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Dogs & Cats

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Reviews & Surveys

2023: A review of cannabinoids for the pain of our animal companions (with great technical charts)
The role of cannabinoids in pain modulation in companion animals

2023: A solid review on the use of CBD in dogs
Pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of cannabidiol in dogs: an update of current knowledge

2023: A review of using CBD & CBDA in veterinary medicine
The clinical use of cannabidiol and cannabidiolic acid-rich hemp in veterinary medicine and lessons from human medicine


2023: A review of using CBD for the diseases of your dogs & cats
Scientific Validation of Cannabidiol for Management of Dog and Cat Diseases


2022: A review of using cannabis & CBD for treating animals: osteoarthritis, epilepsy aggressiveness
Use of cannabis in the treatment of animals: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials

2022: A survey of pet owners find “positive effects, such as improved well-being, increased activity, and reduced pain”
Use of cannabidiol products by pet owners in Slovenia: a survey-based study

2022: A review of using hemp & CBD in your animal diets
Hemp in Animal Diets-Cannabidiol

2022: Great review on using cannabis for your small animal friends by Drs. Trina Hazzah & Gary Richter
Cannabis Products in Small Animal Medicine

2022: Dr. Trina Hazzah on using cannabis for animal companions


2022: Excellent review on using PEA for pets (good charts)
Palmitoylethanolamide and Related ALIAmides for Small Animal Health: State of the Art

2022: A review of CBD for dogs & horses
Cannabidiol and possibilities of its use in veterinary medicine of dogs and horses: A brief review

2022: A review article of CBD hemp extracts for the health of companion animals


2022: This review looks at the link between the gut microbiome & the endocannabinoidome, especially in companion animals

Mutual Links between the Endocannabinoidome and the Gut Microbiome, with Special Reference to Companion Animals: A Nutritional Viewpoint

2021: Nevada becomes the first state to allow veterinary CBD treatment

2021: On using PEA for brain aging in pets
Successful and Unsuccessful Brain Aging in Pets: Pathophysiological Mechanisms behind Clinical Signs and Potential Benefits from Palmitoylethanolamide Nutritional Intervention

2021: A review that suggests PEA for the management of chronic pain in dogs & cats

Chronic Pain in Dogs and Cats: Is There Place for Dietary Intervention with Micro-Palmitoylethanolamide?

2021: A review for vets with review of legal status & deeper historical context

Cannabis, Cannabidiol Oils and Tetrahydrocannabinol-What Do Veterinarians Need to Know?

2021: This review looks at the use of CBD for anxiety, pain & inflammation in dogs, cats & companion animals

Cannabidiol-based natural health products for companion animals: Recent advances in the management of anxiety, pain, and inflammation

2020: On using CBD for the aging brain of cats
Feline cognitive dysfunction as a model for Alzheimer's disease in the research of CBD as a potential treatment-a narrative review

2020: For dogs with osteoarthritis, adding CBD to reduce pain
Does the addition of cannabidiol alongside current drug treatments reduce pain in dogs with osteoarthritis?

2020: The dogs of Hong Kong are testing CBD with positive results

2020: Very well-done review of PEA for pets with focus on fatty acids with a nice chart & history

Palmitoylethanolamide and Related ALIAmides: Prohomeostatic Lipid Compounds for Animal Health and Wellbeing

2020: A large review of the veterinary use of cannabis & cannabinoids - with a review of CBD's mechanisms

Cannabis in Veterinary Medicine: A Critical Review

2020: A review of the many industries that cannabis is entering & the regulatory landscapes - also looks at use in animals & animal feed

Cannabis, One Health, and Veterinary Medicine: Cannabinoids' Role in Public Health, Food Safety, and Translational Medicine

2020: In a survey, most veterinarians consider themselves fairly knowledgeable about recommending cannabinoid therapy for dogs, want laws loosened

US Veterinarians' Knowledge, Experience, and Perception Regarding the Use of Cannabidiol for Canine Medical Conditions

2020: A survey found that dog owners liked cannabis products because they reduced pain, increased relaxation & improved sleep, coping, functionality & overall well-being
Motivations and expectations for using cannabis products to treat pain in humans and dogs: a mixed methods study

