opioid Reward and Partially Modulates Nociception in Female Rats

2023: In a study of mast cells & astrocytes (2 key support cells of the brain), PEA delayed their tolerance to morphine
Ultramicronized N-Palmitoylethanolamine Regulates Mast Cell-Astrocyte Crosstalk: A New Potential Mechanism Underlying the Inhibition of Morphine Tolerance

2023:In a tissue study of pelvic pain of the bladder, a mixture of PEA, hempseed oil & maritime pine bark extract reduced inflammatory cytokines
Micronized Palmitoylethanolamide, Hempseed Oil, and Maritime Pine Bark Dry Extract (Pelvipea®) for Pelvic Pain: An In Vitro Study for Urothelial Inflammation Treatment

2023: Advice on using the cannabinoids for treating the neuropathic pain of diabetes
Consideration of cannabinoids in the treatment of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain

2023: In a mouse model of toxic brain damage from HIV antiretrovirals, activating the CB2 receptor protects the brain, causes painkilling effects & reverses morphine tolerance
Peripheral sensory neuron CB2 cannabinoid receptors are necessary for both CB2-mediated antinociceptive efficacy and sparing of morphine tolerance in a mouse model of anti-retroviral toxic neuropathy


2022: Among patients taking CBD for a month, it significantly improved well-being, anxiety, sleep disturbance & pain
The Safety and Effectiveness of Commercially Available Cannabidiol Products for Health and Well-Being: A Randomized, Multi-Arm, Open-Label Waitlist-Controlled Trial

2022: The great Dr. Donald Abrams with a new clinical study on cannabis helping diabetics with their neuropathic pain
Cannabis Ameliorates Diabetic Neuropathy Pain

2022: In older adults, their most common reason to use medical cannabis was pain & sleep
Medical cannabis authorization patterns, safety, and associated effects in older adults

2022: In humans with tension headaches, PEA worked almost as well as ibuprofen for moderate headaches & for severe headaches, PEA worked faster
Efficacy of Palmitoylethanolamide (Levagen+TM) Compared to Ibuprofen for Reducing Headache Pain Severity and Duration in Healthy Adults: A Double-Blind, Parallel, Randomized Clinical Trial

2022: In a double-blind study of patients with rotator cuff surgery, CBD helped them with the pain immediately following surgery
Buccally Absorbed Cannabidiol Shows Significantly Superior Pain Control and Improved Satisfaction Immediately After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: A Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blinded, Randomized Trial

2022: Another survey of CBD users (young adults this time) that list the tops uses of CBD as pain, sleep & anxiety
Cannabidiol Knowledge, Perceptions, and Use Among Young Adults in 6 U.S. Metropolitan Areas

2022: In a case study of a woman with severe recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (a rare genetic skin fragility disorder), after nothing else helped with the pain, oral CBD drops helped improve her pain to tolerable levels, improved her ability to swallow as well as her quality of life
Purified oral cannabidiol for pain management in severe recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa

2022: A survey found for people with arthritis & joint pain, they said CBD helped with pain, physical function & sleep as well as a reduction in other medications
Cannabidiol as a treatment for arthritis and joint pain: an exploratory cross-sectional study

2022: A review of cases where doctors chose to use cannabis for chronic pain, opioid dependence, depression & migraines
Cannabinoids-Perspectives for Individual Treatment in Selected Patients: Analysis of the Case Series

2022: In patients with Autosomal Recessive Spastic Ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (an early neurodegenerative disease that causes pain & interferes with motion), a survey finds that there may be a role for cannabis in managing symptoms
Cannabis use in patients with Autosomal Recessive Spastic Ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay

2022: A survey of people with substance use disorder who used CBD found that it helped them to sleep better, relax, reduce pain & feel less anxious
Cannabidiol use among patients with substance use disorders

2022: In a survey of kidney patients, they used medical cannabis for pain relief & sleep enhancement
Patient views regarding cannabis use in chronic kidney disease and kidney failure: a survey study

2022: In patients with chronic pain, cannabis use caused significant pain score reductions, improved sleep & caused no serious adverse events
Medicinal Cannabis for the Treatment of Chronic Refractory Pain: An Investigation of the Adverse Event Profile and Health-Related Quality of Life Impact of an Oral Formulation

2022: Among patients with fibromyalgia, part of the ability of medical cannabis to help with pain results from their ability to help with sleep, anxiety & depression
Predictors of pain reduction among fibromyalgia patients using medical cannabis: a long-term prospective cohort study

2022: In patients with mouth & facial pain, they had lower levels of endocannabinoids in their saliva
Reduced Endocannabinoid Tone in Saliva of Chronic Orofacial Pain Patients

2022: In patients with diabetes experiencing neuropathic body pain, 600 mg of PEA lowered their pain & inflammation scores significantly as well as improving their sleep & mood
A randomized controlled trial assessing the safety and efficacy of palmitoylethanolamide for treating diabetic-related peripheral neuropathic pain

2022: A case report of an older woman using cannabis for her chronic pain & how it reduced her opioid medication dosage
The Utility of Cannabis-Based Medicine in Chronic Pain Management: A Case Report

2022: A survey of medical cannabis users again finds the use for chronic pain at the top of the list
Characteristics of People Seeking Prescribed Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Chronic Pain: Evidence From Project Twenty 21

2022: In male vs female cancer patients, cannabis helped both groups with pain, sleep, anxiety & well-being – but in females, it helped with nausea, lack of appetite & shortness of breath while in males it helped more with pain
Sex differences exist in the perceived relief of cancer symptoms with medical cannabis: results from the Quebec Cannabis Registry

2022: A survey of podiatry patients finds that they think CBD is helpful for their foot pain problems
Podiatric Physician Perspective on the use of Cannabidiol (CBD) in the Treatment of Foot and Ankle Pathology

2022: In patients with arthritis of the thumb, two weeks of topical CBD treatment caused significant improvements in their pain measures
A Randomized Controlled Trial of Topical Cannabidiol for the Treatment of Thumb Basal Joint Arthritis

