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Hormones & Reproductive Systems

Best reviews


2023: For endometriosis & its pain, a paper on how we need to start seeing cannabis as a treatment
Cannabis for endometriosis-related pain and symptoms: It's high time that we see this as a legitimate treatment

2023: For HIV neurocognitive disorder, a review of targeting the endocannabinoid system for the related neuroinflammation & hormonal imbalance
The Endocannabinoid System as a Potential Therapeutic Target for HIV-1-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder

2022: A review of targeting the endocannabinoid system for endometriosis
Role of the endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of endometriosis and therapeutic implications

2022: A review of substituting cannabis for opioids for gynecological pain
Making a joint decision: Cannabis as a potential substitute for opioids in obstetrics and gynecology

2022: An editorial on using cannabis & cannabinoids for treating the pain of endometriosis
Is it the Ideal Time to Start Prescribing Cannabis Derivatives to Treat Endometriosis-associated Pain?

2021: In the treatment of fibromyalgia, a review of 10 studies found that cannabis may be beneficial to patients & that no serious adverse events occurred

Safety and Efficacy of Medicinal Cannabis in the Treatment of Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review

2021: In fibromyalgia, this review looks at how cannabis can help with pain, sleep & quality of life
Efficacy of cannabinoids in fibromyalgia: a literature review

2021: The great Dr. Melanie Dreher on her studies around women, children & cannabis

2021: This review of female pelvic medicine & reconstructive surgery suggests PEA as a treatment

Cannabinoid Therapy in Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery: Current Evidence and Future Directions


2021: This review looks at the use of cannabinoids for the treatment of endometriosis and chronic pelvic pain in women

Cannabinoids and chronic pelvic pain in women: Focus on endometriosis

2021: This review suggests CBD as a treatment for endometriosis

Endometriosis – an indication for cannabinoids?

2021: A review of the effects of the cannabinoids on the endocrine system

The effects of cannabis and cannabinoids on the endocrine system

2021: Great review on how the endocannabinoids affect the estrogen system

The Complex Interplay between Endocannabinoid System and the Estrogen System in Central Nervous System and Periphery

2021: This review looks at how the important steroid pregnenolone works via the CB1 receptor

New perspectives on the role of the neurosteroid pregnenolone as an endogenous regulator of type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) activity and function

2021: This review gathers the evidence on using cannabinoids for the treatment of the female reproductive system

Cannabidiol for the Management of Endometriosis and Chronic Pelvic Pain

2020: A survey finds that a majority of women would use cannabis for gynecological conditions

Willingness to Use Cannabis for Gynecological Conditions: A National Survey

2020: A short review of why targeting the ECS may be helpful for polycystic ovary syndrome

Endocannabinoid activation and polycystic ovary syndrome: A systematic review

2020: A look at how CB1 receptors regulate the hormones of the brain

Remote CB1 receptor antagonist administration reveals multiple sites of tonic and phasic endocannabinoid neuroendocrine regulation

2019: The ECS as a target for treating endometriosis

The role of the endocannabinoid system in aetiopathogenesis of endometriosis: A potential therapeutic target

2019: A review of studies on sexuality show that cannabinoids seem to improve female pleasure - but the response may be dose-dependent

Effects of Cannabinoids on Female Sexual Function

2019: A review paper on how CBD and melatonin help to regulate the cytokines (a broad category of small molecules that are important in cellular signaling)

A Review on the neuroendocrine regulation of cytokine secretion: Possible modulation of the cytokine network by the pineal hormone melatonin and cannabidiol

2018: Sex hormones & PTSD

Modulation of the endocannabinoid system by sex hormones: Implications for posttraumatic stress disorder

2018: Cannabis & its effect on hormones

The effects of cannabinoids on the endocrine system

2018: Review of ECS, stress & the HPA axis

Endocannabinoid system, stress and HPA axis

Timeline of Research


2023: In a rat model of endometriosis, CBD caused significant anti-inflammatory & antioxidative effects
Cannabidiol as a potential novel treatment for endometriosis by its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and anti-angiogenic effects in an experimental rat model

2022: A study of how endometriosis patients are interested & what are their barriers to use
“A glimmer of hope” - Perceptions, barriers, and drivers for medicinal cannabis use amongst Australian and New Zealand people with endometriosis: A qualitative study

