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Genitourinary System

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Best reviews

2022: This review finds THC & CBD helpful for the symptoms of kidney failure

Cannabinoids for Symptom Management in Patients with Kidney Failure

2022: A book chapter on using PEA & polydatin for bladder pain & cystitis
Treatment of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome with Palmitoylethanolamide/Polydatin

2020: A kidney doctor's guide to the cannabinoids

The nephrologist's guide to cannabis and cannabinoids

2019: This metareview suggests that "manipulating the [endocannabinoid] system may be an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of kidney disease and injury"

Endocannabinoid System and the Kidneys: From Renal Physiology to Injury and Disease

2016: On the cannabinoid receptors in the kidney & their clinical relevance for treating diseases

Cannabinoid receptors in the kidney

Timeline of Research

2023: In a model of cystitis & bladder pain (a disease of chronic inflammation of the urinary bladder), CBD reduced inflammation & oxidative stress
Cannabidiol as a Promising Therapeutic Option in IC/BPS: In Vitro Evaluation of Its Protective Effects against Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

2023: In a rat model of kidney disease, CBD lowered inflammatory signals
Cannabidiol interacts with the FXR/Nrf2 pathway and changes the CB1/CB2 receptors ratio in gentamicin-induced kidney injury in rats

2023:In a tissue study of pelvic pain of the bladder, a mixture of PEA, hempseed oil & maritime pine bark extract reduced inflammatory cytokines
Micronized Palmitoylethanolamide, Hempseed Oil, and Maritime Pine Bark Dry Extract (Pelvipea®) for Pelvic Pain: An In Vitro Study for Urothelial Inflammation Treatment


2023: In mice exposed to the persistent organic pollutant perfluorooctane sulfonate, CBD protected the kidney cells from death via its antioxidant effects
Perfluorooctane sulfonate-induced apoptosis in kidney cells by triggering the NOX4/ROS/JNK axis and antagonism of cannabidiol

2023: In humans undergoing dialysis (an artificial kidney to clean the blood), the use of medical cannabis was found to be safe & the researchers urge studying its use for pain in this patient population
Medical cannabis for pain management in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis: randomized, double-blind, cross-over, feasibility study

2023: In a female rat model of overactive bladder, activating the CB1 receptor helped with both depression & overactive bladder symptoms
The Cannabinoid Ligand Arachidonyl-2'-Chloroethylamide (ACEA) Ameliorates Depressive and Overactive Bladder Symptoms in a Corticosterone-Induced Female Wistar Rat Model

2023: In a rat model of kidney damage, drugs that inhibit the FAAH enzyme & MAGL enzyme protect the kidney cells from inflammation & apoptosis (programmed cellular suicide)
Protective effect of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 and monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor KML29 on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury via toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-kappa B pathway

2022: In kidney cells, CBD increases the antibiotic power of the drug gramicidin
Cannabidiol increases gramicidin current in human embryonic kidney cells: An observational study

2022: In a mouse model of sepsis (an extreme immune reaction to an infection), CBD suppressed the inflammatory cytokine storm & protected the heart & kidneys from injury
Cannabidiol Suppresses Cytokine Storm and Protects Against Cardiac and Renal Injury Associated with Sepsis

2022: A large review of patient charts found no connection between cannabis use & chronic kidney disease
Cannabis Use and CKD: Epidemiological Associations and Mendelian Randomization

2022: In mice with kidney injuries, inactivating the FAAH enzyme (a function of CBD) protects against scarring via the AEA-COX-2 pathway
Inactivation of fatty acid amide hydrolase protects against ischemic reperfusion injury-induced renal fibrogenesis

2022: In a mouse model of kidney disease, inhibiting the FAAH enzyme (thus raising the anandamide levels, similar to CBD) mediates the protection against kidney scar formation
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition mitigates TGF-β1-induced fibrogenesis via the anandamide-COX-2-dependent pathway

2022: In a mouse model of diabetic kidney disease, activating their CB1 receptors helped with glucose reabsorption, amino acid uptake & preventing kidney dysfunction via the mTORC1 pathway (a master cellular regulator)
Opposite physiological and pathological mTORC1-mediated roles of the CB1 receptor in regulating renal tubular function

2022: In kidney cells, treatment with cannabis leaf extract protected them against iron injuries
Cannabis sativa L. protects against oxidative injury in kidney (vero) cells by mitigating perturbed metabolic activities linked to chronic kidney diseases

2022: Using hemp leaf extracts to lower inflammation in kidney cells
Phytochemical differences of hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) leaves from different germplasms and their regulatory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in Matin-Darby canine kidney cell lines

2022: In a mouse model of kidney disease, the inhibition of the MAGL enzyme (a function of CBD) lessens scarring & cellular injury


2022: In a mouse model of kidney disease, activating the CB2 receptor protected the kidney from scarring

Cannabinoid Type 2 Receptor Activation Reduces the Progression of Kidney Fibrosis Using a Mouse Model of Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction

2021: In kidney cells, inhibiting the FAAH enzyme (an action of CBD) may be a treatment for chronic kidney disease

Inactivation of Endocannabinoid-metabolizing Enzyme FAAH Represses TGF-β1-induced Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition in Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells

2021: Long term cannabis use not associated with kidney dysfunction
Long-Term Frequent Cannabis Use and Related Serum Cannabinoid Levels Are Not Associated with Kidney Dysfunction

2021: This review of patients with acute kidney disease found no harmful associations from the use of cannabis
Cannabis Use and Risk of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease Transitioning to Dialysis

2020: In mice with a kidney injury, CBD helped to regulate the innate lymphoid cells (immune cell) response

Regulation of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Acute Kidney Injury: Crosstalk between Cannabidiol and GILZ

2019: A single dose of 200 mg of CBD safe for renal patients (16 patients in a phase I, Open-Label, Parallel-Group, Single-Dose Trial)

A Phase I, Open-Label, Parallel-Group, Single-Dose Trial of the Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Tolerability of Cannabidiol in Subjects with Mild to Severe Renal Impairment

2018: In kidney transplant patients, CBD well-tolerated for treating the pain
Chronic Pain Treatment With Cannabidiol in Kidney Transplant Patients in Uruguay

2015: In a rat model of cystitis, PEA protected the bladder, lessened pain & lowered urination
Protective effect of palmitoylethanolamide in a rat model of cystitis

2015: in rats with kidney injuries, CBD protected against inflammation & oxidative damage

Evaluation of the role of the cannabidiol system in an animal model of ischemia/reperfusion kidney injury

2015: In mice with damaged kidneys, PEA & silymarin combined to reduce “kidney dysfunction, histological damage, neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress” and inhibited NF-κB and apoptosis pathways

Effects of Palmitoylethanolamide and Silymarin Combination Treatment in an Animal Model of Kidney Ischemia and Reperfusion


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