2022: A survey of Canadian cannabis users found these conditions at the top of the list: anxiety (70%), insomnia (56%), pain (53%), depression (37%)
A description of self-medication with cannabis among adults with legal access to cannabis in Quebec, Canada

2022: In a survey of Parkinson’s patients, the use of cannabis was associated with improvements in motor function, sleep & pain
Cannabis use in Parkinson’s disease—A nationwide online survey study

2022: Many patients with multiple sclerosis use cannabinoids for pain relief
Cannabinoid use for pain relief among people with multiple sclerosis

2022: In humans with pelvic pain, a combination of PEA & magnesium reduced pain & increased quality of life
A Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and Magnesium Based Product (PEAMag) Reduces the Pain and Improves Quality of Life in Patients Affected by Acute and Chronic Pelvic Pain

2022: In a study of the UK cannabis medicine registry, the most frequent users of inhaled cannabis was patients with chronic pain & anxiety & they reported “a significant improvement in patient-reported pain scores, mood, anxiety, sleep disturbances” as well as increased quality of life
" Flower Power": Controlled Inhalation of THC-Predominant Cannabis Flos Improves Health-Related Quality of Life and Symptoms of Chronic Pain and Anxiety in Eligible UK Patients

2022: In patients with cancer, 300 mg of CBD per day lessened their chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (nerve pain in the body)
Oral cannabidiol for prevention of acute and transient chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy

2022: In patients with advanced cancer experiencing uncontrolled pain, a nano-spray of 1:1 THC:CBD appeared safe & showed preliminary evidence of painkilling effects
Pilot clinical and pharmacokinetic study of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/Cannabidiol (CBD) nanoparticle oro-buccal spray in patients with advanced cancer experiencing uncontrolled pain

2022: In a Florida survey of medical cannabis patients, 79% reported a reduction in their pain medication use
Medical Cannabis Patients Report Improvements in Health Functioning and Reductions in Opiate Use

2022: A survey of singers finds that they use CBD for stress, anxiety or chronic pain
Alternative and Complimentary Medication Use in Singers: A Pilot Survey

2022: In older patients with pain, a three-year retrospective study finds that even a low-dose of cannabinoids is linked to a decreased use of opioids
Cannabinoids reduce opioid use in older patients with pain : Retrospective three-year analysis of data from a general practice

2022: In a study of why New Zealand patients used CBD, the primary reason was non-cancer-related pain
Cannabidiol Prescription Requests in NZ: Describing Patients and Indications Seen in a New Zealand Cannabis Clinic

2022: In patients with episodic migraines, a small pilot study finds that PEA helps decrease the frequency of migraines & the amount of medication needed for pain
Palmitoylethanolamide-based nutraceutical Calmux® in preventive treatment of migraine

2022: In patients with severe neuropathic back pain, this industry study found that nabiximols (ie Sativex – a pharmaceutical 1:1 CBD:THC spray) was superior to a long-acting opioid analgesics in terms of pain control & side effects
Effectiveness, Safety, and Tolerability of Nabiximols Oromucosal Spray vs Typical Oral Long-Acting Opioid Analgesics in Patients with Severe Neuropathic Back Pain: Analysis of 6-Month Real-World Data from the German Pain e-Registry

2022: A review of the reasons for medical cannabis use in Ontario
Declared Rationale for Cannabis Use Before and After Legalization for Nonmedical Use: A Longitudinal Study of Community Adults in Ontario

2022: In a review of 933 patients using PEA for neuropathic pain, it helped with pain reduction & quality of life
Effects of Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) on Nociceptive, Musculoskeletal and Neuropathic Pain: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Evidence

2022: On using PEA for chronic pelvic pain syndrome
Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome, General Conservative and Medical Management and Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) Efficacy

2022: A case study of using THC & CBD on a patient with complex pain
Integration of Cannabis Extract Tetrahydrocannabinol:Cannabidiol in an Interdisciplinary Therapy Setting: A Case of Chronic Multilocular Pain Disorder

2022: In Australian patients with arthritis, the use of CBD/THC & CBD-only products significantly reduced pain intensity
Medicinal cannabis for Australian patients with chronic refractory pain including arthritis

2022: A cohort study of kids & teens using nabilone (a pharmaceutical THC derivative) against their chronic pain
Synthetic cannabinoid for the treatment of severe chronic noncancer pain in children and adolescents

2022: In migraine patients, oral cannabinoids helped reduce pain intensity & to lower acute medication intake

Oral Cannabinoid Preparations for the Treatment of Chronic Migraine: A Retrospective Study

2022: In patients with arthritis of the thumb, many of them found topical & oral cannabis helpful

Assessment of Medical Cannabis in Patients With Osteoarthritis of the Thumb Basal Joint

2022: In a mouse model of pain, combining an activator of the CB1 receptor & the mu-opioid receptor inhibited visceral pain without the development of side effects or tolerance


2022: Essential oil from hemp causes antimicrobial & antioxidant activity

In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Cannabis sativa L. cv 'Futura 75' essential oil

2022: In pain patients, cannabis oil reduced the use of opioids

Long-term Cannabis-based oil therapy and pain medications prescribing patterns: an Italian observational study

2022: In a rat model of pain from chemotherapy, the ability of hyperbaric oxygen treatment to lessen pain & inflammation seems to be mediated by the C2 receptor

Involvement of spinal cannabinoid receptor type 2 in the analgesia effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain

2022: A survey of pain patients found that cannabis causes a significant improvement in quality of life as well as reduced anxiety

Measuring the Change in Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients Using Marijuana for Pain Relief

2022: In a mouse model of pain, the ability of a black pepper extract seemed to control pain via the CB2 receptor, a PPAR nuclear receptor that controls genetic transcription & the TRPV1 vanilloid receptor

Viphyllin TM, a Standardized Black Pepper Seed Extract Exerts Antinociceptive Effects in Murine Pain Models via Activation of Cannabinoid Receptor CB2, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Alpha and TRPV1 Ion Channels

2022: A thematic analysis the experience of patients using cannabis for pain

What are the experiences of patients using cannabis for pain? A systematic review of qualitative studies