2019: A survey of Canadian dog owners on the cannabis products
Canadian dog owners' use and perceptions of cannabis products

2019: Canadian vets on using cannabinoids to treat dogs and cats
January Veterinary Medical Ethics - Cannabinoids to treat dogs and cats

2019: How to use cannabis in veterinary medicine
Cannabis in Veterinary Medicine: Cannabinoid Therapies for Animals

2019: On the endocannabinoid system in animals
The Endocannabinoid System of Animals

2016: A consumer review of using hemp products for animals

Timeline of Research

2023: In dogs stressed out by car travel or separation, one dose of CBD significantly lowered their stress-related measures

A single dose of cannabidiol (CBD) positively influences measures of stress in dogs during separation and car travel

2023: A case study of a cat with osteoarthritis where full spectrum cannabis oil for 30 days helped with the pain
A case report of CBD and THC as analgesic therapy in a cat with chronic osteoarthritic pain

2023: For a 3 year old dog with intense jaw pain from a nerve sheath tumor, using CBD oil & gabapentin to relieve the pain
Cannabinoid oil with gabapentin for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain – case repor

2023: In canine epilepsy, an analysis of the changes to the CB1 receptors in the hippocampus (memory center of the brain)
Hippocampal expression of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 in canine epilepsy

2023: In a dog with compulsive disorder, using cannabis & melatonin lowered their compulsive episodes
Combining cannabis and melatonin treatment with a rehabilitation program improved symptoms in a dog with compulsive disorder: A case report

2023: In dogs, the use of oral transmucosal CBD did not change the bioavailability compared to oral treatments
Pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol following single oral and oral transmucosal administration in dogs

2022: A study of giving increasing doses of CBD to cats was safe
Pharmacokinetics of escalating single-dose administration of cannabidiol to cats

2022: In teddy dogs, hemp oil helped with nutrient digestibility, blood metabolism, immunity & antioxidant capacity
Dietary supplementation of hemp oil in teddy dogs: Effect on apparent nutrient digestibility, blood biochemistry and metabolomics

2022: In canine kidney cells, hemp leaf extract reduced their inflammation, especially CBN
Phytochemical differences of hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) leaves from different germplasms and their regulatory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in Matin-Darby canine kidney cell lines

2022: A case study of injecting CBD for a dog with severe pain
A Case Report of Subcutaneously Injected Liposomal Cannabidiol Formulation Used as a Compassion Therapy for Pain Management in a Dog

2022: In healthy dogs, CBD capsules for 6 months was well-tolerated & saw no biochemistry or liver changes asides from a passing elevation in ALP liver levels in half the dogs
Long-term daily feeding of cannabidiol is well-tolerated by healthy dogs

2022: In dogs with osteoarthritis, this thesis project found that both CBD & water-soluble CBD helped control pain with no difference between the methods
Comparison of Water-Soluble CBD and CBD Oil as an Anti-Inflammatory in Canines with Osteoarthritis

2022: In dogs with eczema, the inflammatory skin cells contained CB2, GPR55, TRPV1 & TRPA receptors
Cannabinoid receptors in the inflammatory cells of canine atopic dermatitis

2022: On using CBD/CBDA paste to treat seizures in dogs
Safety and efficacy of cannabidiol-cannabidiolic acid rich hemp extract in the treatment of refractory epileptic seizures in dogs


2022: In dogs with osteoarthritis, a combination of cannabis extract & frankincense reduced inflammation, oxidative stress & chronic pain
Long-term effects of a diet supplement containing Cannabis sativa oil and Boswellia serrata in dogs with osteoarthritis following physiotherapy treatments: a randomized, placebo-controlled and double-blind clinical trial

2022: In dogs with itchy skin, they had higher levels of CB2 receptors in their skin, suggesting targeting the ECS in the skin as a treatment
Distribution of Cannabinoid Receptors in Keratinocytes of Healthy Dogs and Dogs With Atopic Dermatitis

2022: In dogs, how CBD & CBDA moves through their system
Twenty-Four Hour and One-Week Steady State Pharmacokinetics of Cannabinoids in Two Formulations of Cannabidiol and Cannabidiolic Acid Rich Hemp in Dogs


