Musculoskeletal & Rheumatic Disorders

Best reviews

2021: In China, the study of an ancient cemetery found the likely earliest physical evidence for medical cannabis being used "for the treatment of metrorrhagia [abnormal bleeding from the uterus], severe lumbago [pain in the lower back], and/or arthralgia [joint pain]"

Archaeobotanical evidence of the use of medicinal cannabis in a secular context unearthed from south China

2020: A review of CBD for rheumatic diseases

The Effectiveness of Cannabidiol in Rheumatic Disease Pain: A Systematic Review

2020: This review looks at CBD and the other cannabinoids for musculoskeletal disorders

Cannabinoid Use in Musculoskeletal Illness: a Review of the Current Evidence

2020: A review of CBD for joint diseases

Cannabidiol: A Brief Review of Its Therapeutic and Pharmacologic Efficacy in the Management of Joint Disease

2020: A review of using CBD in rheumatology (arthritis & other joint, muscle & ligament disorders)

A cautious hope for cannabidiol (CBD) in rheumatology care

2020: This review suggests that manipulating the ECS will be beneficial for orthopedic surgery and musculoskeletal medicine

Endocannabinoids in Orthopedic Surgery and Musculoskeletal Medicine: Is it Time for a Green Standard?

2020: A review of cannabinoids for rheumatic diseases

Cannabis and Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Rheumatic Diseases

2019: A review of cannabis for rheumatic diseases

Cannabis-Based Medicines and Medical Cannabis in Rheumatic Diseases: A Treasure Chest or Pandora’s box

2019: An excellent review that’s very knowledgeable on bone biochemistry
The Endocannabinoid/Endovanilloid System in Bone: From Osteoporosis to Osteosarcoma

2019: On the regeneration of bones & the cannabinoids

Cannabinoids and bone regeneration

2012: Cannabinoids in animal models of bone disease

The promise and dilemma of cannabinoid therapy: lessons from animal studies of bone disease

Timeline of Research

2021: In muscle spasms caused by a cell's voltage-gated sodium channels, CBD lowers their overexcitation by both blocking the channel & also changing the elasticity of the cell's membrane

Cannabidiol inhibits the skeletal muscle Nav1.4 by blocking its pore and by altering membrane elasticity

2021: A survey of orthopedic doctors focused on trauma about their thoughts on cannabis & CBD for postoperative pain

Knowledge and Opinion on Cannabinoids Among Orthopaedic Traumatologists

2021: In humans with nerve pain from rheumatic diseases, PEA combined well with acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) to lower inflammation & to increase clinical scores

Efficacy of a fixed combination of Palmitoylethanolamide and acetyl-l-carnitine (PEA + ALC FC) in the treatment of Neuropathies secondary to Rheumatic Diseases

2021: This study suggests that activating the CB2 receptor helps to preserve joint cartilage during osteoarthritis

HU308-mediated cannabinoid signaling mitigates age and trauma-related osteoarthritis

2021: In bone tissue, CB1 may be a promising target for inflammation of skeletal muscle tissue

The Impact of CB1 Receptor on Inflammation in Skeletal Muscle Cells

2021: In rats with spinal cord injuries, activating the CB2 receptor helped mitigate their osteoporosis

Delayed Systemic Treatment with Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Agonist Mitigates Spinal Cord Injury-Induced Osteoporosis More Than Acute Treatment Directly after Injury

2021: In mice, CB2 regulates the bone marrow stem cells that form new bone cells & is suggested as a target for treating osteoporosis

Involvement of CB2 signalling pathway in the development of osteoporosis by regulating the proliferation and differentiation of hBMSCs

2021: In mice, a connection between kidney cells & the remodeling of bones is regulated by CB1

Renal Proximal Tubule Cell Cannabinoid-1 Receptor Regulates Bone Remodeling and Mass via a Kidney-to-Bone Axis

2020: In humans, CBD helps to delay the onset of muscle soreness

The influence cannabidiol on delayed onset of muscle soreness

2020: Cultures of muscle cells grew faster when CBD was added


2020: In rats, CBD helped slightly with Achilles tendon repair

Biomechanical Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD), the Major Constituents of Cannabis, on Tendon to Tendon Healing in a Sprague Dawley Rat Achilles Tendon Surgical Repair Model

2020: In mice, the CB2 receptor manipulates skeletal muscle regeneration after an injury

Cannabinoid type 2 receptor manipulates skeletal muscle regeneration partly by regulating macrophage M1/M2 polarization in IR injury in mice

2020: In smooth muscle cells, anandamide caused the downregulation of 21 genes related to inflammation, especially CCL2

The endocannabinoid anandamide has an anti-inflammatory effect on CCL2 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

2020: In children with Celiac disease, a variant of CB2 is associated with bone loss. Suggests CB2 as a target to help with bone metabolism

The Role of Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 in the Bone Loss Associated with pediatric Celiac Disease

2020: In cells that secrete bone, CBD caused differentiation & increased bone deposition

Cannabidiol induces osteoblast differentiation via angiopoietin1 and p38 MAPK

2019: In humans with conditions involving clenched muscles, CBD patches helped to relax the muscles

Myorelaxant Effect of Transdermal Cannabidiol Application in Patients with TMD: A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial

2020: Over one-third of patients diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) acknowledge having used cannabis for symptom management

Use of complementary therapies for chronic pain management in patients with reported Ehlers-Danlos syndrome or hypermobility spectrum disorders

2019: In rats with bone problems, this group created CBD microspheres that enhanced healing via recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells

Cannabidiol-loaded microspheres incorporated into osteoconductive scaffold enhance mesenchymal stem cell recruitment and regeneration of critical-sized bone defects

2019: In human bone cells, CBD elevated calcium levels & apoptosis

Dose-Dependent Cannabidiol-Induced Elevation of Intracellular Calcium and Apoptosis in Human Articular Chondrocytes

2019: In humans, cannabis may be helpful in patients with myotonia (neuromuscular disorders) according to case series

A role for cannabinoids in the treatment of myotonia? Report of compassionate use in a small cohort of patients

2017: In rats with severe spinal cord injuries, CBD enhanced bone volume & a number of other positive measures

Cannabidiol administration reduces sublesional cancellous bone loss in rats with severe spinal cord injury

2016: In tissue culture, CBD protected the nucleus pulposus cells (jelly-like substance at the center of a spinal disc) via the suppression of anti‑apoptosis, anti‑inflammation and anti‑oxidative activities

Protective effect of cannabidiol on hydrogen peroxide‑induced apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress in nucleus pulposus cells

2015: In rats, CBD enhanced fracture healing

Cannabidiol, a Major Non-Psychotropic Cannabis Constituent Enhances Fracture Healing and Stimulates Lysyl Hydroxylase Activity in Osteoblasts

2014: In rats with intervertebral disc degeneration, CBD protected from the effects of the disc injury

Protective effects of cannabidiol on lesion-induced intervertebral disc degeneration

2014: in tissue culture, anandamide – alone or with TNF-α – appears to be a destructive agent of cartilage

Endogenous cannabinoid anandamide impairs cell growth and induces apoptosis in chondrocytes.

2012: In rats with periodontitis (inflammatory bacterial disease of the mouth), AEA reduced inflammatory response & lowered stress

Anti-inflammatory effect of the endocannabinoid anandamide in experimental periodontitis and stress in the rat

2009: in mice with periodontitis (inflammatory bacterial disease of the mouth), animals with CBD exhibited less bone loss via inhibition of RANK/RANKL

Cannabidiol decreases bone resorption by inhibiting RANK/RANKL expression and pro-inflammatory cytokines during experimental periodontitis in rats