Immune System

Antibodies, Autoimmune disorders, Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19), Microbial, & White Blood Cells

Best reviews

2021: This review of the cannabinoids & the immune system says that CBD is one of the main modulators of the immune system

Therapeutic Prospects of Cannabinoids in the Immunomodulation of Prevalent Autoimmune Diseases

2021: A review of how the ECS is involved in the development of blood cells, the immune system in the brain & neuroinflammation

Endocannabinoid system: Role in blood cell development, neuroimmune interactions and associated disorders

2021: This meta-review finds CBD helpful for osteoarthritis of the hand

Efficacy of Cannabidiol in Treating Osteoarthritis of the Hand

2020: A great review of CBD's immunomodulatory effects

Cannabidiol as a Novel Therapeutic for Immune Modulation

2020: This review looks at the role of cannabinoids in treating allergic diseases
The Role of Cannabinoids in Allergic Diseases

2020: A meta-review of cannabis & CBD for fibromyalgia

Cannabis and Cannabidiol (CBD) for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia

2020: ECS & microglia

Endocannabinoid Modulation of Microglial Phenotypes in Neuropathology

2020: A great review of CBD's effect on the immune system

Immune Responses Regulated by Cannabidiol

2019: good table of the ECS alterations in pediatric inflammatory and immune diseases

The Endocannabinoid System in Pediatric Inflammatory and Immune Diseases

2017: nice review by Oláh & Bíró

Targeting Cannabinoid Signaling in the Immune System: "High"-ly Exciting Questions, Possibilities, and Challenges

2015: great charts on distribution of eCBs on immune cells

Endocannabinoid signalling in innate and adaptive immunity

2008: Russo on clinical endocannabinoid deficiency to explain fibromyalgia

Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD): can this concept explain therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions?

Chart Gallery

Genes enhanced by CBD in T-cells
Genes enhanced by CBD in T-cells

2016: Pathways and gene networks mediating the regulatory effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, in autoimmune T cells

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Genes affected by CBD
Genes affected by CBD

2012: Differential transcriptional profiles mediated by exposure to the cannabinoids cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in BV-2 microglial cells

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CB1 in neuroinflammation
CB1 in neuroinflammation

2019: The Endocannabinoid System in Pediatric Inflammatory and Immune Diseases

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Genes enhanced by CBD in T-cells
Genes enhanced by CBD in T-cells

2016: Pathways and gene networks mediating the regulatory effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, in autoimmune T cells

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Timeline of Research

2021: In human white blood cells, CBD caused anti-inflammation at low doses & cytotoxicity at high doses

Cannabidiol-Driven Alterations to Inflammatory Protein Landscape of Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Macrophages In Vitro May be Mediated by Autophagy and Oxidative Stress

2021: In mice where an injection of bone marrow cells caused graft-versus-host disease (where the body is rejecting a graft), CBD reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines, modulated the immune system & increased CB2 receptors in the intestines


2021: In a variety of immune cells, activating the CB2 receptors lowers inflammation

Characterization of Subtype Selective Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor Agonists as Potential Anti-Inflammatory Agents

2021: In mice with varicocele (a disorder of the veins taking blood away from the testicles, a major cause of human infertility), PEA helped via the PPAR-α receptors (nuclear receptors that control genetic transcription)

The Nutraceutical N-Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) Reveals Widespread Molecular Effects Unmasking New Therapeutic Targets in Murine Varicocele

2021: In humans with osteoarthritis in their knees, treatment with radon therapy seemed to help by raising levels of anandamide

Endogenous anandamide and self-reported pain are significantly reduced after a 2-week multimodal treatment with and without radon therapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a pilot study

2021: In rats, CBD combined with bioflavonoids seems a strong combination for treating osteoarthritis

Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol Alone and in Combination with Standardized Bioflavonoid Composition

2021: In a survey of humans with osteoarthritis in their hips & knees, a quarter of them endorsed the use of CBD products

Prevalence of Cannabinoid Use in Patients With Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis

2021: In a rat model of osteoarthritis, activating the CB2 receptor helped to control pain & bone degeneration

CB2 agonism controls pain and subchondral bone degeneration induced by mono-iodoacetate: Implications GPCR functional bias and tolerance development

2021: This survey of patients with fibromyalgia found that the majority used CBD products to discontinue their use of NSAIDs, opioids, gabapentanoids & benzos. They saw improvements in health, pain, memory & sleep

Substituting Cannabidiol for Opioids and Pain Medications Among Individuals with Fibromyalgia: a Large Online Survey