2022: An analysis of real-world patient data about cannabis for chronic refractory pain

Medicinal Cannabis for the Treatment of Chronic Refractory Pain: An Investigation of the Adverse Event Profile and Health-Related Quality of Life Impact of an Oral Formulation

2022: A mixed-method analysis shows how people are using cannabis for pain management

A mixed methods analysis of cannabis use routines for chronic pain management

2022: A look at novel FAAH inhibitors for the treatment of chronic pain 

Identifying FAAH Inhibitors as New Therapeutic Options for the Treatment of Chronic Pain through Drug Repurposing

2022: In mice with neuropathic pain, CBD combined well with THCV to lessen pair via the CB1 receptor & a serotonin receptor

Role of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rodents

2022: In a mouse model of pain & opioid addiction, a look at the effects of CBD & a novel CBD derivative (CBD-val-HS)

Differential Effects of Cannabidiol and a Novel Cannabidiol Analog on Oxycodone Place Preference and Analgesia in Mice: an Opioid Abuse Deterrent with Analgesic Properties

2022: Data from a medical cannabis app shows that inhaled cannabis reduces self-reported pain severity by ~45%

A Large-Scale Naturalistic Examination of the Acute Effects of Cannabis on Pain

2022: For chronic pain conditions, THC & CBD improved pain scores as well as quality of life

UK Medical Cannabis registry: an analysis of clinical outcomes of medicinal cannabis therapy for chronic pain conditions

Here’s the summary study of their entire analysis

An Updated Analysis of Clinical Outcome Measures Across Patients From the UK Medical Cannabis Registry

2022: This analysis looks at how chronic pain patients utilize medical cannabis products

A mixed methods analysis of cannabis use routines for chronic pain management

2022: This single-center prospective study found that medical cannabis helped to reduce opioid use in chronic pain patients

Medical Cannabis Used as an Alternative Treatment for Chronic Pain Demonstrates Reduction in Chronic Opioid Use - A Prospective Study

2022: In humans with chronic back pain, the use of medical cannabis reduced opioid prescriptions

Medical Cannabis Use Reduces Opioid Prescriptions in Patients With Chronic Back Pain

2022: A survey of chronic pain patients finds medical cannabis certification associated with decreased opiate use

Medical Cannabis Certification Is Associated With Decreased Opiate Use in Patients With Chronic Pain: A Retrospective Cohort Study in Delaware

2022: In mice with neuropathic pain from chemotherapy treatment, a CBD analog reduced mechanical & cold allodynia (pain from extreme sensitivity) via the PPARγ receptors which regulate genetic transcription

The Cannabidiol Analog PECS-101 Prevents Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathic Pain via PPARγ Receptors

2022: In a rat model of pain, the use of NSAIDs caused pain reduction via the endorphin & endocannabinoid systems

Endogenous opioid and cannabinoid systems contribute to antinociception produced by administration of NSAIDs into the insular cortex of rats

2022: In mice with pain, the use of curcumin reduced pain via the endorphin & endocannabinoid systems

Curcumin induces peripheral antinociception by opioidergic and cannabinoidergic mechanism: Pharmacological evidence

2022: In humans with peripheral neuropathy, a double-blind study showed topical CBD oil caused “significant improvement in pain and other disturbing sensations”

The Effectiveness of Topical Cannabidiol Oil in Symptomatic Relief of Peripheral Neuropathy of the Lower Extremities

2022: In a mouse model of inflammatory pain, combining CBD & β-caryophyllene (a common cannabis terpene) to produce synergistic painkilling effects via control of inflammation
Cannabidiol and Beta-Caryophyllene in Combination: A Therapeutic Functional Interaction

2022: In a rat model of neuropathic pain, THC worked the best for reducing pain – but high-CBD cannabis extracts was more effective than CBD alone
Combinations of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Reducing Chemotherapeutic Induced Neuropathic Pain

2022: In a mouse model of sickle cell disease, CBD lessened the chronic & acute pain by decreasing inflammation & oxidative stress
Cannabidiol Attenuates Chronic and Acute Hyperalgesia in Sickle Mice By Reducing Inflammation and Oxidative Stressv

2022: In a mouse model of nerve pain, CBD-rich extract lowered their pain sensitivity via the CB2 receptors of the microglia (immune guardian cells of the brain)
Cannabidiol-rich non-psychotropic Cannabis sativa L. oils attenuate peripheral neuropathy symptoms by regulation of CB2-mediated microglial neuroinflammation

2022: In a mouse model of sickle cell anemia, CBD lowered their sensitivity to pain
Cannabidiol attenuates hyperalgesia in a mouse model of sickle cell disease

2022: In a mouse model of fibromyalgia, cannabis oil with low THC levels helped with pain & touch sensitivities as well as lessening depressive behaviors
Broad-spectrum cannabis oil ameliorates reserpine-induced fibromyalgia model in mice

2022: In a mouse model of neuropathic body pain from chemotherapy, CBG reduced their hypersensitivity to touch
Cannabigerol (CBG) attenuates mechanical hypersensitivity elicited by chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy

2022: In a mouse model of neuropathic pain, CBD caused the morphine’s painkilling to work better & lowered the buildup of tolerance to opioids
Cannabidiol enhances the antinociceptive effects of morphine and attenuates opioid-induced tolerance in the chronic constriction injury model

2022: In mice with chronic pain from the chemotherapy drug cisplatin, CBD helped with their pain & this seems to be mediated by the CB1 & CB2 receptors working via the TRPV1 receptors & in females only, a serotonin receptors
The Role of Cannabidiol (CBD) in a Cisplatin-Induced Model of Chronic Neuropathic Pain

2022: In a rat model of pain, ß-caryophyllene (a predominant terpene in cannabis & an activator of the CB2 receptor) seems to cause its pain-relieving effects at least partially via the opioid receptors
Contribution Of Opioid Receptors To Antinociception Produced By ß-Caryophyllene

2022: In monkeys with free access to fentanyl, THC & CBD, alone or in combination, did “not enhance or diminish the rewarding effects of fentanyl”, suggesting them as a safe way to enhance the painkilling power of fentanyl
Effects of cannabidiol (CBD), ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and CBD/THC mixtures on fentanyl self-administration in a food drug choice procedure in rhesus monkeys

