Immune System

Antibodies, Autoimmune disorders, Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19), Microbial, & White Blood Cells

Best reviews

2021: This review of the cannabinoids & the immune system says that CBD is one of the main modulators of the immune system

Therapeutic Prospects of Cannabinoids in the Immunomodulation of Prevalent Autoimmune Diseases

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34030476/

2021: A review of how the ECS is involved in the development of blood cells, the immune system in the brain & neuroinflammation

Endocannabinoid system: Role in blood cell development, neuroimmune interactions and associated disorders

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S016557282100028X

2021: This meta-review finds CBD helpful for osteoarthritis of the hand

Efficacy of Cannabidiol in Treating Osteoarthritis of the Hand

https://digitalshowcase.lynchburg.edu/dmscjournal/vol3/iss1/43/

2020: A great review of CBD's immunomodulatory effects

Cannabidiol as a Novel Therapeutic for Immune Modulation

https://www.dovepress.com/cannabidiol-as-a-novel-therapeutic-for-immune-modulation-peer-reviewed-fulltext-article-ITT

2020: This review looks at the role of cannabinoids in treating allergic diseases
The Role of Cannabinoids in Allergic Diseases

https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/508989

2020: A meta-review of cannabis & CBD for fibromyalgia

Cannabis and Cannabidiol (CBD) for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33004171/

2020: ECS & microglia

Endocannabinoid Modulation of Microglial Phenotypes in Neuropathology

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2020.00087/full

2020: A great review of CBD's effect on the immune system

Immune Responses Regulated by Cannabidiol

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/can.2018.0073

2019: good table of the ECS alterations in pediatric inflammatory and immune diseases

The Endocannabinoid System in Pediatric Inflammatory and Immune Diseases

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31771129

2017: nice review by Oláh & Bíró

Targeting Cannabinoid Signaling in the Immune System: "High"-ly Exciting Questions, Possibilities, and Challenges

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29176975

2015: great charts on distribution of eCBs on immune cells

Endocannabinoid signalling in innate and adaptive immunity

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25585882

2008: Russo on clinical endocannabinoid deficiency to explain fibromyalgia

Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD): can this concept explain therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions?

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18404144

Chart Gallery

Genes enhanced by CBD in T-cells
Genes enhanced by CBD in T-cells

2016: Pathways and gene networks mediating the regulatory effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, in autoimmune T cells

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Genes affected by CBD
Genes affected by CBD

2012: Differential transcriptional profiles mediated by exposure to the cannabinoids cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in BV-2 microglial cells

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CB1 in neuroinflammation
CB1 in neuroinflammation

2019: The Endocannabinoid System in Pediatric Inflammatory and Immune Diseases

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Genes enhanced by CBD in T-cells
Genes enhanced by CBD in T-cells

2016: Pathways and gene networks mediating the regulatory effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, in autoimmune T cells

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Timeline of Research

2021: In human white blood cells, CBD caused anti-inflammation at low doses & cytotoxicity at high doses

Cannabidiol-Driven Alterations to Inflammatory Protein Landscape of Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Macrophages In Vitro May be Mediated by Autophagy and Oxidative Stress

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/can.2020.0109

2021: In mice where an injection of bone marrow cells caused graft-versus-host disease (where the body is rejecting a graft), CBD reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines, modulated the immune system & increased CB2 receptors in the intestines

CANNABIDIOL ENHANCES INTESTINAL CB2 RECEPTOR EXPRESSION AND ACTIVATION INCREASING REGULATORY T CELLS AND REDUCES MURINE ACUTE GRAFT-VERSUS-HOST DISEASE WITHOUT INTERFERING WITH THE GRAFT-VERSUS-LEUKEMIA RESPONSE

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33658314/

2021: In a variety of immune cells, activating the CB2 receptors lowers inflammation

Characterization of Subtype Selective Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor Agonists as Potential Anti-Inflammatory Agents

https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8247/14/4/378

2021: In mice with varicocele (a disorder of the veins taking blood away from the testicles, a major cause of human infertility), PEA helped via the PPAR-α receptors (nuclear receptors that control genetic transcription)