2021: This survey of patients with fibromyalgia finds that over 30% use CBD  for pain, anxiety, and sleep & "~30-40% reported much or very much relief across symptom domains"

Cannabidiol Use for Fibromyalgia: Prevalence of Use and Perceptions of Effectiveness in a Large Online Survey

2021: In a survey of 2,701 fibromyalgia patients, found that CBD helped with symptoms

Cannabidiol Use for Fibromyalgia: Prevalence of Use and Perceptions of Effectiveness in a Large Online Survey

2021: In 38 humans with fibromyalgia, cannabinoids were helpful

Medical cannabis for the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome: a retrospective, open-label case series

2020: In female humans with fibromyalgia, exercise increased anandamide & 2AG

Increased Anandamide and Decreased Pain and Depression after Exercise in Fibromyalgia

2020: In a cellular model of graft vs host disease, the CB2 receptor plays a critical role in regulating disease progression

Signaling Through the Type 2 Cannabinoid Receptor Regulates the Severity of Acute and Chronic Graft versus Host Disease

2020: In cells, signaling by 2-AG in the glial cells (immune cells of the brain) inhibits dopamine signaling

Dopamine enhances the glial endocannabinoid signaling

2020: In neutrophils (innate immune cells), activating the cannabinoid receptors could help with bacterial sepsis

LPS-mediated Neutrophil VEGF-A Release Is Modulated by Cannabinoid Receptor Activation

2020: In the islet cells of the pancreas (producers of insulin), THC & CBD both helped to reduce the level of free radicals

Cannabinoids as anti-ROS in aged pancreatic islet cells

2020: In immune cells, CBD decreased the viability of cancer cells and protected the killer cells

High Expression of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 on Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells and Multiple Myeloma Cells

2020: In mice, CBD altered the differentiation of immune cells which "may be beneficial in various macrophage-driven inflammatory disorders"

Cannabidiol alters macrophage differentiation resulting in accumulation of immunosuppressive myeloid cells and dendritic cells

2020: In human monocytes (a type of white blood cell), the anti-inflammation effects of CBD are mediated by modulation of the P2X7 inflammasome receptor

Inhibitory Effect of Cannabidiol on the Activation of NLRP3 Inflammasome Is Associated with Its Modulation of the P2X7 Receptor in Human Monocytes

2020: In kids with celiac disease, CB2 may be a target to reduce their bone loss

The Role of Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 in the Bone Loss Associated With Pediatric Celiac Disease

2020: in microglial cells, CBD potently inhibited proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and that of glutamate, a noncytokine mediator of inflammation via NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS production and NF-κB-dependent signaling events – also found that the ability of CBD to prevent glucose uptake also contributes to anti-inflammatory effect

Cannabidiol prevents LPS-induced microglial inflammation by inhibiting ROS/NF-κB-dependent signaling and glucose consumption

2020: "CBD is an efficacious treatment for behavioural and neurochemical changes in a female rodent model relevant to schizophrenia"

Cannabidiol improves behavioural and neurochemical deficits in adult female offspring of the maternal immune activation (poly I:C) model of neurodevelopmental disorders

2019: Regular exercise increase cannabinoid receptor expression in certain immune cells

Chronic exercise modulates the cellular immunity and its cannabinoid receptors expression

2019: a case report of CBD helping with skin graft

A Case Report of the Benefit of Cannabidiol (Cannabidiol (CBD)-Predominant Medical Cannabis Preparation) in the Management of Refractory Skin Graft Vs Host Disease (GVHD)


2019: In mouse bone-marrow transplantations, both THC & CBD decrease activated lymphocyte proliferation and affect cytokine secretion – but via different pathways – inhibition of lymphocyte reconstitution is via CB2 – also tested a full cannabis extract (both high-THC & high-CBD) and both did better than pure cannabinoids

Cannabinoids Reduce Inflammation but Inhibit Lymphocyte Recovery in Murine Models of Bone Marrow Transplantation (or)

2019: in cell cultures, CBD blocks inflammation of the brain's immune cells

Cannabidiol prevents LPS‐induced microglial inflammation by inhibiting ROS/NF‐κB‐dependent signaling and glucose consumption

2019: In mice, a lack of CB2 receptors caused more inflammation & affects white blood cell recruitment

Cannabinoid receptor 2 deficiency exacerbates inflammation and neutrophil recruitment

