Mental
Health

Best reviews

2021: This expert panel of Colombian psychiatrists suggested CBD for the treatment of the major mental disorders

Colombian consensus of treatment with pure cannabidiol (CBD) in Psychiatry

https://europepmc.org/article/ppr/ppr381442

2021: This in-depth review looks at targeting the endocannabinoid system for serious mental health disorders

The Endocannabinoidome in Neuropsychiatry: Opportunities and Potential Risks

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34119623/

2021: A review of the endocannabinoid system as a guardian of mental health

Endocannabinoid system in trauma and psychosis: distant guardian of mental stability

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33656307/

2021: In this review of aggression, they find that activating the CB1 receptor helps suppress impulsive aggression

Regulation of stress-provoked aggressive behavior using endocannabinoids

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S235228952100045X

2021: This meta-review of clinical trials looks at CBD's reducing psychotic symptoms of THC as well as effects on schizophrenia & cannabis addiction (10 trials)

Efficacy of Cannabidiol for Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-Induced Psychotic Symptoms, Schizophrenia, and Cannabis Use Disorders: A Narrative Review

https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0383/10/6/1303/htm

2020: A review of essential oils & the ECS

A Systematic Review of Essential Oils and the Endocannabinoid System: A Connection Worthy of Further Exploration

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32508955/

2020: A review suggesting targeting the ECS for treating Borderline Personality Disorder

Targeting the Endocannabinoid System in Borderline Personality Disorder

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32351183

2020: A review looking at how THC & CBD affect the recognition of emotions in facial expressions

The effects of Cannabidiol (CBD) and Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on the recognition of emotions in facial expressions: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32745478/

2020: A review of CBD during neurodevelopment for schizophrenia & autism

Is Cannabidiol During Neurodevelopment a Promising Therapy for Schizophrenia and Autism Spectrum Disorders?

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33613289/

2020: A review of why CBD & fish oil can be helpful for mental health via their effects on the PPAR receptors (nuclear receptors that control genetic transcription)

Functional interactions between cannabinoids, omega-3 fatty acids and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: Implications for mental health pharmacotherapies

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33108021/

2020: CBD & suicidality

Suicidality and Cannabidiol: Opportunities and Challenges

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33059579/

2020: A review of CBD for mental health

The Impact of Cannabidiol on Psychiatric and Medical Conditions

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32655732/

2020: The ECS as biomarkers for mental health

Endocannabinoid System Components as Potential Biomarkers in Psychiatry

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197485/

2020: A review of mental disorders & the cannabinoids 

Cannabinoids and their therapeutic applications in mental disorders

https://www.dialogues-cns.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/DialoguesClinNeurosci-22-271.pdf

2020: A review of the importance of synapses in mental disorders & how cannabinoids can help

Cannabis points to the synaptic pathology of mental disorders: how aberrant synaptic components disrupt the highest psychological functions

https://www.dialogues-cns.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/DialoguesClinNeurosci-22-251.pdf

2020: Di Marzo on the ECS & how its healing of the guts can lead to healing of the mind

The endocannabinoidome as a substrate for noneuphoric phytocannabinoid action and gut microbiome dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders

https://www.dialogues-cns.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/DialoguesClinNeurosci-22-259.pdf

2020: Review of what we know about how the ECS is disordered in psychotic and mood disorders

Endocannabinoid system in psychotic and mood disorders: A review of human studies

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32898588/

2020: A review of CBD for mental health

The therapeutic role of Cannabidiol in mental health: a systematic review

https://jcannabisresearch.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s42238-019-0012-y

2020: A review of the studies of CBD and schizophrenia

Cannabidiol as a treatment option for schizophrenia: recent evidence and current studies

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32073423

2019: A review of the ECS & bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder and the endocannabinoid system

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31159897

2019: A review of the ECS & OCD: charts of circuits & CB1 distribution

The Endocannabinoid System: A New Treatment Target for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder?

