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Alzheimer's Disease & Dementia

Best reviews

2022: This review of 25 clinical studies of cannabinoids for neurodegenerative disorders finds that CBD helps with the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s & Huntington’s disease & that synthetic cannabinoids like dronabinol helped with the dementia of Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s & Huntington’s
Cannabinoids in the management of behavioral, psychological, and motor symptoms of neurocognitive disorders: a mixed studies systematic review
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35287749/

2022: An overview of the studies on using CBD to treat Alzheimer’s disease
Cannabidiol in the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer’s disease – a comprehensive overview of in vitro and in vivo studies
https://apcz.umk.pl/JEHS/article/view/39922

2022: A review of using cannabinoids for treating dementia
Cannabinoids for the treatment of dementia: summary of a Cochrane review
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35778327

2022: A review of studies on cannabis for palliative end-of-life care found, they found positive treatment effects for “pain, nausea and vomiting, appetite, sleep, fatigue, chemosensory perception and paraneoplastic night sweats in patients with cancer, appetite and agitation in patients with dementia and appetite, nausea and vomiting in patients with AIDS”
Cannabis in palliative care: a systematic review of current evidence
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35705116

2022: A review of using the endocannabinoid system for the chronic pain of Alzheimer's
Chronic pain in Alzheimer's disease: Endocannabinoid system
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36455638

2022: Using the endocannabinoid system for the neural & psychological stress of Alzheimer's
Targeting the cannabinoid system to counteract the deleterious effects of stress in Alzheimer's disease
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36268196

2022: A review of targeting the CB2 receptor for proteinopathies (prevalent neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s)
Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors in Neurodegenerative Proteinopathies: New Insights and Therapeutic Potential
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36551756

2022: For Alzheimer’s, a review of the advantages of using multiple cannabinoids for treatment
Therapeutic properties of multi-cannabinoid treatment strategies for Alzheimer's disease
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36117622

2022: This review of Alzheimer’s disease looks at how the endocannabinoids system affects the microglial cells (immune cells of the brain)
Microglial Endocannabinoid Signalling in AD
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35406803/

2022: A review suggests exploring the cannabinoids & psychedelics for the symptoms of Alzheimer’s
Cannabinoids and Psychedelics for Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Alzheimer's: Addressing Disparities Through Clinical Trials
https://www.ajgponline.org/article/S1064-7481(22)00280-9/pdf

2022: A general review of the mechanisms of the ECS underlying its ability to help with neurodegenerative disorders
Endocannabinoid Modulation in Neurodegenerative Diseases: In Pursuit of Certainty
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35336814/

2022: A review on using the cannabinoids to treat Alzheimer’s

Impact of the cannabinoid system in Alzheimer's diseases

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35105293/

2022: A review on the metabolism of endocannabinoids & their relation to Alzheimer’s disease

Endocannabinoid metabolism and Alzheimer’s disease

https://www.nrronline.org/article.asp?issn=1673-5374;year=2022;volume=17;issue=9;spage=1987;epage=1988;aulast=Chen

2022: This review of Alzheimer’s suggests increasing the antioxidant & endocannabinoid levels

Simultaneous Elevation Of Antioxidant And Endocannabinoid Defense System May Prevent Dementia And Improve Cognitive Function In Humans

https://maplespub.com/article/simultaneous-elevation-of-antioxidant-and-endocannabinoid-defense-system-may-prevent-dementia-and-improve-cognitive-function-in-humans

 

2022: This review covers the role of FAAH inhibitors (which include CBD) for treating Alzheimer’s disease

The role of fatty acid amide hydrolase enzyme inhibitors in Alzheimer's disease

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34931308/

2021: This review of circadian rhythm dysfunction in Alzheimer’s disease suggests endocannabinoids as a target for decelerating the progress of the disease

Orchestration of the circadian clock and its association with Alzheimer's disease: role of endocannabinoid signaling

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34844016/

2021: This review takes a deep dive into the data on CBD for Alzheimer’s disease

Understanding the Modulatory Effects of Cannabidiol on Alzheimer’s Disease

https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3425/11/9/1211

2021: This review looks at using PEA to treat cognitive dysfunction syndrome in pets (a model of Alzheimer’s)

