Musculoskeletal System & Exercise

Best reviews

2021: A review of targeting the CB2 receptor for bone disorders

Research progress on natural cannabinoid receptor type 2( CB2R)regulators and their effects on bone metabolism

2021: A review of humans with chronic musculoskeletal pain found that they reported cannabis to be helpful & with only minor adverse events

Cannabis against chronic musculoskeletal pain: a scoping review on users and their perceptions

2021: A review of the effects of cannabis & the cannabinoids like CBD on athletic performance

Cannabis and Athletic Performance

2021: A review of the studies on the use of CBD in sports

The role of cannabidiol in professional sports: A scoping review

2021: A review of the potential of CBD & THC in sports medicine

Therapeutic Potential for Cannabinoids in Sports Medicine: Current Literature Review

2021: This review looks at how the endocannabinoid system affects our exercising: by rewarding us for exercising, by improving the gut-brain axis & by lowering inflammation

Neurobiological Processes Induced by Aerobic Exercise through the Endocannabinoidome

2021: A review of how the benefits of exercise for mental health are mediated by the endocannabinoid system

The Endocannabinoid System as Modulator of Exercise Benefits in Mental Health

2020: Review of CBD for sports medicine

Cannabidiol and Sports Performance: a Narrative Review of Relevant Evidence and Recommendations for Future Research

2020: Di Marzo on CBD for sport

Cannabidiol in sport: Ergogenic or else?

2020: Exercise, the ECS & neurological diseases

Can Physical Activity Support the Endocannabinoid System in the Preventive and Therapeutic Approach to Neurological Disorders?

2020: A review of the acute effects of cannabis for exercise

Acute effects of cannabis consumption on exercise performance: a systematic and umbrella review

2020: This review looks at the use of cannabis in sports & exercise

Chronic cannabis consumption and physical exercise performance in healthy adults: a systematic review

2020: A big review of studies found that 1 in 4 athletes used cannabis in the past year & it appears that it probably doesn't enhance performance

Cannabis Use and Sport: A Systematic Review

2020: A systematic review suggests the efficacy of cannabis for the pain of rheumatologic diseases

Cannabis use assessment and its impact on pain in rheumatologic diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis

2020: A review of CBD for rheumatic diseases

The Effectiveness of Cannabidiol in Rheumatic Disease Pain: A Systematic Review

2020: A review of CBD for joint diseases

Cannabidiol: A Brief Review of Its Therapeutic and Pharmacologic Efficacy in the Management of Joint Disease

2020: A review of using CBD in rheumatology

A cautious hope for cannabidiol (CBD) in rheumatology care

2020: A review of cannabinoids for rheumatic diseases

Cannabis and Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Rheumatic Diseases

2020: Cannabis & orthopedic surgery

The Role of Cannabis in Orthopedic Surgery

2020: Manipulating the ECS for orthopedic surgery & musculoskeletal medicine

Endocannabinoids in Orthopedic Surgery and Musculoskeletal Medicine: Is it Time for a Green Standard?

2020: A look at how the ECS is involved in the contraction of muscles

Influence of cannabinoids upon nerve-evoked skeletal muscle contraction

2020: This review looks at CBD & the other cannabinoids for musculoskeletal disorders

Cannabinoid Use in Musculoskeletal Illness: a Review of the Current Evidence

2020: On how exercise helps our skeletal muscle via the ECS

Role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of the skeletal muscle response to exercise

2020: A review about the importance of the cannabinoids in the regulation of bones

The Cannabinoids Effect on Bone Formation and Bone Healing

2019: Excellent review on the ECS & the endovanilloids on bone biochemistry
The Endocannabinoid/Endovanilloid System in Bone: From Osteoporosis to Osteosarcoma

2019: Review of cannabinoids for bones & joints (great chart & tables)

Bones and Joints: The Effects of Cannabinoids on the Skeleton

2019: On the cannabinoids & regeneration of bones

Cannabinoids and bone regeneration

2019: A meta-review of cannabis for rheumatic diseases

Cannabis-Based Medicines and Medical Cannabis in Rheumatic Diseases: A Treasure Chest or Pandora’s box

2016: A personal history of the discovery of the ECS in bones

A collaboration investigating endocannabinoid signalling in brain and bone

2016: A review of the skeletal ECS system

The skeletal endocannabinoid system: clinical and experimental insights

2012: The cannabinoids & the remodeling of bones

Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling

2010: A review of how the ECS affects motor skills

The role of endocannabinoid signaling in motor control.

2010: a review of the ECS & motor control in mice

Endocannabinoids and voluntary activity in mice: runner's high and long-term consequences in emotional behaviors.