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32656342/

2019: A review of the clinical studies of CBD for psychosis & addiction

The Potential of Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Psychosis and Addiction: Who Benefits Most? A Systematic Review

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31330972

2019: A review of CBD & psychosis

Cannabidiol as a potential treatment for psychosis

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31741731

2019: A review of PET scans of ECS signaling in psychiatric disorders

Endocannabinoid signaling in psychiatric disorders: a review of positron emission tomography studies

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30166624/

2019: CBD in psychiatry

Cannabidiol (CBD) use in psychiatric disorders: A systematic review

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31412258

2019: A review finds cannabis terpenes and terpenoids "may be an important potential source for new medications for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders."

The “Entourage Effect”: Terpenes Coupled with Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324885/

2019: A review about CBD and psychiatric conditions

Preclinical and Clinical Evidence Supporting Use of Cannabidiol in Psychiatry

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31558911/

2019: A review of CBD and psychiatric disorders

Effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in neuropsychiatric disorders: A review of pre-clinical and clinical findings

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31601406

2019: CBD and psychiatry

Cannabidiol: Recent advances and new insights for neuropsychiatric disorders treatment

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30910646

2018: Pharmacology of CBD and psychiatry

Pharmacological properties of cannabidiol in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: a critical overview

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29789034

2018: A review of glial cells & the cannabinoids in schizophrenia

Cannabinoids and glial cells: possible mechanism to understand schizophrenia

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29392440

2018: CBD & recent-onset psychosis

The Potential of Cannabidiol Treatment for Cannabis Users With Recent-Onset Psychosis

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29083450

2017: CBD & cognitive function with relevance to schizophrenia

A systematic review of the effect of cannabidiol on cognitive function: Relevance to schizophrenia

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27884751

2017: The effects of the ECS on emotions, consciousness and dreams

The Endocannabinoid System Modulating Levels of Consciousness, Emotions and Likely Dream Contents

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28240187

2017: Mechanisms of CBD for psychiatry

Plastic and Neuroprotective Mechanisms Involved in the Therapeutic Effects of Cannabidiol in Psychiatric Disorders

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28588483/

2016: CBD and motivational disorders

Beyond the CB1 Receptor: Is Cannabidiol the Answer for Disorders of Motivation?

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27023732

2013: Mechoulam on how the huge swathe of FAAHs may be key to personality

The endocannabinoid system and the brain

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22804774

2012: Mechanisms of  CBD for mental disorders

Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23108553/

2009: The ECS & emotional homeostasis

Functional role of the endocannabinoid system in emotional homeostasis

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19145562/

Timeline of Research

2021: In mice, the link between gut microbiome & mental health is mediated by the endocannabinoid system

Effect of gut microbiota on depressive-like behaviors in mice is mediated by the endocannabinoid system

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-19931-2

2021: In humans, this cohort analysis found that the diversity of your gut microbiome was related to your happiness & motivation via the endocannabinoid system, especially via PEA (an endocannabinoid)

Endocannabinoid system mediates the association between gut-microbial diversity and anhedonia/amotivation in a general population cohort

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34002020/

2021: In humans, a trial of the effect of CBD & THC on emotions, cognition & attention

Effects of Cannabidiol and Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Emotion, Cognition, and Attention: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Experimental Trial in Healthy Volunteers

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33304282/

2020: In patients with borderline personality disorder, they tended to have more FAAH enzyme in their prefrontal cortex

Elevated Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase in the Prefrontal Cortex of Borderline Personality Disorder: A [ 11 C]CURB Positron Emission Tomography Study

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32521537/

2020: In humans with OCD, THC & CBD did not lower the tics but they did lessen anxiety (12 participants in a randomized, placebo-controlled, human laboratory study)

Acute effects of cannabinoids on symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder: A human laboratory study

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32383271/

2020: In humans, yoga & meditation are good for your ECS

Inner Engineering Practices and Advanced 4-day Isha Yoga Retreat Are Associated with Cannabimimetic Effects with Increased Endocannabinoids and Short-Term and Sustained Improvement in Mental Health: A Prospective Observational Study of Meditators