Successful and Unsuccessful Brain Aging in Pets: Pathophysiological Mechanisms behind Clinical Signs and Potential Benefits from Palmitoylethanolamide Nutritional Intervention

https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/11/9/2584

2021: This review looks at how the endocannabinoid system forms a bridge between Alzheimer’s disease & the gut microbiome

The Endocannabinoid System: A Bridge between Alzheimer’s Disease and Gut Microbiota

https://www.mdpi.com/2075-1729/11/9/934

2021: This review looks at how lowering the activation of endocannabinoid signaling in the brain’s microglia (immune cells) lessens the neuroinflammation of Alzheimer’s disease

Potentiation of microglial endocannabinoid signaling alleviates neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34508923/

2021: A review of targeting the CB2 receptor for Alzheimer’s disease

Cannabinoid receptor 2 selective agonists and Alzheimer's disease: An insight into the therapeutic potentials

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34486749/

2021: A review of 15 studies using cannabinoids for dementia

Medical cannabinoids for treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: systematic review

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34374269/

2021: This review looks at targeting FAAH & MAGL to treat Alzheimer’s disease

The role of endocannabinoid pathway in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease: Can the inhibitors of MAGL and FAAH prove to be potential therapeutic targets against the cognitive impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease?

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34217798/

2021: This review suggests the cannabinoids as uniquely suited to treating the dysfunctions of Alzheimer’s disease

The therapeutic benefits of natural cannabinoids in delaying the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease

https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/15418

2020: A new meta-review find that THC & CBD both inhibit the progression of Alzheimer's plaques in animal models

Impact of Cannabis-Based Medicine on Alzheimer's disease by Focusing on the Amyloid β- Modifications: A Systematic Study

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32640965/

2020: A review of using THC & CBD for Alzheimer's

A Review on Studies of Marijuana for Alzheimer’s Disease – Focusing on CBD, THC

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6970569/

2020: A meta-review of the alterations to the ECS that occur in Alzheimer's (22 studies)

Endocannabinoid system alterations in Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review of human studies

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32980333/

2020: The endocannabinoids interact with the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (on which Aminatas mushrooms work) and this might be helpful Alzheimer's

Crosstalk between the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and the endocannabinoid system: A relevance for Alzheimer's disease?

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31978506

2020: Cannabinoids for the pain & neural alterations of Alzheimer's disease

Emerging Promise of Cannabinoids for the Management of Pain and Associated Neuropathological Alterations in Alzheimer's Disease

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32792944/

2020: A review of the use of cannabinoids for the neuropsychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer's disease

Cannabinoids for the Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31835954/

2020: A review of how CBD protects in epilepsy & Alzheimer’s

Overview of cannabidiol (CBD) and its analogues: Structures, biological activities, and neuroprotective mechanisms in epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32109623

2019: A review of the safety & efficacy of cannabinoids for dementia

Safety and effectiveness of cannabinoids for the treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: a systematic review

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31205674/

2019: A review of the trials of cannabinoids for dementia

Effectiveness of Cannabinoids for Treatment of Dementia: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32186469/

2019: Cannabinoids for the agitation and aggression of Alzheimer's disease

Natural and Synthetic Cannabinoids for Agitation and Aggression in Alzheimer's Disease: A Meta-Analysis

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30753761/

2017: A review of CBD & Alzheimer's disease

In vivo Evidence for Therapeutic Properties of Cannabidiol (CBD) for Alzheimer's Disease

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28217094/

2017: CBD & Alzheimer's disease

The therapeutic potential of the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol for Alzheimer's disease

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27471947/

2015: The ECS & the neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease

The role of endocannabinoid signaling in the molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25147120/

Chart Gallery

Timeline of Research

2023: In Alzheimer's disease, the ability of CBD to prevent the aging of the astrocytes (important immune/support cells of the brain) seems to be mediated by parkin (a protein used by the cell for recycling old components) as well as its ability to protect the mitochondria (powerhouse of the cell)
Parkin Mediates Cannabidiol Prevention of Amyloid-Beta-Induced Senescence in Human Astrocytes
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36695672/