2022: In dogs, a study of how CBD moves through their body when taking it nasally, rectally or orally
Pharmacokinetics of Cannabidiol Following Intranasal, Intrarectal, and Oral Administration in Healthy Dogs

2022: In dogs with atopic dermatitis (red itchy skin), a CBD/CBDA oil helped with their itchiness but not their lesions
The effect of a mixed cannabidiol and cannabidiolic acid based oil on client-owned dogs with atopic dermatitis

2022: In dogs with red, itchy skin, CBD oil (with no THC in it) was well-tolerated & decreased the itchiness
ffects of cannabidiol without delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on canine atopic dermatitis: A retrospective assessment of 8 cases

2022: In dogs, CBG & CBGA caused no ill effects & CBGA was found to be much more bioavailable

Single dose and chronic oral administration of cannabigerol and cannabigerolic acid-rich hemp extract in fed and fasted dogs: Physiological effect and pharmacokinetic evaluation

2022: In dogs being fed CBD treats, it did not lower their immune response to a novel antigen

Feeding treats containing cannabidiol (CBD) did not alter canine immune response to immunization with a novel antigen

2021: In cow & dog heart cells, TRPV1 receptors found
TRPV1 Receptor Identification in Bovine and Canine Mitral Valvular Interstitial Cells

2021: In dogs with skin allergies, a mixture including cannabinoids downregulated their inflammatory genes
Polyphenols and Cannabidiol Modulate Transcriptional Regulation of Th1/Th2 Inflammatory Genes Related to Canine Atopic Dermatitis

2021: In dogs with irritated intestines, the levels of endocannabinoids such as 2AG, PEA & OEA may be a diagnostic marker
Circulating Endocannabinoids as Diagnostic Markers of Canine Chronic Enteropathies: A Pilot Study

2021: In the blood of dogs, they measured the absorption of CBD & found it to be anti-inflammatory & immuno-modulating

Effect of Cannabidiol (CBD) on Canine Inflammatory Response: An Ex Vivo Study on LPS Stimulated Whole Blood

2021: In dogs, no drug-drug interactions found between CBD & phenobarbital

Drug-drug interaction between cannabidiol and phenobarbital in healthy dogs

2021: In canines, the researchers looked at how 3 weeks of CBD treats altered the dog’s metabolomics

Alteration of the Canine Metabolome After a 3-Week Supplementation of Cannabidiol (CBD) Containing Treats: An Exploratory Study of Healthy Animals


2021: In dogs, feeding them CBD treats had no effect on their daily voluntary activity in this well-designed study & might have helped with their itchy skin

Feeding Cannabidiol (CBD)-Containing Treats Did Not Affect Canine Daily Voluntary Activity

2021: In 20 healthy adult beagles, a month of CBD was safe & well-tolerated

Randomized, placebo-controlled, 28-day safety and pharmacokinetics evaluation of repeated oral cannabidiol administration in healthy dogs

2021: In dogs living in a shelter, cannabis helped to lower aggressive behavior towards humans

Cannabis sativa L. may reduce aggressive behaviour towards humans in shelter dogs

2021: This study looking at the safety of CBD & THC in cats found both to be safe - and CBD to be especially safe

Safety and tolerability of escalating cannabinoid doses in healthy cats

2020: After looking in the mouths of cats with chronic gingivostomatitis (a disease with intense oral pain), the upregulation of cannabinoid receptors suggest the ECS as a therapeutic target

Expression of cannabinoid and cannabinoid-related receptors in the oral mucosa of healthy cats and cats with chronic gingivostomatitis

2020: In the guts of cats, where the cannabinoid receptors are located

Localization of cannabinoid and cannabinoid related receptors in the cat gastrointestinal tract

2020: In dogs with colon problems being treated by probiotics, they had decreased numbers of mast cell & increased levels of CB1 & CB2
Enterocolic increase of cannabinoid receptor type 1 and type 2 and clinical improvement after probiotic administration in dogs with chronic signs of colonic dysmotility without mucosal inflammatory changes