2022: In a mouse model of osteoarthritis, both CBD oil & CBG oil helped with pain & inflammation as well as improved gait & locomotion
Distinctive Therapeutic Effects of Non-Euphorigenic Cannabis Extracts in Osteoarthritis

2022: In a mouse model of pain from chemotherapy, PEA helped with the pain as well as the mood disorders
The Beneficial Effects of Ultramicronized Palmitoylethanolamide in the Management of Neuropathic Pain and Associated Mood Disorders Induced by Paclitaxel in Mice

2022: In a model of endometriosis, CBD reduced lesions, caused antioxidant effects, lowered scar tissue formation, reduced inflammation & helped with pain
Molecular and Biochemical Mechanism of Cannabidiol in the Management of the Inflammatory and Oxidative Processes Associated with Endometriosis

2022: In a mouse model of chemotherapy, CBD lowered neuropathic pain & inflammatory cytokines via the CB2 & Toll-like receptors (TLR4) in the spinal cord’s microglia (immune cells)
Cannabidiol Prevents Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathic Pain by Modulating Spinal TLR4 Via Endocannabinoid System Activation

2022: In human neutrophils (first-responder white blood cells), CBD inhibited expression of the COX-1 & COX-2 enzymes (responsible for pain & inflammation, a pathway used by NSAIDs like aspirin & ibuprofen)
Effect of Cannabidiol on Cyclooxygenase Type 1 and 2 Expression and Function in Human Neutrophils

2022: In mice using the painkiller oxycodone, THC increased the painkilling strength but didn’t seem to effect tolerance or dependence
Impact of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Administration on Measures of Oxycodone-induced Antinociception, Dependence and Reward in Mice

2022: In rats with a Vitamin D3 deficiency, CBD helped to improve the availability of Vitamin D3 which caused improvements in memory, pain tolerance, inflammation & aging
Effects of Cannabidiol Interactions with CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, and Vitamin D 3 Receptors on Spatial Memory, Pain, Inflammation, and Aging in Vitamin D 3 Deficiency Diet-Induced Rats

2022: In a rat model of neuropathic pain, CBD & THCV worked together to reduce pain & protect the neurons via the CB1 receptor & a serotonin receptor
Role of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain in rodents

2022: On using PEA to reduce the tolerance to opiates & enhance their painkilling abilities
Role of PEA in Reduction of Opiate Tolerance

2022: A combination of lidocaine & CBD for the topical treatment of pain
Design of Liposomal Lidocaine/Cannabidiol Fixed Combinations for Local Neuropathic Pain Treatment

2022: In a rat model of sciatic nerve damage, PEA decreased the intensity & duration of the pain, stabilized the microglia & astroglia (brain immune cells) & lowered neuroinflammation by several mechanisms
Analgesic Activity of Palmitoylethanolamide on Neuropathic Pain in Rats

2022: In a mouse model of facial pain, CBD reduced transmission through the pain pathway via the TRPV1 receptors
Efficacy and mechanism of the antinociceptive effects of cannabidiol on acute orofacial nociception induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant in male Mus musculus mice

2022: In macrophages (mobile white blood cells), CBD lowered inflammation as well as the standard treatment of the steroid dexamethasone
Comparison of the in vitro Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Cannabidiol to Dexamethasone

2022: In human neutrophils (first-responder white blood cells), CBD inhibited expression of the COX-1 & COX-2 enzymes (responsible for pain & inflammation, a pathway used by NSAIDs like aspirin & ibuprofen)
Effect of Cannabidiol on Cyclooxygenase Type 1 and 2 Expression and Function in Human Neutrophils

2022: In rats with a traumatic spinal cord injury, CBD lowered their oxidative stress, reduced their hypersensitivity & lessened pain levels
Cannabidiol attenuates hypersensitivity and oxidative stress after traumatic spinal cord injury in rats

2022: In rats who had spinal fusion surgery, THC increased their fusion rates while CBD had no adverse effect
Effects of cannabinoids on spinal fusion in a rat model

2022: A study of the minor cannabinoids find anti-inflammatory activities for cannabielsoin, dehydrocannabielsoin, cannabimovone & 3'-epicannabimovone
Synthesis of the Cannabimovone and Cannabifuran Class of Minor Phytocannabinoids and Their Anti-inflammatory Activity

2022: In mice, electroacupuncture works via the endocannabinoid system
Combined-Acupoint Electroacupuncture Induces Better Analgesia via Activating the Endocannabinoid System in the Spinal Cord

2022: In a mouse model of spinal cord injury, activating the CB2 receptor lowered inflammation, reduced loss of the myelin sheaths, increased autophagy (recycling of damaged cellular components), caused less neuronal apoptosis (cellular suicide) & improved functionality of the hind legs
Cannabinoid receptor-2 attenuates neuroinflammation by promoting autophagy-mediated degradation of the NLRP3 inflammasome post spinal cord injury

2022: In rats, activating the CB1 receptor help to reduce inflammation via the release of GABA (the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter of the brain)
Persistent Inflammation Induces Desensitization of the Presynaptic Cannabinoid 1 Receptor in the Ventrolateral Periaqueductal Gray

2022: In a rat model of neuropathic pain, a drug to inhibit the FAAH enzyme (also a function of CBD) reduced their pain
Fatty acid amide hydrolase activity in the dorsal PAG attenuates neuropathic pain and associated dysautonomia

2022: In a rat model of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathic pain, this thorough study looks at the changes in the levels of endocannabinoid machinery in the brain & spinal cord, finding a distinct difference between the male & female response
Changes in the expression of endocannabinoid system components in an experimental model of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathic pain: Evaluation of sex-related differences

2022: In a model of neuropathic pain from chemotherapy, the ability of a key terpene from Ginkgo biloba to reduce the pain seems to be mediated by the CB1 receptor
CB1 as a novel target for Ginkgo biloba's terpene trilactone for controlling chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN)