2023: A computer modeling study of using the molecules of cannabis against Alzheimer's disease
Investigation of Cannabis sativa Phytochemicals as Anti-Alzheimer's Agents: An In Silico Study
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36771595/

2022: In a case series of dementia patients, 15 days of CBD improved their symptoms
Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Dementia. The Added Value of Cannabinoids. Are they a Safe and Effective Choice? Case Series with Cannabidiol 3%
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/359424583_Neuropsychiatric_Symptoms_in_Dementia_The_Added_Value_of_Cannabinoids_Are_they_a_Safe_and_Effective_Choice_Case_Series_with_Cannabidiol_3

2022: In Alzheimer’s patients, 12 weeks of THC:CBD extract reduced agitation, apathy, irritability, sleep disturbances, eating disturbances, cognitive impairments & aggressive behaviors, leading to less caregiver distress
Oral Thc: Cbd Cannabis Extract in Main Symptoms of Alzheimer Disease: Agitation and Weight Loss
https://assets.researchsquare.com/files/rs-1672277/v1/4a190d8f-58a7-4c82-8e6f-86a9708493a9.pdf

2022: In dementia patients, a cannabis oil with 30% CBD & 1% THC helped with agitation & aggression

Effects of Broad Spectrum Cannabidiol Oil on Behavioral Disturbances in Patients with Dementia: A Randomized Clinical Trial
https://assets.researchsquare.com/files/rs-1521853/v1/269f459b-f15e-4535-84b5-c7b5878bc351.pdf?c=1649435492

2022: In a patient with mild Alzheimer’s, microdosing of cannabis improved memory
Cannabinoid extract in microdoses ameliorates mnemonic and nonmnemonic Alzheimer's disease symptoms: a case report
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35820856

2022: In patients with Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s, they had higher levels of endocannabinoids as well as small brain volumes in the regions associated with smell & taste
Possible role of endocannabinoids in olfactory and taste dysfunctions in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's patients and volumetric changes in the brain
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35398594/

2022: In a survey of Polish caregivers for dementia patients, they thought CBD oil safer & more effective than conventional methods
CBD Oil as a Miracle Drug: A Thematic Analysis of Caregivers’ Attitudes and Practices Towards Cannabidiol in Dementia Treatment
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/00220426221145019

2022: In patients with dementia, this placebo-controlled trial showed that CBD oil reduced agitation with no serious side effects
Effects of rich cannabidiol oil on behavioral disturbances in patients with dementia: A placebo controlled randomized clinical trial
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36148467

2022: THC/CBD oil for dementia patients
Cannabinoids for behavioral symptoms in severe dementia: Safety and feasibility in a long-term pilot observational study in nineteen patients
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36247984

2022: In a tissue model of Alzheimer's disease, anandamide & noladin ether lessened the aggregation of the amyloid β plaques
Differential Effects of Endocannabinoids on Amyloid-Beta Aggregation and Toxicity
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36674424/

2022: In a mouse model of Alzheimer's, how the levels of CB1 receptors change on the glial cells (guardian immune cells of the brain)
Altered glial expression of the cannabinoid 1 receptor in the subiculum of a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36437738

2022: How the endocannabinoid system might be used as biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease progression
Endocannabinoid System Biomarkers in Alzheimer's Disease
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36394442

2022: In a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, the levels of CB2 receptors increased in glial cells (guardian immune cells of the brain) which suggest CB2 as a target for neuroinflammation
Evaluation of cannabinoid type 2 receptor expression and pyridine-based radiotracers in brains from a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36248003

2022: In a mouse model of Alzheimer’s, an ultra-low dose of THC lessened cognitive impairments
An Ultra-Low Dose of ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Alleviates Alzheimer's Disease-Related Cognitive Impairments and Modulates TrkB Receptor Expression in a 5XFAD Mouse Model
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36012711

2022: In a mouse model of Alzheimer’s, inhibiting ABHD6 (an enzyme that breaks down 2-AG) lessened synaptic dysfunction & memory impairment – though not neuroinflammation & plaque levels
ABHD6 inhibition alleviates memory deficits in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model
https://europepmc.org/article/ppr/ppr558091