2020: A safety study of CBD & THC levels in dogs found only the usual mild adverse events with the CBD being the most tolerated
Preliminary Investigation of the Safety of Escalating Cannabinoid Doses in Healthy Dogs

2020: In dogs a 1:20 THC:CBD extract & the pharmacokinetics examined – tolerance seemed to develop to neurological effects
Pharmacokinetic and Safety Evaluation of Various Oral Doses of a Novel 1:20 THC:CBD Cannabis Herbal Extract in Dogs

2020: In dogs, CBD treats helped with their fear response to loud noises

The Impact of Feeding Cannabidiol (CBD) Containing Treats on Canine Response to a Noise-Induced Fear Response Test

2020: Great pilot study in 32 dogs with osteoarthritis finds that CBD-rich hemp extracts help almost all of them with their pain & allowed almost all of them taking gabapentin to reduce or eliminate that drug

The Use of Cannabidiol-Rich Hemp Oil Extract to Treat Canine Osteoarthritis-Related Pain: A Pilot Study

2020: A placebo-controlled study of arthritic dogs found that CBD oil significantly helped with pain & quality of life

Oral Transmucosal Cannabidiol Oil Formulation as Part of a Multimodal Analgesic Regimen: Effects on Pain Relief and Quality of Life Improvement in Dogs Affected by Spontaneous Osteoarthritis

2020: In applying cannabinoids topically to beagles, the THCA & CBDA were absorbed better through the skin than the THC & CBD

Serum cannabidiol, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and their native acid derivatives after transdermal application of a low-THC Cannabis sativa extract in beagles

2020: In dogs, a case study suggests combing CBD with NSAIDs for osteoarthritis

Does the addition of cannabidiol alongside current drug treatments reduce pain in dogs with osteoarthritis?

2020: This double-blind study in dogs finds CBD helpful for the pain of osteoarthritis

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of daily cannabidiol for the treatment of canine osteoarthritis pain

2020: In dogs, a look at how Sativex (the 1:1 THC/CBD drug) enters the body

Pharmacokinetics of Sativex® in Dogs: Towards a Potential Cannabinoid-Based Therapy for Canine Disorders

2019: In dogs with itchy allergic skin from dust mites, a topical endocannabinoid membrane transporter inhibitor caused significant protection from itchiness & allergic flares
Double blinded, vehicle controlled, crossover study on the efficacy of a topical endocannabinoid membrane transporter inhibitor in atopic Beagles

2019: In cats & dogs, a positive 12-week safety study on CBD0rich hemp extracts

Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Preliminary Safety Assessment with Use of CBD-Rich Hemp Nutraceutical in Healthy Dogs and Cats

2019: In the cervical ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system in dogs, they had CB1, CB2, TRPV1, GPR55 & PPARα receptors
Cellular Distribution of Canonical and Putative Cannabinoid Receptors in Canine Cervical Dorsal Root Ganglia

2019: In cats with sensitive itchy skin, PEA lowered their itchiness
Effect of dietary supplementation with ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide in maintaining remission in cats with nonflea hypersensitivity dermatitis: a double-blind, multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled stud

2019: A case study of using CBD for a dog with anxiety & a cat with epilepsy
CBD case studies: anxiety and epilepsy

2019: In dogs with seizures, 12 weeks of CBD lessened seizures (26 dogs in randomized blinded controlled clinical trial)

Randomized blinded controlled clinical trial to assess the effect of oral cannabidiol administration in addition to conventional antiepileptic treatment on seizure frequency in dogs with intractable idiopathic epilepsy

2019: In dogs being fed a high fat diet, blocking the CB1 receptor increased genes related to fat beiging & the improvement of metabolic homeostasis
Activation of NPRs and UCP1-independent pathway following CB1R antagonist treatment is associated with adipose tissue beiging in fat-fed male dogs

2019: In three dogs with epilepsy, CBD helped two of them

Cannabidiol as a potential anti-epileptic dietary supplement in dogs with suspected epilepsy: three case reports

2018: TRPV1 receptors found in canine skin stem cells
Expression of functional TRPV1 receptor in primary culture of canine keratinocytes