2022: In a mouse model of post-menopause, CBD lessened intestinal inflammation via the hormone estradiol
Cannabidiol Decreases Intestinal Inflammation in the Ovariectomized Murine Model of Postmenopause

2022: In a mouse model of anxiety, the ability of CBD to lower anxiety seemed to have gender differences based on the hormone cycle of the females

Sex-dependent differences in the anxiolytic-like effect of cannabidiol in the elevated plus-maze

2022: In a model of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (an exaggerated response to excess hormones), CBD decreased the weight of the ovaries as well as down regulated genes that enhanced the syndrome (VEGF)
Treatment of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome in a Mouse Model by Cannabidiol, an Angiogenesis Pathway Inhibitor

2022: Among women with endometriosis, cannabis consumption for symptom relief during the pandemic was common
Endometriosis and Cannabis Consumption During the COVID-19 Pandemic: An International Cross-Sectional Survey

2022: A survey of women’s cannabis use around menopause reported that many found it helpful for sleep & anxiety
A survey of medical cannabis use during perimenopause and postmenopause

2022: In a mouse model of fibromyalgia, cannabis oil with low THC levels helped with pain & touch sensitivities as well as lessening depressive behaviors
Broad-spectrum cannabis oil ameliorates reserpine-induced fibromyalgia model in mice

2022: Among patients with fibromyalgia, part of the ability of medical cannabis to help with pain results from their ability to help with sleep, anxiety & depression
Predictors of pain reduction among fibromyalgia patients using medical cannabis: a long-term prospective cohort study

2022: In humans with pelvic pain, a combination of PEA & magnesium reduced pain & increased quality of life
A Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and Magnesium Based Product (PEAMag) Reduces the Pain and Improves Quality of Life in Patients Affected by Acute and Chronic Pelvic Pain

2022: In a model of endometriosis, CBD reduced lesions, caused antioxidant effects, lowered scar tissue formation, reduced inflammation & helped with pain
Molecular and Biochemical Mechanism of Cannabidiol in the Management of the Inflammatory and Oxidative Processes Associated with Endometriosis

2022: In women with endometriosis, the lesions on their ovaries showed much higher levels of the CB1 & CB2 receptors, suggesting them as targets for treating the pain
Detection of Cannabinoid Receptor Expression by Endometriotic Lesions in Women with Endometriosis as an Alternative to Opioid-Based Pain Medication

2022: A survey of women with endometriosis finds that the majority report cannabis helpful & many are able to replace other drugs with it

Cannabis use for endometriosis : clinical and legal challenges in Australia and New Zealand

2022: This study of women with endometriosis looked at how their endocannabinoid levels were related to their pain & disease state

Association of endocannabinoids with pain in endometriosis

2022: This survey shows that most women who used cannabis or cannabinoids (THC, CBD, PEA) for gynecologic conditions found that it improved pain

Medical Cannabis for Gynecologic Pain Conditions: A Systematic Review

2022: In mice, the CB1 receptors may be involved with the production of progesterone

Mitochondrial Localization of CB1 in Progesterone-producing Cells of Ovarian Interstitial Glands of Adult Mice

2021: This survey of women experiencing chronic pelvic pain & fibromyalgia found that CBD helped them to reduce pain medications & improvements in sleep, anxiety, depression, fatigue & overall health

Cannabidiol Use, Substitution for Medications, and Perceptions of Effectiveness in Women with Chronic Pelvic Pain


2021: In China, the study of an ancient cemetery found the likely earliest physical evidence for medical cannabis being used "for the treatment of metrorrhagia [abnormal bleeding from the uterus], severe lumbago [pain in the lower back], and/or arthralgia [joint pain]"

Archaeobotanical evidence of the use of medicinal cannabis in a secular context unearthed from south China

2021: This survey of women experiencing chronic pelvic pain & fibromyalgia found that CBD helped them to reduce pain medications & improvements in sleep, anxiety, depression, fatigue & overall health

Cannabidiol Use, Substitution for Medications, and Perceptions of Effectiveness in Women with Chronic Pelvic Pain

2021: In a rat model of estrogen depletion where their ovaries are removed, two weeks of CBD completely reversed the usual memory impairment