2022: In a rat model of Alzheimer’s, they saw increased activity in the enzymes that control the levels of 2-AG
An optimized spectrophotometric assay reveals increased activity of enzymes involved in 2-arachidonoyl glycerol turnover in the cerebral cortex of a rat model of Alzheimer's disease
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32813905

2022: In a rat lesion model of Alzheimer’s disease, the neural insult causes upregulation of CB1 levels as well as a limited contribution from CB2
Cannabinoid Receptors and Glial Response Following a Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Lesion
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36110372

2022: In an older mouse model of Alzheimer’s, low doses of intranasal THC for 3 months significantly slowed memory decline
The Memory Benefit to Aged APP/PS1 Mice from Long-Term Intranasal Treatment of Low-Dose THC
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35457070

2022: In a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease focused on the cholinergic system (a key component of our parasympathetic nervous system), activating the CB2 receptor helped improve scores on various tests of memory
The Influence of CB2-Receptor Ligands on the Memory-Related Responses in Connection with Cholinergic Pathways in Mice in the Passive Avoidance Test
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35807499

2022: In a model of Alzheimer’s disease, CBD worked on the microglial (immune) cells to improve digestion of the amyloid-β plaques via the TRPV2 receptors as well as reducing neuroinflammation & improved functioning of the mitochondria (powerhouse of the cell)
Cannabidiol Enhances Microglial Beta-Amyloid Peptide Phagocytosis and Clearance via Vanilloid Family Type 2 Channel Activation
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35628181

2022: In a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease, activating the CB2 receptor protected the neurons against hyperexcitation
Activation of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Protects Rat Hippocampal Neurons against Chronic, Oligomeric A_-induced Neuronal Hyperexcitation
http://www.ijbs.org/User/ContentAbstractPage.aspx?VolumeNO=18&StartPage=14&EndPage=23&Number=1

2022: In a tissue model of Alzheimer’s disease, PEA & luteolin (a flavonoid commonly paired with PEA) reduces neuronal inflammation & astrocyte reactivity while restoring homeostasis of the oligodendrocytes via the PPAR nuclear receptors (controllers of genetic transcription)
Co-Ultramicronized Palmitoylethanolamide/Luteolin Restores Oligodendrocyte Homeostasis via Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-α in an In Vitro Model of Alzheimer’s Disease
https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/10/6/1236

2022: In a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, activating the CB2 receptor lowered overexcitation & protected the neurons of the hippocampus (brain’s memory area)
Activation of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Protects Rat Hippocampal Neurons against Chronic, Oligomeric Aβ-induced Neuronal Hyperexcitation
http://www.ijbs.org/User/ContentFullText.aspx?VolumeNO=18&StartPage=14&Type=pdf

2022: In a worm model of Alzheimer’s, CBD protected the brain via its antioxidation activities
Effect of Cannabidiol on the Neural Glyoxalase Pathway Function and Longevity of Several C. elegans Strains Including a C. elegans Alzheimer's Disease Model
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35385645/

2022: In this search for genetic underpinnings to Alzheimer’s disease, researchers found problems in endocannabinoid retrograde transmission to be a predictor of the disease
Molecular Signatures of Mitochondrial Complexes Involved in Alzheimer’s Disease via Oxidative Phosphorylation and Retrograde Endocannabinoid Signaling Pathways
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2022/9565545/

2022: In a mouse model of Alzheimer’s, activating the CB2 receptor lowered inflammatory cytokines, increased BDNF (the brain growth factor), protected the brain from damage, decreased amyloid plaques & neuronal lesions as well as improving their recognition & learning memory
Improved cognition impairment by activating cannabinoid receptor type 2: Modulating CREB/BDNF expression and impeding TLR-4/NFκBp65/M1 microglia signaling pathway in D-galactose-injected ovariectomized rats
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35349580

2022: In a mouse model of dementia, CBD helped to maintain their spatial memory, reduce their anxiety & lessen fear-associated freezing

Cannabidiol (CBD) treatment improves spatial memory in 14-month-old female TAU58/2 transgenic mice