2003: In humans, moderate exercise activates the ECS

Exercise activates the endocannabinoid system

Chart Gallery

Regulation of bone cell differentiation by the ECS
Regulation of bone cell differentiation by the ECS

2010: Cannabinoid receptors and the regulation of bone mass

press to zoom
Homeostasis in osteoporosis
Homeostasis in osteoporosis

2019: The Endocannabinoid/Endovanilloid System in Bone: From Osteoporosis to Osteosarcoma

press to zoom
ECS & bone maintenance
ECS & bone maintenance

2019: The Endocannabinoid/Endovanilloid System in Bone: From Osteoporosis to Osteosarcoma

press to zoom
Regulation of bone cell differentiation by the ECS
Regulation of bone cell differentiation by the ECS

2010: Cannabinoid receptors and the regulation of bone mass

press to zoom

Timeline of Research

2021: In humans, younger people have more CB1 receptors in their muscle than older people – but you can increase your cannabinoid receptor levels with resistance exercise

Cannabinoid receptor 1 expression is higher in muscle of old vs. young males, and increases upon resistance exercise in older adults

2021: In mice housed in small cages, oleamide (an endocannabinoid) rescued their muscles from atrophy

Oleamide rescues tibialis anterior muscle atrophy of mice housed in small cages

2021: In mice undergoing swimming training, consuming CBD oil improved their heart’s markers for MAPK & PPARα gene expression while showing that the interventions of CBD & swimming combined worked better than either method alone

Effect of Eight Weeks of Swimming Training and CBD Oil Consumption on MAPK, Pparα Gene Expression in the Heart Tissue of Myocardial Infarction Rats

2021: In mice with an ACL rupture, their CB2 receptors were upregulated in the injured area & treatment with CBD helped with inflammation

Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 is Upregulated in Synovium following Joint Injury and Mediates Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Synovial Fibroblasts and Macrophages

2021: Cannabis may help you stick with an exercise routine

2021: In exercising humans, one dose of CBD showed small but significant effects on muscle damage & recovery

Effects of Cannabidiol Supplementation on Skeletal Muscle Regeneration after Intensive Resistance Training

2021: The runner's high & endocannabinoids

Exercise-induced euphoria and anxiolysis do not depend on endogenous opioids in humans

2021: In men, a single session of moderate exercise improved memory & increased the levels of anandamide as well as BDNF (the brain growth factor)
A single session of moderate intensity exercise influences memory, endocannabinoids and brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in men

2021: In humans with PTSD, the ability of exercise to help reduce threat expectancy is mediated via anandamide & BDNF (an important brain growth factor regulated by the ECS)
Exercise-induced increases in Anandamide and BDNF during extinction consolidation contribute to reduced threat following reinstatement: Preliminary evidence from a randomized controlled trial

2021: In bone tissue, CB1 may be a promising target for inflammation of skeletal muscle tissue

The Impact of CB1 Receptor on Inflammation in Skeletal Muscle Cells

2021: In rats with spinal cord injuries, activating the CB2 receptor helped mitigate their osteoporosis

Delayed Systemic Treatment with Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Agonist Mitigates Spinal Cord Injury-Induced Osteoporosis More Than Acute Treatment Directly after Injury

2021: In humans with nerve pain from rheumatic diseases, PEA combined well with acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) to lower inflammation & to increase clinical scores

Efficacy of a fixed combination of Palmitoylethanolamide and acetyl-l-carnitine (PEA + ALC FC) in the treatment of Neuropathies secondary to Rheumatic Diseases

2021: In male rats, exercise, caloric restriction & blocking the CB1 receptor all helped to control weight & heart health

Caloric restriction, physical exercise, and CB1 receptor blockade as an efficient combined strategy for bodyweight control and cardiometabolic status improvement in male rats

2021: In a rat model of exercise, the injection of CBD lessened inflammation while still allowing the appropriate anabolic signaling

Cannabidiol Does Not Impair Anabolic Signaling Following Eccentric Contractions in Rats

2021: In zebrafish, bone growth could be positively influenced by a combination of targeting the endocannabinoid system & the retinoic acid pathway

The endocannabinoid system and retinoic acid signaling combine to influence bone growth

2021: In bone cells, this study looks at the interplay of endocannabinoids on the differentiation & remodeling of bones

Modulation of Endocannabinoid Tone in Osteoblastic Differentiation of MC3T3-E1 Cells and in Mouse Bone Tissue over Time

2021: In cells, activating the GPR55 receptor (which might one day be known as the CB3 receptor) is helpful for the homeostasis of our bones

Peptide targeting of lysophosphatidylinositol-sensing GPR55 for osteoclastogenesis tuning

2021: In mice, CB2 regulates the bone marrow stem cells that form new bone cells & is suggested as a target for treating osteoporosis