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7293737/

2020: In prairie voles (a model organism of sociality), increasing anandamide levels caused female prairie voles to spend more time with males, both friends & strangers

Effects of systemic endocannabinoid manipulation on social and exploratory behavior in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster)

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33130926/

2020: In humans who attempt suicide, they have higher serum levels of AEA & PEA than similar cases in psychiatric care

Serum endocannabinoid levels in suicide attempters: A pilot study

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32994115/

2020: In rats separated from their mothers & then isolated in adolescence, the dopamine & endocannabinoid systems of their brains were rewired & increased their tendency to alcoholism

Maternal separation plus social isolation during adolescence reprogram brain dopamine and endocannabinoid systems and facilitate alcohol intake in rats

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32784005/

2020: In mice, sociability is partially regulated by the ECS in the amygdala

An endocannabinoid-regulated basolateral amygdala-nucleus accumbens circuit modulates sociability

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31874107/

2020: In the brain regions related to social attachment in voles, the density of CB1 receptors were higher in the monogamous prairie voles than in the promiscuous meadow voles

Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 Densities Reflect Social Organization in Microtus

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cne.24996

2020: In rats, the relationship of the CB1 receptor to memory formation

Effect of the Endocannabinoid System in Memory Updating and Forgetting

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32739508/

2020: In rat brains, the ECS contributes to long-term depression (the downregulation of neural signals)

Endocannabinoid receptors contribute significantly to multiple forms of long-term depression in the rat dentate gyrus

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32817304/

2020: From slices of rat brain, they found how the ECS controls the synapses involved in memory formation

Temporal Gating of Synaptic Competition in the Amygdala by Cannabinoid Receptor Activation

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32163129/

2020: In mice, the activation of CB1 during exercise helps to enhance learning & memory via glutamate, BDNF and an increased number of dendrites

The endocannabinoid system regulates the moderate exercise-induced enhancement of learning and memory in mice

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31974335/

2020: In tissue samples, we learn how 2-AG helps to regulate the brain plasticity via the dopamine pathway

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and D1 dopamine receptors regulate diacylglycerol lipase-α and synaptic 2-arachidonoyl glycerol signaling

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31985073

2020: In rats addicted to meth, CBD protected from the memory loss of the drug

Neuroprotective effect of chronic administration of cannabidiol during the abstinence period on methamphetamine-induced impairment of recognition memory in the rats

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32032100

2020: In mice, exercise enhances learning & memory via the ECS's effect on glutamate & BDNF (a brain growth factor)

Exercise enhances learning and memory: the role of endogenous cannabinoid system

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31974335

2020: In rat brains, the interplay of GABA and cannabinoids mediate the amnesia effects of morphine

GABA-cannabinoid interplays in the dorsal hippocampus and basolateral amygdala mediate morphine-induced amnesia

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31981675

2020: In rats, CBD helps protects against the cognitive impairment of ketamine

Cannabidiol Improves Cognitive Impairment and Reverses Cortical Transcriptional Changes Induced by Ketamine, in Schizophrenia-Like Model in Rats

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31823199

2020: In rats, how running on a treadmill repairs memory impairment via the ECS

Treadmill exercise improves LPS-induced memory impairments via endocannabinoid receptors and cyclooxygenase enzymes

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31863846/

2019: In mice, CBD caused no detrimental effects on memory, motor performance or anxiety

Prolonged Cannabidiol Treatment Lacks on Detrimental Effects on Memory, Motor Performance and Anxiety in C57BL/6J Mice

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31133833/

2019: In stressed rats, CB1 modulates the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the memory

Cannabinoid receptor type 1 modulates the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on memory of stressed rats

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31637966

2019: In songbirds, CBD helps their recovery of singing abilities after a brain injury