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35202719/

2022: In a tissue model of Alzheimer’s disease, some cannabis terpenes provided neuroprotection against the toxic neurofibrillary tangles

Cannabis terpenes display variable protective and anti-aggregatory actions against neurotoxic β amyloid in vitro: highlighting the protective bioactivity of α-bisabolol in motorneuronal-like NSC-34 cells

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35278524/

2022: In a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, low doses of THC decreased biomarkers of the disease

Low-Dose Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol as Beneficial Treatment for Aged APP/PS1 Mice

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/23/5/2757/htm

2022: In a worm model of Alzheimer’s, CBD prevented disease progression via the scavenging of reactive oxygen species

Cannabidiol protects against Alzheimer's disease in C. elegans via ROS scavenging activity of its phenolic hydroxyl groups

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35181336/

2022: In a tissue model of Alzheimer’s disease, CBD lowered the aggregation of the tau proteins

Cannabidiol Inhibits Tau Aggregation In Vitro

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34944028/

2021: In humans, the endocannabinoid levels in the blood might be useful biomarkers for dementia & Alzheimer’s patients

Alterations of plasma endocannabinoid levels in MCI and dementia patients

https://pure.ulster.ac.uk/en/publications/alterations-of-plasma-endocannabinoid-levels-in-mci-and-dementia-

2021: In a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, CBD coated by nano-particles reduced brain plaques, increased CB1 & CB2 levels & improved learning & memory

The Effect of Cannabidiol Coated by Nano-Chitosan on Learning and Memory, Hippocampal CB1 and CB2 Levels, and Amyloid Plaques in an Alzheimer's Disease Rat Model

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34727550/

2021: In a cellular model of Alzheimer’s disease, 9 non-psychoactive cannabinoids that helped to protect the neurons, lower inflammation, reduce oxidative damage & increase balance to the proteins & mitochondria (powerhouse of the cell)

Efficacy of non-psychoactive phytocannabinoids in a novel phenotypic drug-screening platform for old age-associated neurodegeneration
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/346271101_Efficacy_of_non-psychoactive_phytocannabinoids_in_a_novel_phenotypic_drug-screening_platform_for_old_age-associated_neurodegeneration

2021: In a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, an analog of anandamide protected the brain via regulation of autophagy (the recycling system of the brain) via the CB1 & CB2 receptor

N-linoleyltyrosine exerts neuroprotective effects in APP/PS1 transgenic mice via cannabinoid receptor-mediated autophagy

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1347861321000839

2021: In a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease, activation of the CB1 receptor lessened cognitive impairment by lowering oxidative stress & enhancing neurogenesis (the creation of new brain cells)

WIN55,212-2 Attenuates Cognitive Impairments in AlCl3 + d-Galactose-Induced Alzheimer’s Disease Rats by Enhancing Neurogenesis and Reversing Oxidative Stress

https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/9/9/1270

2021: In rats fed a high-fat diet, CBD reduced insulin resistance & decreased the tau protein associated with Alzheimer’s disease

Cannabidiol - A phytocannabinoid that widely affects sphingolipid metabolism under conditions of brain insulin resistance

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34435590/

2021: In neurons of the hippocampus, activating the CB2 receptor protected them from the Aβ plaques associated with Alzheimer’s

Effects of CB2 Receptor Agonist JWH133 on Aβ42-Induced Hippocampal Neurons

https://www.ijsciences.com/pub/article/2353

2021: In a mouse model of Alzheimer’s, inhibiting the FAAH enzyme lowers inflammation of the microglia (brain immune cells) via several different cellular processes

Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Inhibition Modulates Amyloid-Beta-Induced Microglia Polarization

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34299330/

2020: In mouse model of AD, CBD helped “on social recognition memory and spatial learning deficits” and Aβ40 plaque levels

Chronic Treatment with 50 mg/kg Cannabidiol Improves Cognition and Moderately Reduces Aβ40 Levels in 12-Month-Old Male AβPPswe/PS1ΔE9 Transgenic Mice

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32116258/

2020: In a mouse model of AD, CBD helped by enhancing the immune system response & the pathway for autophagy (regulated cell recycling & digestion of damaged or unnecessary cellular components)