2022: In a goat model of visceral hypersensitivity (feeling pain in your organs), the ability of electroacupuncture to relieve the pain occurred via modulation of the endocannabinoid system
Electroacupuncture relieves visceral hypersensitivity through modulation of the endogenous cannabinoid system

2022: In mice with chronic pain who get moved to an enriched environment, the ability of this enriched environment to reduce pain levels is apparently because it mimics endocannabinoids in their reduction of pain & anxiety via the NR2B & CB1 receptors in the thalamus
Down-regulation of NR2B receptors contributes to the analgesic and antianxiety effects of enriched environment mediated by endocannabinoid system in the inflammatory pain mice

2022: In a mouse model of neuropathic pain, preventing the degradation of 2-AG reduced the pain via normalizing the reactivity of the microglia (immune cells of the brain)
Attenuation of allodynia and microglial reactivity by inhibiting the degradation of 2-arachidonoylglycerol following injury to the trigeminal nerve in mice

2022: In a rat model of pain, an interaction between the orexin system & the endocannabinoid system in the amygdala causes some of the painkilling
An interaction between basolateral amygdala orexinergic and endocannabinoid systems in inducing anti-nociception in the rat formalin test

2022: In a rat model of migraines, inhibiting the FAAH enzyme lowered pain levels & the inflammatory response
Potentiation of endocannabinoids and other lipid amides prevents hyperalgesia and inflammation in a pre-clinical model of migraine

2022: In a rat model of arthritis, the terpene myrcene reduced pain transmission as well as inflammation
Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Properties of the Cannabis Terpene Myrcene in Rat Adjuvant Monoarthritis

2022: In mice with abdominal pain, activating the CB1 receptor along with the mu-opioid receptor worked better at lowering pain
Cannabinoid 1 and mu-opioid receptor agonists synergistically inhibit abdominal pain and lack side effects in mice

2022: In rats with spinal nerve injuries, activating the CB1 receptor reduced pain as well as altering the plasticity of the relevant neurons
Endogenous Cannabinoid Receptors Modulate Plasticity at Immature Synapses

2022: In mice, females experienced more pain relief from CB1 activation than males because in the relevant brain area, they have more neurons with CB1 producing GABA (the brain’s primary inhibitory neurotransmitter)
Sex-specific cannabinoid 1 receptors on GABAergic neurons in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray mediate analgesia in mice

2022: In a mouse model of facial pain, treatment with a FAAH inhibitor caused increased AEA levels as well as CB1 receptors but lower levels of 2-AG & CB2 – strong look at the interplay of the endocannabinoids
Release of Endocannabinoids into the Cerebrospinal Fluid during the Induction of the Trigemino-Hypoglossal Reflex in Rats

2022: In an examination of sex differences, both genders appeared to have similar levels of CB1 receptors in their lumbar spinal cord (lower back – key for pain pathways)
Sex-specific characteristics of cells expressing the cannabinoid 1 receptor in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord

2022: In rats with spinal cord injuries, the increased expression of CB2 receptors helped to reduce neuropathic pain by lowering the transmission of pain signals into the spinal cord
Cannabinoid CB2 receptors are upregulated via bivalent histone modifications and control primary afferent input to the spinal cord in neuropathic pain

2022: In neuronal cells, CBG slows sodium channels & leads to decreased excitability, suggesting its use as a painkiller
Inhibition of sodium conductance by cannabigerol contributes to a reduction of dorsal root ganglion neuron excitabilityI

2022: In male rats, the effects of the painkiller tramadol seem to be mediated by the CB1 receptor & an orexin receptor
Effects of selective orexin receptor-2 and cannabinoid receptor-1 antagonists on the response of medial prefrontal cortex neurons to tramadol

2021: A survey of CBG-rich cannabis users found it helpful for many conditions like pain & often more helpful than conventional medicines
Survey of Patients Employing Cannabigerol-Predominant Cannabis Preparations: Perceived Medical Effects, Adverse Events, and Withdrawal Symptoms

2021: A survey of older adults found their medical cannabis use to be helpful for chronic conditions & for pain
Medical Cannabis Use: Exploring the Perceptions and Experiences of Older Adults with Chronic Conditions

2021: In a rat model of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain, inhaled cannabis reduced hypersensitivity to cold & decreased pain levels via the brain’s raphe nucleus (a center in the brain stem that sends projections to almost every other area of the brain)
Inhaled Cannabis Suppresses Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathic Nociception by Decoupling the Raphe Nucleus: A Functional Imaging Study in Rats

2021: In an animal model of osteoarthritis, β-caryophyllene both helped with the pain & reduced cartilage degeneration

Antinociceptive and chondroprotective effects of prolonged β-caryophyllene treatment in the animal model of osteoarthritis: Focus on tolerance development

2021: In rats, the ability of the coffee terpene kahweol to lessen pain is mediated by the endocannabinoid system

Kahweol, a natural diterpene from coffee, induces peripheral antinociception by endocannabinoid system activation

2021: In humans with pain, a small amount of THC (2.5 to 10 mg) helps an opioid painkiller to work better

Within-subject, double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled evaluation of the combined effects of the cannabinoid dronabinol and the opioid hydromorphone in a human laboratory pain model

2021: In a mouse that has CB2 receptors that glow in the dark, the amount of receptors present in the skin led the researchers to view the CB2 receptor as a target for the neuropathic pain of chemotherapy

A peripheral CB2 cannabinoid receptor mechanism suppresses chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy

2021: In a rat model of migraines, inhibiting both the FAAH enzyme (which breaks down anandamide) & the MAGL enzyme (that breaks down 2-AG) leads to less pain-associated behavior as well as gene activation related to inflammatory cytokines

Dual Inhibition of FAAH and MAGL Counteracts Migraine-like Pain and Behavior in an Animal Model of Migraine

2021: In mice, the ability of CB2 receptor activation to lessen pain seems to be mediated by TRPV1 receptors in the spinal column

Peripherally administered cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB 2 R) agonists lose anti-allodynic effects in TRPV1 knockout mice, while intrathecal administration leads to anti-allodynia and reduced GFAP, CCL2 and TRPV1 expression in the dorsal spinal cord and DRG