The Nutraceutical N-Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) Reveals Widespread Molecular Effects Unmasking New Therapeutic Targets in Murine Varicocele

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/13/3/734/htm

2021: In humans with osteoarthritis in their knees, treatment with radon therapy seemed to help by raising levels of anandamide

Endogenous anandamide and self-reported pain are significantly reduced after a 2-week multimodal treatment with and without radon therapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a pilot study

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33649972/

2021: In rats, CBD combined with bioflavonoids seems a strong combination for treating osteoarthritis

Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol Alone and in Combination with Standardized Bioflavonoid Composition

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33570460/

2021: In a survey of humans with osteoarthritis in their hips & knees, a quarter of them endorsed the use of CBD products

Prevalence of Cannabinoid Use in Patients With Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7861619/

2021: In a rat model of osteoarthritis, activating the CB2 receptor helped to control pain & bone degeneration

CB2 agonism controls pain and subchondral bone degeneration induced by mono-iodoacetate: Implications GPCR functional bias and tolerance development

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33482616/

2021: This survey of patients with fibromyalgia found that the majority used CBD products to discontinue their use of NSAIDs, opioids, gabapentanoids & benzos. They saw improvements in health, pain, memory & sleep

Substituting Cannabidiol for Opioids and Pain Medications Among Individuals with Fibromyalgia: a Large Online Survey

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33992787/

2021: This survey of patients with fibromyalgia finds that over 30% use CBD  for pain, anxiety, and sleep & "~30-40% reported much or very much relief across symptom domains"

Cannabidiol Use for Fibromyalgia: Prevalence of Use and Perceptions of Effectiveness in a Large Online Survey

https://www.jpain.org/article/S1526-5900(20)30117-6/fulltext

2021: In a survey of 2,701 fibromyalgia patients, found that CBD helped with symptoms

Cannabidiol Use for Fibromyalgia: Prevalence of Use and Perceptions of Effectiveness in a Large Online Survey

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33400996/

2021: In 38 humans with fibromyalgia, cannabinoids were helpful

Medical cannabis for the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome: a retrospective, open-label case series

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33597032/

2020: In female humans with fibromyalgia, exercise increased anandamide & 2AG

Increased Anandamide and Decreased Pain and Depression after Exercise in Fibromyalgia

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32168104/

2020: In a cellular model of graft vs host disease, the CB2 receptor plays a critical role in regulating disease progression

Signaling Through the Type 2 Cannabinoid Receptor Regulates the Severity of Acute and Chronic Graft versus Host Disease

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33027805/

2020: In cells, signaling by 2-AG in the glial cells (immune cells of the brain) inhibits dopamine signaling

Dopamine enhances the glial endocannabinoid signaling

http://www.jsbms.jp/english/publish/5-1_ochi.pdf

2020: In neutrophils (innate immune cells), activating the cannabinoid receptors could help with bacterial sepsis

LPS-mediated Neutrophil VEGF-A Release Is Modulated by Cannabinoid Receptor Activation

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32573828/

2020: In the islet cells of the pancreas (producers of insulin), THC & CBD both helped to reduce the level of free radicals

Cannabinoids as anti-ROS in aged pancreatic islet cells

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0024320520307190

2020: In immune cells, CBD decreased the viability of cancer cells and protected the killer cells

High Expression of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 on Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells and Multiple Myeloma Cells

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32471216/

2020: In mice, CBD altered the differentiation of immune cells which "may be beneficial in various macrophage-driven inflammatory disorders"

Cannabidiol alters macrophage differentiation resulting in accumulation of immunosuppressive myeloid cells and dendritic cells

https://www.jimmunol.org/content/204/1_Supplement/63.9.abstract

2020: In human monocytes (a type of white blood cell), the anti-inflammation effects of CBD are mediated by modulation of the P2X7 inflammasome receptor