Involvement of CB2 signalling pathway in the development of osteoporosis by regulating the proliferation and differentiation of hBMSCs

2021: In mice, a connection between kidney cells & the remodeling of bones is regulated by CB1

Renal Proximal Tubule Cell Cannabinoid-1 Receptor Regulates Bone Remodeling and Mass via a Kidney-to-Bone Axis

2021: In a cellular & mouse model of osteoporosis, blocking the MAGL enzyme & increasing 2-AG levels helped block bone loss via several pathways

Inhibiting Monoacylglycerol Lipase Suppresses RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis and Alleviates Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

2021: In muscle spasms caused by a cell's voltage-gated sodium channels, CBD lowers their overexcitation by both blocking the channel & also changing the elasticity of the cell's membrane

Cannabidiol inhibits the skeletal muscle Nav1.4 by blocking its pore and by altering membrane elasticity

2021: A survey of orthopedic doctors focused on trauma about their thoughts on cannabis & CBD for postoperative pain

Knowledge and Opinion on Cannabinoids Among Orthopaedic Traumatologists

2021: This study suggests that activating the CB2 receptor helps to preserve joint cartilage during osteoarthritis

HU308-mediated cannabinoid signaling mitigates age and trauma-related osteoarthritis

2020: In rats, CBD helped slightly with Achilles tendon repair

Biomechanical Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD), the Major Constituents of Cannabis, on Tendon to Tendon Healing in a Sprague Dawley Rat Achilles Tendon Surgical Repair Model

2020: Endocannabinoids seem to be regulators of skeletal muscle protein homeostasis & in this study of mouse muscle tissue, rimonabant (the famous CB1 antagonist) stimulated protein synthesis

Acute rimonabant treatment promotes protein synthesis in C2C12 myotubes through a CB1-independent mechanism

2020: In mice, the CB2 receptor modulates skeletal muscle regeneration after an injury

Cannabinoid type 2 receptor manipulates skeletal muscle regeneration partly by regulating macrophage M1/M2 polarization in IR injury in mice

2020: In smooth muscle cells, anandamide caused the downregulation of 21 genes related to inflammation, especially CCL2

The endocannabinoid anandamide has an anti-inflammatory effect on CCL2 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

2020: In humans, CBD helps to delay the onset of muscle soreness

The influence cannabidiol on delayed onset of muscle soreness

2020: Cultures of muscle cells grew faster when CBD was added


2020: In rats, induced bone damage in their mouths can be lessened by activating the CB2 receptor

Signs of alveolar bone damage in early stages of periodontitis and its prevention by stimulation of cannabinoid receptor 2. Model in rats

2020: In children with Celiac disease, a variant of CB2 is associated with bone loss & suggests CB2 as a target to help with bone metabolism

The Role of Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 in the Bone Loss Associated with pediatric Celiac Disease

2020: In cells that secrete bone, CBD caused differentiation & increased bone deposition

Cannabidiol induces osteoblast differentiation via angiopoietin1 and p38 MAPK

2020: In a mouse model of multiple myeloma, inhibiting MAGL (the enzyme that hydrolyzes 2-AG) causes bone loss

JZL184, A Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibitor, Induces Bone Loss in a Multiple Myeloma Model of Immunocompetent Mice

2020: In bone cells, the activation of CB2 to lower bone reabsorption requires Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2)

Nrf2 is required for suppressing osteoclast RANKL-induced differentiation in RAW 264.7 cells via inactivating cannabinoid receptor type 2 with AM630

2020: Activating CB2 receptors seem to help with bone cell differentiation

Activation of cannabinoid receptor type 2-induced osteogenic differentiation involves autophagy induction and p62-mediated Nrf2 deactivation

2020: In knockout mice (those engineered to have no CB1 or CB2 receptors), this research shows the importance of CB2 for the formation of the bones in the jaws

Impact of the endocannabinoid system on murine cranial and alveolar bone phenotype

2020: In women, aerobic exercise increases endocannabinoids in the blood while also reducing anxiety & fear when faced with a threat

Aerobic exercise reduces anxiety and fear ratings to threat and increases circulating endocannabinoids in women with and without PTSD

2020: In older adults, using cannabis is associated with a lower body mass index (BMI) & a higher frequency of exercise

Exercise Intervention Outcomes With Cannabis Users and Nonusers Aged 60 and Older

2020: In mice, swimming exercise reduced inflammatory pain via the ECS

High-intensity swimming exercise reduces inflammatory pain in mice by activation of the endocannabinoid system

2020: In humans, CBD helps to delay the onset of muscle soreness

The influence cannabidiol on delayed onset of muscle soreness

2020: In mice, the activation of CB1 during exercise helps to enhance learning & memory via glutamate, BDNF & an increased number of dendrites