2021: In orthopedic patients, medical cannabis use “was associated with clinical improvements in pain, function, and quality of life with reductions in prescription drug use”

Perceived Efficacy, Reduced Prescription Drug Use, and Minimal Side Effects of Cannabis in Patients with Chronic Orthopedic Pain

2021: In sensory neurons, CBD & CBG reduced responses to the ‘spicy’ molecule capsaicin & why that might be helpful for pain

Dose-Related Inhibition of Capsaicin Responses by Cannabinoids CBG, CBD, THC and their Combination in Cultured Sensory Neurons

2021: In mice with neurotoxicity from treatment with the chemotherapy drug oxaliplatin, activating their CB1 receptor reduced the associated peripheral neuropathic pain

Endocannabinoid System Attenuates Oxaliplatin-Induced Peripheral Sensory Neuropathy Through the Activation of CB1 Receptors

2021: In mice with no CB1 receptors in their sensory neurons, this research suggests using CB1 agonists that are restricted to the periphery for the treatment of pain

Role of primary sensory neurone cannabinoid type-1 receptors in pain and the analgesic effects of the peripherally acting agonist CB-13 in mice

2021: In mice with pain, CBD helped more in males than in females – and showed no synergistic effect with morphine

Evaluating the Antinociceptive Efficacy of Cannabidiol Alone or in Combination with Morphine Using the Formalin Test in Male and Female Mice

2021: In a rat model of osteoarthritis, PEA reduced knee joint swelling, cartilage degradation & inflammatory markers

Anti-inflammatory activity of palmitoylethanolamide ameliorates osteoarthritis induced by monosodium iodoacetate in Sprague-Dawley rats

2021: In the blood of dogs, they measured the effects of CBD & found it to be anti-inflammatory & immuno-modulating

Effect of Cannabidiol (CBD) on Canine Inflammatory Response: An Ex Vivo Study on LPS Stimulated Whole Blood

2021: In rats with nerve injuries, the ability of exercise to lower their pain seems to be at least partially mediated by the endocannabinoid system lowering their inflammatory response

Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia Profile in a Rat Neuropathic Pain Model Predicts Pain Severity Following Infraorbital Nerve Injury and Is Associated with Local Cytokine Levels, Systemic Endocannabinoids, and Endogenous Opioids

2021: In a mouse model of inflammatory pain, treatment with JNK (a novel pain inhibitor) works via the CB2 receptor in females & by both the CB1 & CB2 receptor in males

Sex and dose-dependent antinociceptive effects of the JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) inhibitor SU 3327 are mediated by CB2 receptors in female, and CB1/CB2 receptors in male mice in an inflammatory pain model

2021: In mice with no Alpha/Beta-Hydrolase Domain 6 (ABHD6 – an enzyme that degrades 2-AG), they had to urinate more frequently & were more sensitive to mechanical pain

Phenotypic Characterization of the Endocannabinoid-Degrading Enzyme Alpha/Beta-Hydrolase Domain 6 Knockout Rat

2021: In humans with arthritis, 30 mg of synthetic CBD not helpful for the pain

Cannabidiol treatment in hand osteoarthritis and psoriatic arthritis: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial

2021: In a rat model of migraines, the CB1 receptor & orexin receptor were involved with the resulting anxiety & social dysfunction

The involvement of orexin 1 and cannabinoid 1 receptors within the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter in the modulation of migraine-induced anxiety and social behavior deficits of rats

2021: In rat livers, NSAIDs act as inhibitors of the FAAH enzyme & that may be part of the reason for their modulation of pain

Assessment of NSAIDS as Potential Inhibitors of the Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase I (FAAH-1) using Three Different Primary Fatty Acid Amide Substrates In Vitro

2021: In people with chronic pain, cannabis reduced their use of opioids

Risk and benefit of cannabis prescription for chronic non-cancer pain

2021: A survey of spinal patients found that many of them found CBD helpful for treating their pain, improving their sleep & reducing their anxiety

Prevalence of Cannabidiol Use in Patients With Spine Complaints: Results of an Anonymous Survey

2021: In diabetic humans with painful neuropathy in their feet, 20 mg of water solubilized CBD reduced pain, improved sleep & reduced anxiety

Cannabidiol (CBD) For the Treatment of Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy of the Feet: A Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Randomized Trial

2021: In a rat model of tonic pain, the injection of CBD into the brain’s nucleus accumbens (a major mediating center of analgesics for pain) lessened the pain response & suggests CBD as a treatment for inflammatory pain

Cannabidiol microinjection into the nucleus accumbens attenuated nociceptive behaviors in an animal model of tonic pain

2021: In humans with nerve pain due to rheumatic disease, a combination of PEA & acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC – a dietary supplement that is naturally produced in the human body) caused a significant decrease in pain

The synergistic effect of palmitoylethanolamide and acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of peripheral neuropathies secondary to rheumatic diseases

2021: In a rat’s aorta, the drug affinin (a painkiller with a structure similar to anandamide) appears to act via the CB1, TRPV1 & TRPA1 receptors to cause vasodilation in the heart

Endothelial TRP channels and cannabinoid receptors are involved in affinin-induced vasodilation

2021: In rats with depression from traumatic nerve pain, the injury seems to lower the levels of cannabinoids & lead to behavioral depression

Dynamic Change of Endocannabinoid Signaling in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Controls the Development of Depression after Neuropathic Pain

2021: In humans, a test of CBD for pain found it safe & well-tolerated

The dose-dependent analgesic effects, abuse liability, safety and tolerability of oral cannabidiol in healthy humans

2021: In a mouse model of post-surgical pain, β-Caryophyllene (the terpene most often found in the hemp plant & our products) inhibited the MAGL enzyme & thus increased 2-AG levels to help treat the pain

β-Caryophyllene inhibits monoacylglycerol lipase activity and increases 2-AG levels: a new mechanism of endocannabinoid-mediated analgesia?

