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Musculoskeletal & Rheumatic Disorders

Best reviews

2022: A review of CBD for rheumatic disorders of the bones, muscles & joints
Cannabidiol (CBD) in Rheumatic Diseases (Musculoskeletal Pain)

2022: This review about using cannabis for rheumatic diseases (joint pain & inflammation) says that the number of positive observational & survey studies points to the need for controlled clinical trials
Cannabis for Rheumatic Disease Pain: a Review of Current Literature

2022: A practical guide to using the cannabinoids in rheumatology (joint pain & arthritis)
Cannabinoids in the rheumatic diseases

2022: On treating bone diseases via the ECS

Components of the Endocannabinoid System and Effects of Cannabinoids Against Bone Diseases: A Mini-Review

2022: A review of cannabinoids for bone health & orthopedic effects suggests that CBD is helpful for bone health

Marijuana in Orthopaedics: Effects on Bone Health, Wound-Healing, Surgical Complications, and Pain Management

2021: This review looks at how the cannabinoid receptors help to control bone growth & remodeling

Association of cannabinoid receptor modulation with normal and abnormal skeletal remodelling: A systematic review and meta-analysis of in vitro, in vivo and human studies

2021: In China, the study of an ancient cemetery found the likely earliest physical evidence for medical cannabis being used "for the treatment of metrorrhagia [abnormal bleeding from the uterus], severe lumbago [pain in the lower back], and/or arthralgia [joint pain]"

Archaeobotanical evidence of the use of medicinal cannabis in a secular context unearthed from south China

2020: A review of CBD for rheumatic diseases

The Effectiveness of Cannabidiol in Rheumatic Disease Pain: A Systematic Review

2020: This review looks at CBD and the other cannabinoids for musculoskeletal disorders

Cannabinoid Use in Musculoskeletal Illness: a Review of the Current Evidence

2020: A review of CBD for joint diseases

Cannabidiol: A Brief Review of Its Therapeutic and Pharmacologic Efficacy in the Management of Joint Disease

2020: A review of using CBD in rheumatology (arthritis & other joint, muscle & ligament disorders)

A cautious hope for cannabidiol (CBD) in rheumatology care

2020: This review suggests that manipulating the ECS will be beneficial for orthopedic surgery and musculoskeletal medicine

Endocannabinoids in Orthopedic Surgery and Musculoskeletal Medicine: Is it Time for a Green Standard?

2020: A review of cannabinoids for rheumatic diseases

Cannabis and Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Rheumatic Diseases

2019: A review of cannabis for rheumatic diseases

Cannabis-Based Medicines and Medical Cannabis in Rheumatic Diseases: A Treasure Chest or Pandora’s box

2019: An excellent review that’s very knowledgeable on bone biochemistry
The Endocannabinoid/Endovanilloid System in Bone: From Osteoporosis to Osteosarcoma

2019: On the regeneration of bones & the cannabinoids

Cannabinoids and bone regeneration

2012: Cannabinoids in animal models of bone disease

The promise and dilemma of cannabinoid therapy: lessons from animal studies of bone disease

Timeline of Research

2022: A survey of musculoskeletal patients with pain found that cannabis helped to reduce their pain & that “89% of the participants considered medical cannabis to be more effective than narcotics for adequate pain management”
Patient Experience and Perspective on Medical Cannabis as an Alternative for Musculoskeletal Pain Management

2022: In bone stem cells, activating the CB1 receptor reduced inflammation, enhanced calcium deposition & increased the bone growth phenotype (suggesting CBD as a novel therapeutic option for bone regeneration)

Influence of Medical Marijuana on Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Osteogenesis: An in Vitro Study

2022: This hydrogel loaded with CBD helps bones to repair

Development and Characterization of Cannabidiol-loaded Alginate Copper Hydrogel for Repairing Open Bone Defects in vitro

2022: In a tissue model of periodontitis, activating the CB1 receptor improved bone growth & increased energy metabolism

The cannabinoid receptor I (CB1) enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs by rescue impaired mitochondrial metabolism function under inflammatory condition

2022: In mice, CBD helps to promote new bone growth via the lowering of inflammation & the activation of bone stem cells

Cannabidiol Promotes Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Inflammatory Microenvironment via the CB2-dependent p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway

2021: In guinea pigs with osteoarthritis, this study of tissue pharmacokinetics found that orally administered CBD did end up in the cartilage tissue at clinically relevant doses

Plasma and joint tissue pharmacokinetics of two doses of oral cannabidiol oil in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus)

2021: In a rat model of sarcopenia (an age-related disease that causes an accelerated loss of muscle mass & function), they saw altered levels of the endocannabinoids & suggest targeting the endocannabinoid system

Alterations of the endocannabinoid system and circulating and peripheral tissue levels of endocannabinoids in sarcopenic rats

2021: In skeletal muscle cells, the CB1 receptors help to control the signaling of the nuclear receptors that modulate genetic transcription

The Impact of CB1 Receptor on Nuclear Receptors in Skeletal Muscle Cells

2021: In rats with bone damage from a loss of blood supply caused by stress hormones, activating the CB2 receptor strengthened new bone production & helped to maintain the blood supply

Activation of cannabinoid receptor 2 alleviates glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis of femoral head with osteogenesis and maintenance of blood supply

2021: In muscle spasms caused by a cell's voltage-gated sodium channels, CBD lowers their overexcitation by both blocking the channel & also changing the elasticity of the cell's membrane

Cannabidiol inhibits the skeletal muscle Nav1.4 by blocking its pore and by altering membrane elasticity