2018: in the guts of dogs, a wide distribution of CB1, CB2, GPR55 & PPARα
Localization of cannabinoid receptors CB1, CB2, GPR55, and PPARα in the canine gastrointestinal tract


2018: In dogs & cats with skin allergies, they had higher levels of CB1 & CB2 as well as PPARα
Cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α: distribution in the skin of clinically healthy cats and cats with hypersensitivity dermatitis

2018: Efficacy of CBD for arthritis in dogs

Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs

2018: Pharmacokinetics of CBD in healthy dogs

Pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol administered by 3 delivery methods at 2 different dosages to healthy dogs

2017: In cats, the CB1 receptors play an important role in the neuromodulation of bladder overactivity
Role of cannabinoid receptor type 1 in tibial and pudendal neuromodulation of bladder overactivity in cats

2017: The location of CB1 & FAAH in the ovaries of cats
Spatial distribution of cannabinoid receptor 1 and fatty acid amide hydrolase in the cat ovary and oviduct

2017: In dogs with osteoarthritis, they had all the major endocannabinoids in their knee joints & a significant increase of oleamide & 2AG
Characterization of endocannabinoids and related acylethanolamides in the synovial fluid of dogs with osteoarthritis: a pilot study

2017: In a canine model of ALS, they had higher CB2 levels in their astrocytes
Upregulation of CB2 receptors in reactive astrocytes in canine degenerative myelopathy, a disease model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

2017: In a canine model of itchy skin, PEA reduced mast cells & histamine as well as reducing vasodilation

Ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide counteracts the effects of compound 48/80 in a canine skin organ culture model

2017: A map of the CB1 receptors of a dog’s nervous system
Spatial distribution of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) in normal canine central and peripheral nervous system


2016: In a canine skin stem cell model of skin allergies, adelmidrol (a PEA analog) increases the concentration of endocannabinoids & lowered inflammation
Adelmidrol increases the endogenous concentrations of palmitoylethanolamide in canine keratinocytes and down-regulates an inflammatory reaction in an in vitro model of contact allergic dermatitis

2016: In dogs with chronic inflammation, adelmidrol (a PEA analog) reduced pain and inflammation via the PPARγ receptor
Adelmidrol, a palmitoylethanolamide analogue, as a new pharmacological treatment for the management of acute and chronic inflammation

2016: In dogs, CB1 receptors & FAAH enzymes are found in the claustrum (wall of the brain)
Immunohistochemical distribution of the cannabinoid receptor 1 and fatty acid amide hydrolase in the dog claustrum

2015: In dogs being fed fats, blocking their CB1 receptor enhanced their liver insulin clearance as well as changing gene expression of adiponectin receptors
CB1R antagonist increases hepatic insulin clearance in fat-fed dogs likely via upregulation of liver adiponectin receptors

2015: In dogs with itchy skin, oral ultra-micronized PEA decreased itchiness & skin lesions
Efficacy of ultra-micronized palmitoylethanolamide in canine atopic dermatitis: an open-label multi-centre study

2015: In canine embryos, they had CB1 receptors in their epithelial. nervous system, inner ear, olfactory epithelium, eye & thyroid
Preferential epithelial expression of type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) in the developing canine embryo

2014: In dogs with itchy skin, they had higher levels of PEA & mast cells
Increased levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators and enhanced local mast cell proliferation in canine atopic dermatitis

2013: In dogs with seizures, they had higher levels of anandamide with a severity response linked to endocannabinoid concentrations
Alterations of endocannabinoids in cerebrospinal fluid of dogs with epileptic seizure disorder

2013: In dog eyes, a THC solution reduced their intraocular pressure
Effects of a topically applied 2% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ophthalmic solution on intraocular pressure and aqueous humor flow rate in clinically normal dogs

2012: In obese dogs being fed a high fat diet, blocking the CB1 receptor restored their sensitivity to insulin but not to reduced fat mass
CB(1) antagonism restores hepatic insulin sensitivity without normalization of adiposity in diet-induced obese dogs

2012: Finding CB1 in dog hair follicles
Identification of cannabinoid type 1 receptor in dog hair follicles