2021: In rats with nerve injuries, CBD helped with pain & symptoms of depression via the serotonin receptors & CB1 receptors

Cannabidiol in the prelimbic cortex modulates the comorbid condition between the chronic neuropathic pain and depression-like behaviour in rats: The role of medial prefrontal cortex 5-HT 1A and CB 1 receptors

2021: In a rat model of neuropathic pain, CBD helped on several different measures of pain & anxiety

Cannabidiol effectively reverses mechanical and thermal allodynia, hyperalgesia, and anxious behaviors in a neuropathic pain model: Possible role of CB1 and TRPV1 receptors

2021: This survey of Canadian cannabis clinics found CBD helped for pain, anxiety & depression in moderate & severe cases but not mild cases

Cannabidiol use and effectiveness: real-world evidence from a Canadian medical cannabis clinic

2021: In a rat model of Parkinson’s disease, CBD helped with their musculoskeletal pain

Cannabidiol has therapeutic potential for myofascial pain in female and male parkinsonian rats

2021: In rats getting chemotherapy, anandamide helped to protect against the neuropathic pain

Protective effects of anandamide against cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats

2021: In pain sensing neurons of the mouse, CBD inhibited their firing via sodium channels, thus causing the cells to produce less pain signals

Cannabidiol inhibition of murine primary nociceptors: Tight binding to slow inactivated states of Nav1.8 channels


2021: In humans, one dose of 800 mg of CBD did not alter their pain levels

Pain response to cannabidiol in induced acute nociceptive pain, allodynia, and hyperalgesia by using a model mimicking acute pain in healthy adults in a randomized trial (CANAB I)

2021: In various cell types, CBD acted as an antioxidant in healthy cells & as a killer in cancer cells

New Insights on Hemp Oil Enriched in Cannabidiol: Decarboxylation, Antioxidant Properties and In Vitro Anticancer Effect

2021: In rodents, an extract of cannabis roots helped to control pain & inflammation as well as causing antiasthmatic activity

Investigation of antinociceptive, antipyretic, antiasthmatic and spasmolytic activities of Brazilian Cannabis sativa L. roots in rodents

2021: Among orthopedic doctors focused on trauma, a majority of them thought cannabis & CBD were useful for postoperative pain - although they didn't feel knowledgeable about the mechanisms

Knowledge and Opinion on Cannabinoids Among Orthopaedic Traumatologists

2021: A survey of 7 pain management clinics in SoCal found a predominantly positive attitude about CBD for pain relief

Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Chronic Pain: A Survey of Patients’ Perspectives and Attitudes

2021: In rats, the use of morphine increased the number of CB2 in the spinal dorsal horn (one of the 3 columns of the spinal cord)

Morphine Induces Upregulation of Neuronally Expressed CB2 Receptors in the Spinal Dorsal Horn of Rats

2021: β-Caryophyllene, usually the most common terpene cannabis, improves oxidative stress & helps with malfunctioning mitochondria (powerhouse of the cell)

Improvement of Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction by β-Caryophyllene: A Focus on the Nervous System

2021: In rats with neuropathic pain, an endocannabinoid reuptake inhibitor lessens the pain

Inhibitory effect of intrathecally administered AM404, an endocannabinoid reuptake inhibitor, on neuropathic pain in a rat chronic constriction injury model

2021: In rats, a look at the pharmacology of how endorphins & endocannabinoids control pain

Endogenous opioid and cannabinoid systems modulate the muscle pain: a pharmacological study into the peripheral site

2021: In a mouse model of pain, three of the main cannabis terpenes helped to reduce pain, possibly via the cannabinoid receptors

Evaluation of the Terpenes β-caryophyllene, α-terpineol, and γ-terpinene in the Mouse Chronic Constriction Injury Model of Neuropathic Pain: Possible Cannabinoid Receptor Involvement

2021: In brain slices from rats, persistent inflammation lowers the number of CB1 receptors in the rostral ventromedial medulla (a brain region related to pain signaling)

Persistent Inflammation Reduces Cannabinoid 1 Receptor Function in the Ventrolateral Periaqueductal Gray

2021: In a mouse model of neuropathic pain, THC & CBD both helped with pain - though they displayed less synergy than expected

Oral efficacy of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in a mouse neuropathic pain model

2021: In mouse models of pain, the combination of full-spectrum hemp extracts & PEA reduced pain greatly

Palmitoylethanolamide and hemp oil extract exert synergistic anti-nociceptive effects in mouse models of acute and chronic pain

2021: In mice, inflammatory pain causes more CB1 receptors in the pain area of the brain

Effects of inflammatory pain on CB1 receptor in the midbrain periaqueductal gray

2021: These pain doctors surveyed their patients about the amount of pain relief reported from using cannabinoids

Perception and Belief on Cannabinoids: A Comparative Study of Rheumatology Patients and Primary Care Physicians on the Use of Cannabinoids for Pain Management

2021: In a rat model of inflammatory pain, PEA combined well with acetyl-l-carnitine (LAC)

Effect of Ultra-Micronized-Palmitoylethanolamide and Acetyl-l-Carnitine on Experimental Model of Inflammatory Pain

2021: In rats, CBD combined with bioflavonoids for osteoarthritis

Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol Alone and in Combination with Standardized Bioflavonoid Composition

2021: In a survey of humans with osteoarthritis in their hips & knees, a quarter of them endorsed the use of CBD products

Prevalence of Cannabinoid Use in Patients With Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis

2021: In a rat model of osteoarthritis, activating the CB2 receptor helped to control pain & bone degeneration

CB2 agonism controls pain and subchondral bone degeneration induced by mono-iodoacetate: Implications GPCR functional bias and tolerance development

2021: In rats exposed to heat stress, the endocannabinoid system interacts with the serotonin system to modulate the pain

Interactions between the cannabinoid and the serotonergic systems in modulation of pain perception

2021: In a mouse model of neuropathic pain, the pain-relieving properties of gabapentin are mediated by the endocannabinoid system

Role of the endocannabinoid system on the antihyperalgesic action of gabapentin in animal model of neuropathic pain induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation

2020: In neuronal cells, cannabinoids like AEA & 2-AG protect from the inflammation & cell death caused by oxidative stress