Inhibitory Effect of Cannabidiol on the Activation of NLRP3 Inflammasome Is Associated with Its Modulation of the P2X7 Receptor in Human Monocytes

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32374168

2020: In kids with celiac disease, CB2 may be a target to reduce their bone loss

The Role of Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 in the Bone Loss Associated With Pediatric Celiac Disease

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33093370/

2020: in microglial cells, CBD potently inhibited proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and that of glutamate, a noncytokine mediator of inflammation via NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS production and NF-κB-dependent signaling events – also found that the ability of CBD to prevent glucose uptake also contributes to anti-inflammatory effect

Cannabidiol prevents LPS-induced microglial inflammation by inhibiting ROS/NF-κB-dependent signaling and glucose consumption

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31647138

2020: "CBD is an efficacious treatment for behavioural and neurochemical changes in a female rodent model relevant to schizophrenia"

Cannabidiol improves behavioural and neurochemical deficits in adult female offspring of the maternal immune activation (poly I:C) model of neurodevelopmental disorders

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0889159119302806?via%3Dihub

2019: Regular exercise increase cannabinoid receptor expression in certain immune cells

Chronic exercise modulates the cellular immunity and its cannabinoid receptors expression

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31738771

2019: a case report of CBD helping with skin graft

A Case Report of the Benefit of Cannabidiol (Cannabidiol (CBD)-Predominant Medical Cannabis Preparation) in the Management of Refractory Skin Graft Vs Host Disease (GVHD)

https://ashpublications.org/blood/article-abstract/134/Supplement_1/5687/425473

 

2019: In mouse bone-marrow transplantations, both THC & CBD decrease activated lymphocyte proliferation and affect cytokine secretion – but via different pathways – inhibition of lymphocyte reconstitution is via CB2 – also tested a full cannabis extract (both high-THC & high-CBD) and both did better than pure cannabinoids

Cannabinoids Reduce Inflammation but Inhibit Lymphocyte Recovery in Murine Models of Bone Marrow Transplantation (or)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6387311/

2019: in cell cultures, CBD blocks inflammation of the brain's immune cells

Cannabidiol prevents LPS‐induced microglial inflammation by inhibiting ROS/NF‐κB‐dependent signaling and glucose consumption

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/glia.23738

2019: In mice, a lack of CB2 receptors caused more inflammation & affects white blood cell recruitment

Cannabinoid receptor 2 deficiency exacerbates inflammation and neutrophil recruitment

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30799631/

2019: in cell cultures, CBD blocks inflammation of the brain's immune cells

Cannabidiol prevents LPS‐induced microglial inflammation by inhibiting ROS/NF‐κB‐dependent signaling and glucose consumption

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/glia.23738

2019: in cell culture, a cannabis extract rich in CBD inhibited migration of the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), reduced production of reactive oxygen species & TNF-α

A Novel Standardized Cannabis sativa L. Extract and Its Constituent Cannabidiol Inhibit Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Functions

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31013912

2019: in elderly mice, β-caryophyllene lowered pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-23) & improved working memory

The cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist, β-caryophyllene, improves working memory and reduces circulating levels of specific proinflammatory cytokines in aged male mice

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31173795

2018: in mice with spinal cord injuries, 10 weeks of CBD injections lowered inflammatory cytokines & decreased T-call invasion to injury – no effect on locomotionor bladder function – helped with thermal sensitivity

The non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) attenuates pro-inflammatory mediators, T cell infiltration, and thermal sensitivity following spinal cord injury in mice

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29784129

2018: In humans with lupus, 2AG levels are altered

Endocannabinoid system in systemic lupus erythematosus: First evidence for a deranged 2-arachidonoylglycerol metabolism

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29655919/

2017: CB2 intimately involved with B cell activation

Regulation of Cell Surface CB2 Receptor during Human B Cell Activation and Differentiation

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28364261

2017: in tissue culture, CBD robustly suppressed responder T cell proliferation via induction of functional Tregs

Cannabidiol (CBD) induces functional Tregs in response to low-level T cell activation