2012: In dogs with skin allergies, they had higher levels of CB1 & CB2
Cannabinoid receptor type 1 and 2 expression in the skin of healthy dogs and dogs with atopic dermatitis

2012: In dogs with skin allergies, PEA reduced wheals (red marks) & inflammation markers
Effects of palmitoylethanolamide on the cutaneous allergic inflammatory response in Ascaris hypersensitive Beagle dogs

2012: In dogs with skin allergies, the PEA analog adelmidrol reduced wheals (swollen marks) & reduced mast cells
Inhibitory effect of topical adelmidrol on antigen-induced skin wheal and mast cell behavior in a canine model of allergic dermatitis

2011: In dogs the safety of a CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist that decreased weight gain without affecting appetite or causing adverse health effects
Safety evaluation and treatment affect of LY2190416, a CB-1 antagonist/inverse agonist in growing beagle dogs

2011: Finding the CB2 receptor in dogs
Cloning and pharmacological characterization of the dog cannabinoid CB₂receptor

2010: In obese dogs being fed a high fat diet, blocking the CB1 receptor led to acute weight loss
CB-1 antagonism with LY2190416 results in acute weight loss in obese adult dogs fed a high-fat diet

2010: In dogs, finding CB1 in their salivary glands with a possible control of salivary secretion
Immunohistochemical localization of CB1 receptor in canine salivary glands

2010: In dog skin mast cells, PEA reduced histamine & inflammatory cytokines
Effects of palmitoylethanolamide on immunologically induced histamine, PGD2 and TNFalpha release from canine skin mast cells

2009: In dogs & humans, THC reduced acid reflux rates & spontaneous swallowing as well as significantly reducing lower throat sphincter pressure
Effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, on the triggering of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in dogs and humans

2009: In dogs being fed a high fat diet, blocking the CB1 receptor caused a reduction in body weight but no changes in metabolic rate or food intake
Rimonabant prevents additional accumulation of visceral and subcutaneous fat during high-fat feeding in dogs

2008: On dog skins, a PEA analog improved wound healing via the mast cells
Mast cell morphometry and densitometry in experimental skin wounds treated with a gel containing adelmidrol: a placebo controlled study

2006: In canine kidney cells, anandamide raised calcium levels
Effect of anandamide on cytosolic Ca(2+) levels and proliferation in canine renal tubular cells

2005: On the TRPV1 in dogs
Cloning and functional characterization of dog transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1)

2002: In a dog model of acid reflux, activating the cannabinoids receptor inhibits their relaxations probably via the brainstem
Cannabinoid receptor agonism inhibits transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations and reflux in dogs

2001: In a cat bone marrow cell model of HIV, activating the cannabinoid receptors inhibited nitric oxide production
Cannabinoids inhibit nitric oxide production in bone marrow derived feline macrophages

2001: In cats with skin lesions, an analog of PEA caused skin improvements & a lower number of granules but no change in mass cell numbers
Clinical and histological evaluation of an analogue of palmitoylethanolamide, PLR 120 (comicronized Palmidrol INN) in cats with eosinophilic granuloma and eosinophilic plaque: a pilot study

1999: In the artery muscles of a cat’s brain, activating the CB1 receptor lowered calcium channel activity & increased blood flow to the brain
Cannabinoid CB1 receptor of cat cerebral arterial muscle functions to inhibit L-type Ca2+ channel current

1995: First identification of 2-AG in dog guts
Identification of an endogenous 2-monoglyceride, present in canine gut, that binds to cannabinoid receptors

1991: In dogs, rats & man, the difference in metabolizing CBD
Comparative metabolism of cannabidiol in dog, rat and man

1991: Looking at CBD metabolites in dog, rat & man
Urinary metabolites of cannabidiol in dog, rat and man and their identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

1990: In dogs, the metabolites of CBD
Identification of urinary metabolites of cannabidiol in the dog

1988: On how CBD is absorbed by dogs

Pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol in dogs

1986: Cats & CBD’s central motor neuron effects

Cannabidiol-caused depression of spinal motoneuron responses in cats

1975: In anesthetized dogs, the heart & lung effects of CBD
Cardiopulmonary effects of cannabidiol in anesthetized mongrel dogs

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