Cannabidiol reverses memory impairments and activates components of the Akt/GSK3β pathway in an experimental model of estrogen depletion

2021: In human females, this study looked at the dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system in endometriosis

Implications of dysregulated endogenous cannabinoid family members in the pathophysiology of endometriosis

2021: A retrospective study in humans with endometriosis-associated pelvic pain found medical cannabis helpful for pain & GI symptoms

Effects of cannabis ingestion on endometriosis-associated pelvic pain and related symptoms

2021: In rats, activating the CB2 receptor helped to protect against uterine damage

The Activation of Cannabinoid Type-2 Receptor with JWH-133 Protects Uterine Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Damage


2021: In rats with loss of blood flow to their ovaries, activation of the CB2 receptor reduced inflammation & injury

Activation of cannabinoid 2 receptors by JWH-133 protects against ovarian ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

2021: In the smooth muscle cells of the uterus, patients with adenomyosis (where the inner lining of the uterus breaks through the muscle wall) had increased levels of CB1

The cannabinoid receptor CB1 affects the proliferation and apoptosis of adenomyotic human uterine smooth muscle cells of the junctional zone: a mechanism study

2021: In women with pelvic pain, this retrospective survey found that the use of cannabis lowered opioid use

Recreational Cannabis Use Before and After Legalization in Women With Pelvic Pain

2020: This survey finds many patients with chronic pelvis pain find cannabis helpful

Patient-Reported Use of Medical Cannabis for Management of Chronic Pelvic Pain

2020: Cannabis for pelvis pain

Use of Cannabis for Self-Management of Chronic Pelvic Pain

2020: Survey finds that in women, increased cannabis use linked to increased scores on various markers of female sexual satisfaction

Assessment of the Association of Cannabis on Female Sexual Function With the Female Sexual Function Index


2020: In stressed mice, blocking the CB1 receptor increased activation of the HPA hormonal axis 

Peripherally restricted cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) antagonist, AM6545, potentiates stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation via a non-CB1R mechanism

2020: CBD, melatonin & oxytocin for autism

A Neuroendocrine Therapeutic Approach with the Pineal Hormone Melatonin, Cannabidiol and Oxytocin (MCO regimen) in the Treatment of the Autism Spectrum disorders

2020: In 20 humans, they measured the effects of cannabis on the endocrine system - saw a spike in insulin, lower GLP-1, & higher ghrelin

Effects of oral, smoked, and vaporized cannabis on endocrine pathways related to appetite and metabolism: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, human laboratory study

2020: in human double-blind study, 600 mg of CBD showed help for cortisol levels in those at risk for psychosis

Effects of short-term cannabidiol treatment on response to social stress in subjects at clinical high risk of developing psychosis

2020: In rats, activating the CB2 receptor protected the uterus from damage during a transplantation procedure

The Activation of Cannabinoid Type-2 Receptor with JWH-133 Protects Uterine Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Damage

2020: In mice, this study looks at how hormones affect glutamate levels via the ECS

Corticosterone inhibits vagal afferent glutamate release in the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract via retrograde endocannabinoid signaling

2020: THC for the pain of endometriosis

Disease-modifying effects of natural Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in endometriosis-associated pain

2019: study of cannabis for endometriosis

Self-Reported Efficacy of Cannabis for Endometriosis Pain


2019: A survey of females found “marijuana appears to improve satisfaction with [female] orgasm” (373 participants)

The Relationship between Marijuana Use Prior to Sex and Sexual Function in Women

2019: In human female uterine tissue, the number of CB1 receptors is associated with the severity of menstrual cramps

Expression of Cannabinoid Receptors in Myometrium and its Correlation With Dysmenorrhea in Adenomyosis

2019: In mice, activating CB1 seems to keep open the window for hormone therapy for the treatment of menopause

CB1 agonism prolongs therapeutic window for hormone replacement in ovariectomized mice

2018: In rats, boosting ECS tone helps maintain the HPA axis in a basal state & inhibits corticosterone release from the adrenal gland

Pharmacological augmentation of endocannabinoid signaling reduces the neuroendocrine response to stress


1993: In a double-blind human study, oral CBD prevented the typical reduction of cortisol levels in the morning – prolactin and growth hormone levels unchanged

Effect of cannabidiol on plasma prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol in human volunteers

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