2019: in cell cultures, CBD blocks inflammation of the brain's immune cells

Cannabidiol prevents LPS‐induced microglial inflammation by inhibiting ROS/NF‐κB‐dependent signaling and glucose consumption

2019: in cell culture, a cannabis extract rich in CBD inhibited migration of the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), reduced production of reactive oxygen species & TNF-α

A Novel Standardized Cannabis sativa L. Extract and Its Constituent Cannabidiol Inhibit Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Functions

2019: in elderly mice, β-caryophyllene lowered pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-23) & improved working memory

The cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist, β-caryophyllene, improves working memory and reduces circulating levels of specific proinflammatory cytokines in aged male mice

2018: in mice with spinal cord injuries, 10 weeks of CBD injections lowered inflammatory cytokines & decreased T-call invasion to injury – no effect on locomotionor bladder function – helped with thermal sensitivity

The non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) attenuates pro-inflammatory mediators, T cell infiltration, and thermal sensitivity following spinal cord injury in mice

2018: In humans with lupus, 2AG levels are altered

Endocannabinoid system in systemic lupus erythematosus: First evidence for a deranged 2-arachidonoylglycerol metabolism

2017: CB2 intimately involved with B cell activation

Regulation of Cell Surface CB2 Receptor during Human B Cell Activation and Differentiation

2017: in tissue culture, CBD robustly suppressed responder T cell proliferation via induction of functional Tregs

Cannabidiol (CBD) induces functional Tregs in response to low-level T cell activation

2017: in rats, administering lipids with THC & CBD increased their uptake – CBD the more immunosuppressive

Oral administration of cannabis with lipids leads to high levels of cannabinoids in the intestinal lymphatic system and prominent immunomodulation

2016: in immune cells of the lungs, CB1 & CB2 change blood vessel formation around tumors

Human lung-resident macrophages express CB1 and CB2 receptors whose activation inhibits the release of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors

2016: In rats with fluid accumulation in the lungs, activating the CB2 receptor enhanced protection & immune response

Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 Agonist Attenuates Acute Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema by Preventing Neutrophil Migration after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats

2016: In keratinocytes, anandamide inhibits the proinflammatory T Cells via CB1

Anandamide Suppresses Proinflammatory T Cell Responses In Vitro through Type-1 Cannabinoid Receptor-Mediated mTOR Inhibition in Human Keratinocytes

2015: in humans, 300 mg/kg of CBD helped with the transplantation of blood stem cells in those with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome

Cannabidiol for the Prevention of Graft-versus-Host-Disease after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Results of a Phase II Study

2015: in mice, CBD enhanced PPARγ transcription & thus mobilization of myeloid-derived suppressor cells from bone marrow stem cells

Critical Role of Mast Cells and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ in the Induction of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells by Marijuana Cannabidiol In Vivo

2015: in mice with malaria, CBD treatment prevented memory deficits, decreased anxiety, increased BDNF in the hippocampus, decreased proinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus (TNF-α) and prefrontal cortex (IL-6)

Cannabidiol increases survival and promotes rescue of cognitive function in a murine model of cerebral malaria

2014: in a model of a human colon, CBD & AEA reduced IL-17A which is linked to inflammatory bowel disease

Interleukin 17A evoked mucosal damage is attenuated by cannabidiol and anandamide in a human colonic explant model

2014: in mice, endocannabinoids found to activate the CB1 receptors on mast cells in induce MCP-1 (a cytokine chemoattractant that regulates white blood cells) and recruits myeloid-derived suppressor cells (immune cells originating from bone marrow stem cells)

Characterization of endocannabinoid-mediated induction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells involving mast cells and MCP-1

2014: in mice with induced spinal disc injury, CBD decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines associated with T-cell differentiation and invasion – most helpful for regaining thermal sensitivity

Protective effects of cannabidiol on lesion-induced intervertebral disc degeneration

2014: In rat lung injured by paraquat, CB2 activation protected the lungs via inflammatory cytokine levels

CB2 receptor activation ameliorates the proinflammatory activity in acute lung injury induced by paraquat

2014: in mice, AEA caused significantly less inflammation after an insult and reduced production of IL-17 and IFN-γ, decreased RORγt expression, and induced IL-10 - which triggered miRNA that targeted proinflammatory pathway)

Anandamide attenuates Th-17 cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity response by triggering IL-10 production and consequent microRNA induction

2013: in T-cells, CBD decreased production of proinflammatory IL-17 & decreased IL-6 (a key factor in Th17 induction) – CBD & THC did not affect the levels of TNFα and IFNγ – downregulation of IL-17 did not seem to involve the CB1, CB2, PPARγ, 5-HT1A or TRPV1 receptors – CBD a potent inducer of IL-10, one of the main anti-inflammatory cytokines restraining disease progress