Cannabidiol improves vocal learning-dependent recovery from, and reduces magnitude of deficits following, damage to a cortical-like brain region in a songbird pre-clinical animal model

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31325430/

2019: In aged mice, CB2 activation by β-caryophyllene (the most common terpene in cannabis) improves memory

The cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist, β-caryophyllene, improves working memory and reduces circulating levels of specific proinflammatory cytokines in aged male mice

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31173795

2019: In mice, memory deficits from chronic CB1 activation is prevented by a blocker of adenosine

Memory deficits induced by chronic cannabinoid exposure are prevented by adenosine A 2A R receptor antagonism

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31103616/

2017: In humans, CBD does not dampen emotional responses

Cannabidiol Does Not Dampen Responses to Emotional Stimuli in Healthy Adults

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28861510

2016: In mice, CB1 helps to regulate habit formation

Endocannabinoid Modulation of Orbitostriatal Circuits Gates Habit Formation

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27238866/

2016: In rats, anandamide mediates optimistic judgements

Anandamide mediates cognitive judgement bias in rats

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26363193/

2015: In rodents, blocking MAGL and raising 2AG inhibits learning and memory – but produces painkilling effects

Selective blockade of the hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol impairs learning and memory performance while producing antinociceptive activity in rodents

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25560837

2015: in humans, THC impairs the recognition of facial emotions while combining THC with CBD caused no impairment

Acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and their combination on facial emotion recognition: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in cannabis users

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25534187

2014: In mice with induced OCD, CBD decreased marble-burying behavior

Cannabidiol reverses the mCPP-induced increase in marble-burying behavior

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24118015/

2013: In stressed rats, cannabinoids help prevents the harms to plasticity and short-term memory

Cannabinoids ameliorate impairments induced by chronic stress to synaptic plasticity and short-term memory

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23426383/

2013: In monkeys, CBD protects from deficits of THC on memory, learning and motor skills

Cannabidiol attenuates deficits of visuospatial associative memory induced by Δ(9) tetrahydrocannabinol

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23550724

2012: In rats, a single dose of CBD rescued the memory after impairment from an iron overload

Memory-rescuing effects of cannabidiol in an animal model of cognitive impairment relevant to neurodegenerative disorders

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21870037

2012: In rats & mice, a look at the effects of CBD & other cannabinoids on OCD

Plasma and brain pharmacokinetic profile of cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarine (CBDV), Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and cannabigerol (CBG) in rats and mice following oral and intraperitoneal administration and CBD action on obsessive-compulsive behaviour.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21796370

2010: In mice, CBD causes less OCD behavior via the CB1 receptor

Cannabidiol inhibitory effect on marble-burying behaviour: involvement of CB1 receptors

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20695034

2010: in two patients, high levels of CBD for ~30 days was well tolerated but not effective for their bipolar disorder

Cannabidiol was ineffective for manic episode of bipolar affective disorder

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18801823

2010: In humans, CBD protected from the amnesia effects of THC

Impact of cannabidiol on the acute memory and psychotomimetic effects of smoked cannabis: naturalistic study: naturalistic study [corrected]

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20884951/

2010: comment

Does cannabidiol protect against the negative effects of THC?

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20884945/

2010: In testing of human cannabis smokers, CBD seemed to attenuate memory deficits caused by THC

Impact of cannabidiol on the acute memory and psychotomimetic effects of smoked cannabis: naturalistic study

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20884951

2009: Brain scans of the effects from THC & CBD

Distinct effects of {delta}9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on neural activation during emotional processing

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19124693/

2006: In mice, CBD extracts did not reverse memory deficits caused by cholinergic  (scopolamine) or glutamatergic (MK801) insults

Scopolamine and MK801-induced working memory deficits in rats are not reversed by CBD-rich cannabis extracts

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16406104/

2004: In rats, THC extracts caused problems for spatial working/short-term memory but CBD extracts did not

Differential effects of THC- or CBD-rich cannabis extracts on working memory in rats

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15567426