2021: A survey of orthopedic doctors focused on trauma about their thoughts on cannabis & CBD for postoperative pain

Knowledge and Opinion on Cannabinoids Among Orthopaedic Traumatologists

2021: In humans with nerve pain from rheumatic diseases, PEA combined well with acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) to lower inflammation & to increase clinical scores

Efficacy of a fixed combination of Palmitoylethanolamide and acetyl-l-carnitine (PEA + ALC FC) in the treatment of Neuropathies secondary to Rheumatic Diseases

2021: This study suggests that activating the CB2 receptor helps to preserve joint cartilage during osteoarthritis

HU308-mediated cannabinoid signaling mitigates age and trauma-related osteoarthritis

2021: In bone tissue, CB1 may be a promising target for inflammation of skeletal muscle tissue

The Impact of CB1 Receptor on Inflammation in Skeletal Muscle Cells

2021: In rats with spinal cord injuries, activating the CB2 receptor helped mitigate their osteoporosis

Delayed Systemic Treatment with Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Agonist Mitigates Spinal Cord Injury-Induced Osteoporosis More Than Acute Treatment Directly after Injury

2021: In mice, CB2 regulates the bone marrow stem cells that form new bone cells & is suggested as a target for treating osteoporosis

Involvement of CB2 signalling pathway in the development of osteoporosis by regulating the proliferation and differentiation of hBMSCs

2021: In mice, a connection between kidney cells & the remodeling of bones is regulated by CB1

Renal Proximal Tubule Cell Cannabinoid-1 Receptor Regulates Bone Remodeling and Mass via a Kidney-to-Bone Axis

2020: In humans, CBD helps to delay the onset of muscle soreness

The influence cannabidiol on delayed onset of muscle soreness

2020: Cultures of muscle cells grew faster when CBD was added


2020: In rats, CBD helped slightly with Achilles tendon repair

Biomechanical Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD), the Major Constituents of Cannabis, on Tendon to Tendon Healing in a Sprague Dawley Rat Achilles Tendon Surgical Repair Model

2020: In mice, the CB2 receptor manipulates skeletal muscle regeneration after an injury

Cannabinoid type 2 receptor manipulates skeletal muscle regeneration partly by regulating macrophage M1/M2 polarization in IR injury in mice

2020: In smooth muscle cells, anandamide caused the downregulation of 21 genes related to inflammation, especially CCL2

The endocannabinoid anandamide has an anti-inflammatory effect on CCL2 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

2020: In children with Celiac disease, a variant of CB2 is associated with bone loss. Suggests CB2 as a target to help with bone metabolism

The Role of Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 in the Bone Loss Associated with pediatric Celiac Disease

2020: In cells that secrete bone, CBD caused differentiation & increased bone deposition

Cannabidiol induces osteoblast differentiation via angiopoietin1 and p38 MAPK

2019: In humans with conditions involving clenched muscles, CBD patches helped to relax the muscles

Myorelaxant Effect of Transdermal Cannabidiol Application in Patients with TMD: A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial

2020: Over one-third of patients diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) acknowledge having used cannabis for symptom management

Use of complementary therapies for chronic pain management in patients with reported Ehlers-Danlos syndrome or hypermobility spectrum disorders

2019: In rats with bone problems, this group created CBD microspheres that enhanced healing via recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells

Cannabidiol-loaded microspheres incorporated into osteoconductive scaffold enhance mesenchymal stem cell recruitment and regeneration of critical-sized bone defects

2019: In human bone cells, CBD elevated calcium levels & apoptosis

Dose-Dependent Cannabidiol-Induced Elevation of Intracellular Calcium and Apoptosis in Human Articular Chondrocytes

2019: In humans, cannabis may be helpful in patients with myotonia (neuromuscular disorders) according to case series

A role for cannabinoids in the treatment of myotonia? Report of compassionate use in a small cohort of patients

2017: In rats with severe spinal cord injuries, CBD enhanced bone volume & a number of other positive measures

Cannabidiol administration reduces sublesional cancellous bone loss in rats with severe spinal cord injury

2016: In tissue culture, CBD protected the nucleus pulposus cells (jelly-like substance at the center of a spinal disc) via the suppression of anti‑apoptosis, anti‑inflammation and anti‑oxidative activities

Protective effect of cannabidiol on hydrogen peroxide‑induced apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress in nucleus pulposus cells

2015: In rats, CBD enhanced fracture healing

Cannabidiol, a Major Non-Psychotropic Cannabis Constituent Enhances Fracture Healing and Stimulates Lysyl Hydroxylase Activity in Osteoblasts

2014: In rats with intervertebral disc degeneration, CBD protected from the effects of the disc injury

Protective effects of cannabidiol on lesion-induced intervertebral disc degeneration

2014: in tissue culture, anandamide – alone or with TNF-α – appears to be a destructive agent of cartilage

Endogenous cannabinoid anandamide impairs cell growth and induces apoptosis in chondrocytes.

2012: In rats with periodontitis (inflammatory bacterial disease of the mouth), AEA reduced inflammatory response & lowered stress

Anti-inflammatory effect of the endocannabinoid anandamide in experimental periodontitis and stress in the rat

2009: in mice with periodontitis (inflammatory bacterial disease of the mouth), animals with CBD exhibited less bone loss via inhibition of RANK/RANKL

Cannabidiol decreases bone resorption by inhibiting RANK/RANKL expression and pro-inflammatory cytokines during experimental periodontitis in rats

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