Cannabinoids decrease the th17 inflammatory autoimmune phenotype

2013: CB2 & the white blood cells

Differential expression of intracellular and extracellular CB(2) cannabinoid receptor protein by human peripheral blood leukocytes

2013: in mice with pulmonary inflammation, CBD enhanced the production of proinflammatory cytokines via gene transcription

Cannabidiol (CBD) enhances lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary inflammation in C57BL/6 mice

2013: In mice with lung injuries, inhibition of MAGL led to increased 2AG levels & anti-inflammatory effects

Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibition attenuates acute lung injury in mice

2013: In humans with celiac disease, higher levels of CB1 & CB2 are found when the disease is active, suggesting a potential target

Altered expression of type-1 and type-2 cannabinoid receptors in celiac disease

2012: In humans with celiac disease, they have higher AEA levels in their muscoa

Abnormal anandamide metabolism in celiac disease

2012: In rats with meningitis, injections of CBD reduced TNF-α in the frontal cortex & prevented memory impairment

Cannabidiol reduces host immune response and prevents cognitive impairments in Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis

2012: In mice with acute lung injury, CBD decreased inflammation via the adenosine receptor

Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: role for the adenosine A(2A) receptor

2011: in mice with autoimmune hepatitis, activation of TRPV1 by CBD lowered inflammation & recruited myeloid-derived suppressor cells to protect the lover & suppress the hepatitis

Role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in amelioration of experimental autoimmune hepatitis following activation of TRPV1 receptors by cannabidiol

2010: in mice, CBD reduced inflammatory reactions after insult - suppressed the infiltration of T cells and macrophages, and the expression of interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α (two pro-inflammatory cytokines) – IL-10 enhanced

Cannabidiol attenuates delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions via suppressing T-cell and macrophage reactivity

2009: in macrophages, CB1 activation increased inflammation via reactive oxygen species production & activation of CB2 suppressed it via Rap1 activation

CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors differentially regulate the production of reactive oxygen species by macrophages

2009: in mice infected with severe lung disease Legionella pneumophila, a look at how CB1 & CB2 mediate the many immune effects

CB(1) and CB(2) cannabinoid receptors mediate different aspects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-induced T helper cell shift following immune activation by Legionella pneumophila infection

2008: in cell cultures, CBD suppressed T cell function, IL-2 and IFN-gamma production (via activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcriptional activity) - CBD suppressed the T cell-dependent anti-sheep red blood cell immunoglobulin M antibody forming cell (anti-sRBC IgM AFC) response

The profile of immune modulation by cannabidiol (CBD) involves deregulation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)

2008: in humans with fibromyalgia, increasing AEA levels may be helpful

Anandamide and neutrophil function in patients with fibromyalgia

2008: in guinea pigs with asthma, activation of the cannabinoid receptors helped to prevent symptoms

Activation of cannabinoid receptors prevents antigen-induced asthma-like reaction in guinea pigs

2007: In humans with celiac disease, AEA, PEA & CB1 levels were increased

Overactivity of the intestinal endocannabinoid system in celiac disease and in methotrexate-treated rats

2007: in mice, after insult, CBD caused less IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-gamma as well as antibodies - proliferation of splenocytes also suppressed

Suppressive effects of cannabidiol on antigen-specific antibody production and functional activity of splenocytes in ovalbumin-sensitized BALB/c mice

2007: CBD & mast cells

Cannabidiol, unlike synthetic cannabinoids, triggers activation of RBL-2H3 mast cells

2007: how CBD blunts neuroinflammation

Cannabidiol in vivo blunts beta-amyloid induced neuroinflammation by suppressing IL-1beta and iNOS expression

2007: in mouse model of autoimmune eye disease, CB2 activation lowers inflammation and inhibits autoreactive T cells and stop leukocytes going to inflamed tissue

Anti-inflammatory property of the cannabinoid receptor-2-selective agonist JWH-133 in a rodent model of autoimmune uveoretinitis

2006: CBD & immunosuppression

Inhibition of an equilibrative nucleoside transporter by cannabidiol: a mechanism of cannabinoid immunosuppression

2000: In a mouse model of arthritis, the effects of CBD

The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis

1998: In cell cultures, early work on how THC & CBD alter cytokine production

Delta9 tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alter cytokine production by human immune cells