The endocannabinoid system regulates the moderate exercise-induced enhancement of learning and memory in mice

2020: In mice, exercise enhances learning & memory via the ECS's effect on glutamate & BDNF (a brain growth factor)

Exercise enhances learning and memory: the role of endogenous cannabinoid system

2020: In rats, how running on a treadmill repairs memory impairment via the ECS

Treadmill exercise improves LPS-induced memory impairments via endocannabinoid receptors and cyclooxygenase enzymes

2020: Pharmacist's advice for athletes using CBD for pain

What Pharmacists Should Know to Counsel Athletes About CBD for Pain Management

2020: Survey says, professional rugby players are into CBD

High Prevalence of Cannabidiol Use Within Male Professional Rugby Union and League Players: A Quest for Pain Relief and Enhanced Recovery

2019: CBD for brain injuries in sports

Cannabidiol (CBD) in the Management of Sports-Related Traumatic Brain Injury: Research and Efficacy

2019: A survey of 1,274 athletes found that those "who use a combination of THC and CBD exhibited the most benefit to well-being and calm with minimal adverse effects"

Cannabis use in active athletes: Behaviors related to subjective effects

2019: In rats, exercise improved the immune system & boosted cannabinoid receptors

Chronic exercise modulates the cellular immunity and its cannabinoid receptors expression

2019: Exercise performed by patients with substance use disorder increased anandamide concentration

Psychological and endocannabinoid responses to aerobic exercise in substance use disorder patients

2019: Regular exercise increase cannabinoid receptor expression in certain immune cells

Chronic exercise modulates the cellular immunity and its cannabinoid receptors expression

2019: When marmots hibernate, they may use the endocannabinoid system to prevent bone loss from disuse

The effects of neurectomy and hibernation on bone properties and the endocannabinoid system in marmots (Marmota flaviventris)

2019: In rats with bone problems, this group created CBD microspheres that enhanced healing via recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells

Cannabidiol-loaded microspheres incorporated into osteoconductive scaffold enhance mesenchymal stem cell recruitment and regeneration of critical-sized bone defects

2019: In human bone cells, CBD elevated calcium levels & apoptosis

Dose-Dependent Cannabidiol-Induced Elevation of Intracellular Calcium and Apoptosis in Human Articular Chondrocytes

2019: A 1:1 THC:CBD treatment effective for a 60 year old woman's 'stiff person syndrome'

Medical Cannabis as an Effective Treatment for Refractory Symptoms of Paraneoplastic Stiff Person Syndrome

2019: In humans, cannabis may be helpful in patients with myotonia (neuromuscular disorders) according to this case series

A role for cannabinoids in the treatment of myotonia? Report of compassionate use in a small cohort of patients

2019: In humans with conditions involving clenched muscles, transdermal CBD patches help to relax the muscles

Myorelaxant Effect of Transdermal Cannabidiol Application in Patients with TMD: A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial

2017: In rats with severe spinal cord injuries, CBD enhanced bone volume & as well as a number of other measures

Cannabidiol administration reduces sublesional cancellous bone loss in rats with severe spinal cord injury

2016: In tissue culture, CBD protected the nucleus pulposus cells (jelly-like substance at the center of a spinal disc) via the suppression of anti‑apoptosis, anti‑inflammation &  anti‑oxidative activities

Protective effect of cannabidiol on hydrogen peroxide‑induced apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress in nucleus pulposus cells

2015: In rats, CBD enhanced fracture healing

Cannabidiol, a Major Non-Psychotropic Cannabis Constituent Enhances Fracture Healing and Stimulates Lysyl Hydroxylase Activity in Osteoblasts

2015: In mice, the runner’s high depends on the ECS

A runner's high depends on cannabinoid receptors in mice

2014: In mice, the ECS helps spatial memory & exercise

A role for the endocannabinoid system in exercise-induced spatial memory enhancement in mice.

2014: In rats with intervertebral disc degeneration, CBD protected from the effects of the disc injury

Protective effects of cannabidiol on lesion-induced intervertebral disc degeneration

2012: In humans, the reward from running may come from the endocannabinoids

Wired to run: exercise-induced endocannabinoid signaling in humans and cursorial mammals with implications for the 'runner's high'

2012: In rats with periodontitis, anandamide reduced inflammatory response & lowered stress

Anti-inflammatory effect of the endocannabinoid anandamide in experimental periodontitis and stress in the rat

2009: In mice with periodontitis, CBD reduced bone loss via inhibition of RANK/RANKL

Cannabidiol decreases bone resorption by inhibiting RANK/RANKL expression and pro-inflammatory cytokines during experimental periodontitis in rats