Cannabinoid-profiled agents improve cell survival via reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation, and Nrf2 activation in a toxic model combining hyperglycemia+Aβ1-42 peptide in rat hippocampal neurons

2020: In the islet cells of the pancreas (producers of insulin), THC & CBD both helped to reduce the level of free radicals

Cannabinoids as anti-ROS in aged pancreatic islet cells

2020: In brain cells of rats experiencing neurotoxicity, both CBD & CBG rescued serotonin levels & acted as antioxidants – but only CBD helped to repair the release of neurotransmitters

Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Effects Induced by Cannabidiol and Cannabigerol in Rat CTX-TNA2 Astrocytes and Isolated Cortexes

2020: We're still not exactly sure how NSAIDS like ibuprofen work - but this study suggests the involvement of the cannabinoid & opioid system in the limbic areas of the brain

Endogenous opioid and cannabinoid systems contribute to antinociception produced by administration of NSAIDs into the insular cortex of rats

2020: In mice, activating the CB2 receptor helped with pain via the microglia (the brain's immune cells)

Low-dose cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist induces microglial activation in a cancer pain-morphine tolerance rat model

2020: In rat neurons, how CBD causes pain relief via the TRPV1 receptors

CBD Effects on TRPV1 Signaling Pathways in Cultured DRG Neurons

2020: In mice with bone cancer pain, activation of the CB2 receptor lowered pain & improved the functioning of the blood-spinal cord barrier

Spinal cannabinoid receptor 2 activation reduces hypersensitivity associated with bone cancer pain and improves the integrity of the blood–spinal cord barrier

2020: In rats with induced diabetes, activation of the CB1 or CB2 receptor helps with pain

Spinal cannabinoid CB1 or CB2 receptors activation attenuates mechanical allodynia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

2020: In this intriguing study in cells, the presence of cholesterol is critical to the ability of the cannabinoids to lower pain

Cholesterol regulates cannabinoid analgesia through glycine receptors

This effect works via the glycine receptors - which is another system that CBD interacts with.

2020: In rats, treatment with morphine increased the CB2 receptors in their spine - this suggests a combination of opioids & cannabinoids like CBD for safer, more effective pain treatment

Morphine Induces Upregulation of Neuronally Expressed CB2 Receptors in the Spinal Dorsal Horn of Rats

2020: A review of how NSAIDs (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) may be lowering pain & inflammation via the ECS

Non-opioid Analgesics and the Endocannabinoid System

2020: Computer modeling of the pathways CBD uses to protect against inflammation

A Network Pharmacology Approach to Identify Potential Molecular Targets for Cannabidiol's Anti-Inflammatory Activity

2020: In mouth cells, activating the CB2 receptor helped with inflammation & suggests a use for oral inflammatory diseases

Cannabinoid type‐2 receptor agonist, inverse agonist, and anandamide regulation of inflammatory responses in IL‐1β stimulated primary human periodontal ligament fibroblasts

2020: In mouth cells, the terpene β-Caryophyllene reduced inflammation via the CB2 receptor

β-Caryophyllene Reduces the Inflammatory Phenotype of Periodontal Cells by Targeting CB2 Receptors

2020: In white blood cells, inhibition of breaking down 2-AG decreases inflammation

Endocannabinoid hydrolysis inhibition unmasks that unsaturated fatty acids induce a robust synthesis of 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol and its congeners in human myeloid leukocytes

2020: In mice with mucositis (oral lesions, often from chemotherapy), CBD protected the mouth via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity as well as speeding repair

Cannabidiol on 5-FU-induced Oral Mucositis in Mice

2020: In mice, activation of CB1 increased secretion of IL-10 while reducing inflammation and organ injury

Activation of CB1R Promotes Lipopolysaccharide-Induced IL-10 Secretion by Monocytic Myeloid-Derived Suppressive Cells and Reduces Acute Inflammation and Organ Injury

2020: In human monocytes (a type of white blood cell), the anti-inflammation effects of CBD are mediated by modulation of the P2X7 inflammasome receptor

Inhibitory Effect of Cannabidiol on the Activation of NLRP3 Inflammasome Is Associated with Its Modulation of the P2X7 Receptor in Human Monocytes

2020: In mice, swimming exercise reduced inflammatory pain via the ECS

High-intensity swimming exercise reduces inflammatory pain in mice by activation of the endocannabinoid system

2020: In macrophages (mobile white blood cell), the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) sense pathogens & then pass on their message via the myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) adaptor. Both CBD & THC modulate the MyD88 signaling to help with inflammation

MyD88-dependent and -independent signalling via TLR3 and TLR4 are differentially modulated by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in human macrophages

2020: In mice, CB1 receptors control pain via pathways in the thalamus

Incerta-thalamic Circuit Controls Nocifensive Behavior via Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptors

2020: In a rare study of gender differences, this mouse study showed that the pain-relieving effects of the cannabinoids was greater in males than females

Evaluation of the Preclinical Analgesic Efficacy of Naturally Derived, Orally Administered Oil Forms of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabidiol (CBD), and Their 1:1 Combination

2020: In rats, the CB1 receptors are involved in pain signals processed by the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter (the brain region known as the primary control center for descending pain modulation) & blocking the CB1 receptors before a painful stimulus increased the learning & memory impairments

Blockage of ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter cannabinoid 1 receptor increases dental pulp pain and pain-related subsequent learning and memory deficits in rats

2019: in tissue culture, CBD extracts & isolated CBD both inhibited inflammatory leukocytes – both effect cell migration and TNF-α production but the extract is more potent - but isolated CBD better for lowering reactive oxygen species production

A Novel Standardized Cannabis sativa L. Extract and Its Constituent Cannabidiol Inhibit Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Functions

2019: CB2 receptors in the spinal cord may be involved in pain-reducing effects of exercise

Involvement of Spinal Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors in Exercise-Induced Antinociception

2018: In rats, CBDA & THC both lowered pain & inflammation

Effect of cannabidiolic acid and ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol on carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia and edema in a rodent model of inflammatory pain

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