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27865421

2017: in rats, administering lipids with THC & CBD increased their uptake – CBD the more immunosuppressive

Oral administration of cannabis with lipids leads to high levels of cannabinoids in the intestinal lymphatic system and prominent immunomodulation

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29109461

2016: in immune cells of the lungs, CB1 & CB2 change blood vessel formation around tumors

Human lung-resident macrophages express CB1 and CB2 receptors whose activation inhibits the release of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26467187/

2016: In rats with fluid accumulation in the lungs, activating the CB2 receptor enhanced protection & immune response

Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 Agonist Attenuates Acute Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema by Preventing Neutrophil Migration after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26463937

2016: In keratinocytes, anandamide inhibits the proinflammatory T Cells via CB1

Anandamide Suppresses Proinflammatory T Cell Responses In Vitro through Type-1 Cannabinoid Receptor-Mediated mTOR Inhibition in Human Keratinocytes

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27694494

2015: in humans, 300 mg/kg of CBD helped with the transplantation of blood stem cells in those with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome

Cannabidiol for the Prevention of Graft-versus-Host-Disease after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Results of a Phase II Study

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26033282

2015: in mice, CBD enhanced PPARγ transcription & thus mobilization of myeloid-derived suppressor cells from bone marrow stem cells

Critical Role of Mast Cells and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ in the Induction of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells by Marijuana Cannabidiol In Vivo

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25917103

2015: in mice with malaria, CBD treatment prevented memory deficits, decreased anxiety, increased BDNF in the hippocampus, decreased proinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus (TNF-α) and prefrontal cortex (IL-6)

Cannabidiol increases survival and promotes rescue of cognitive function in a murine model of cerebral malaria

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25595981

2014: in a model of a human colon, CBD & AEA reduced IL-17A which is linked to inflammatory bowel disease

Interleukin 17A evoked mucosal damage is attenuated by cannabidiol and anandamide in a human colonic explant model

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24238999

2014: in mice, endocannabinoids found to activate the CB1 receptors on mast cells in induce MCP-1 (a cytokine chemoattractant that regulates white blood cells) and recruits myeloid-derived suppressor cells (immune cells originating from bone marrow stem cells)

Characterization of endocannabinoid-mediated induction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells involving mast cells and MCP-1

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24319288

2014: in mice with induced spinal disc injury, CBD decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines associated with T-cell differentiation and invasion – most helpful for regaining thermal sensitivity

Protective effects of cannabidiol on lesion-induced intervertebral disc degeneration

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25517414

2014: In rat lung injured by paraquat, CB2 activation protected the lungs via inflammatory cytokine levels

CB2 receptor activation ameliorates the proinflammatory activity in acute lung injury induced by paraquat

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24963491

2014: in mice, AEA caused significantly less inflammation after an insult and reduced production of IL-17 and IFN-γ, decreased RORγt expression, and induced IL-10 - which triggered miRNA that targeted proinflammatory pathway)

Anandamide attenuates Th-17 cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity response by triggering IL-10 production and consequent microRNA induction

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24699635

2013: in T-cells, CBD decreased production of proinflammatory IL-17 & decreased IL-6 (a key factor in Th17 induction) – CBD & THC did not affect the levels of TNFα and IFNγ – downregulation of IL-17 did not seem to involve the CB1, CB2, PPARγ, 5-HT1A or TRPV1 receptors – CBD a potent inducer of IL-10, one of the main anti-inflammatory cytokines restraining disease progress

Cannabinoids decrease the th17 inflammatory autoimmune phenotype

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23892791/

2013: CB2 & the white blood cells

Differential expression of intracellular and extracellular CB(2) cannabinoid receptor protein by human peripheral blood leukocytes

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23299999

2013: in mice with pulmonary inflammation, CBD enhanced the production of proinflammatory cytokines via gene transcription

Cannabidiol (CBD) enhances lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary inflammation in C57BL/6 mice

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23173851/

2013: In mice with lung injuries, inhibition of MAGL led to increased 2AG levels & anti-inflammatory effects

Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibition attenuates acute lung injury in mice

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24204926/

2013: In humans with celiac disease, higher levels of CB1 & CB2 are found when the disease is active, suggesting a potential target

Altered expression of type-1 and type-2 cannabinoid receptors in celiac disease

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23620805/

2012: In humans with celiac disease, they have higher AEA levels in their muscoa

Abnormal anandamide metabolism in celiac disease

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22209002

2012: In rats with meningitis, injections of CBD reduced TNF-α in the frontal cortex & prevented memory impairment

Cannabidiol reduces host immune response and prevents cognitive impairments in Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23085269

2012: In mice with acute lung injury, CBD decreased inflammation via the adenosine receptor

Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: role for the adenosine A(2A) receptor

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22265864

2011: in mice with autoimmune hepatitis, activation of TRPV1 by CBD lowered inflammation & recruited myeloid-derived suppressor cells to protect the lover & suppress the hepatitis

Role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in amelioration of experimental autoimmune hepatitis following activation of TRPV1 receptors by cannabidiol

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21483776

2010: in mice, CBD reduced inflammatory reactions after insult - suppressed the infiltration of T cells and macrophages, and the expression of interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α (two pro-inflammatory cytokines) – IL-10 enhanced

Cannabidiol attenuates delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions via suppressing T-cell and macrophage reactivity

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21042286

2009: in macrophages, CB1 activation increased inflammation via reactive oxygen species production & activation of CB2 suppressed it via Rap1 activation

CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors differentially regulate the production of reactive oxygen species by macrophages

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19596672/

2009: in mice infected with severe lung disease Legionella pneumophila, a look at how CB1 & CB2 mediate the many immune effects

CB(1) and CB(2) cannabinoid receptors mediate different aspects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-induced T helper cell shift following immune activation by Legionella pneumophila infection

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18792785

2008: in cell cultures, CBD suppressed T cell function, IL-2 and IFN-gamma production (via activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcriptional activity) - CBD suppressed the T cell-dependent anti-sheep red blood cell immunoglobulin M antibody forming cell (anti-sRBC IgM AFC) response

The profile of immune modulation by cannabidiol (CBD) involves deregulation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18656454

2008: in humans with fibromyalgia, increasing AEA levels may be helpful

Anandamide and neutrophil function in patients with fibromyalgia

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18395993/

2008: in guinea pigs with asthma, activation of the cannabinoid receptors helped to prevent symptoms

Activation of cannabinoid receptors prevents antigen-induced asthma-like reaction in guinea pigs

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18266975/

2007: In humans with celiac disease, AEA, PEA & CB1 levels were increased

Overactivity of the intestinal endocannabinoid system in celiac disease and in methotrexate-treated rats

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17396241

2007: in mice, after insult, CBD caused less IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-gamma as well as antibodies - proliferation of splenocytes also suppressed

Suppressive effects of cannabidiol on antigen-specific antibody production and functional activity of splenocytes in ovalbumin-sensitized BALB/c mice

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17466911

2007: CBD & mast cells

Cannabidiol, unlike synthetic cannabinoids, triggers activation of RBL-2H3 mast cells

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17339608

2007: how CBD blunts neuroinflammation

Cannabidiol in vivo blunts beta-amyloid induced neuroinflammation by suppressing IL-1beta and iNOS expression

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17592514

2007: in mouse model of autoimmune eye disease, CB2 activation lowers inflammation and inhibits autoreactive T cells and stop leukocytes going to inflamed tissue

Anti-inflammatory property of the cannabinoid receptor-2-selective agonist JWH-133 in a rodent model of autoimmune uveoretinitis

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17537989

2006: CBD & immunosuppression

Inhibition of an equilibrative nucleoside transporter by cannabidiol: a mechanism of cannabinoid immunosuppression

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16672367

2000: In a mouse model of arthritis, the effects of CBD

The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10920191

1998: In cell cultures, early work on how THC & CBD alter cytokine production

Delta9 tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alter cytokine production by human immune cells

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9858061