Cannabidiol (CBD) enhanced the hippocampal immune response and autophagy of APP/PS1 Alzheimer's mice uncovered by RNA-seq

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33096116/

2020: In rat brain cells, activating CB2 receptors protects from the damage of beta-amyloid peptides of Alzheimer’s

Activation of cannabinoid receptor 2 protects rat hippocampal neurons against Aβ-induced neuronal toxicity

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32592731/

2020: In a cellular model of Alzheimer’s, the endocannabinoid PEA protects the neurons & increases their survival

Astrocytic palmitoylethanolamide pre-exposure exerts neuroprotective effects in astrocyte-neuron co-cultures from a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32622942/

2020: In a patient with advanced Alzheimer's, low levels of THC (dronabinol) allowed her to drop 3 out of her 6 medications while improving emotional state and lessening aggression

Cannabinoid as Beneficial Replacement Therapy for Psychotropics to Treat Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Severe Alzheimer's Dementia: A Clinical Case Report

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32477187/

2020: In tissue samples from patients with Alzheimer's and in mouse models, increased MAGL (which breaks down 2-AG) could be a biomarker to suggest the use of the diabetic drug metformin to help with neurogenesis and spatial memory

Dysregulated expression of monoacylglycerol lipase is a marker for anti-diabetic drug metformin-targeted therapy to correct impaired neurogenesis and spatial memory in Alzheimer's disease

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255032/

2020: In mice with AD, CBD improved cognition and decreased anxiety

Cannabidiol (CBD) Improves Cognition and Decreases Anxiety in the SAMP8 Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s

https://faseb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1096/fasebj.2020.34.s1.09741

2020: In mice with AD, treatment with THC reduced their plaques & restored memory function

Prolonged Tetrahydrocannabinol treatment reduces amyloid plaque deposition and restores memory function in the 5XFAD mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/html/10.1055/s-0040-1708321

2019: In humans with Alzheimer’s, nabilone (THC) improved agitation (39 patients in randomized double-blind crossover trial)

Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Nabilone for Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31182351

2019: In mouse brain slices simulating AD, CBD protected the hippocampus – perhaps by PPARα

Cannabidiol Reverses Deficits in Hippocampal LTP in a Model of Alzheimer's Disease

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29574668

2019: In humans, a pilot study in Geneva shows CBD/THC combo helps dementia patients (10 patients in a prospective observational study)

A pilot study in Geneva shows CBD/THC combo helps dementia patients

https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/498924

“Half of the patients decreased or stopped other psychotropic medications. The staff appreciated the decrease in rigidity, making daily care and transfers easier, the improved direct contact with the patients, the improvement in behavior, and the decrease in constipation with less opioids. There was no withholding of the medication for reasons of side effects, and the effects persisted after 2 months. Conclusions: An oral cannabis extract with THC/CBD, in higher dosages than in other studies, was well tolerated and greatly improved behavior problems, rigidity, and daily care in severely demented patients.”

2017: In humans with dementia, low levels of THC seem to be safe for balance and gait

Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on balance and gait in patients with dementia: A randomised controlled crossover trial

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27624148

2018: In microglial cells, CB1/CB2 heterocomplexes could be a target for AD

Receptor-heteromer mediated regulation of endocannabinoid signaling in activated microglia. Role of CB1 and CB2 receptors and relevance for Alzheimer's disease and levodopa-induced dyskinesia

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28843453

2017: In cells, CBD lessens oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species generation via Wnt/β-catenin pathway and PPARγ

Effects of cannabidiol interactions with Wnt/β-catenin pathway and PPARγ on oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28981597

2016: In stem cells, CBD modulates the expressions of genes related to Alzheimer’s

Cannabidiol Modulates the Expression of Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Genes in Mesenchymal Stem Cells

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28025562

2015: In humans with dementia, low levels of THC were safe but did not reduce symptoms

Tetrahydrocannabinol in Behavioral Disturbances in Dementia: A Crossover Randomized Controlled Trial

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26560511

2015: In humans with dementia, low doses of THC is safe but not effective for neuropsychiatric symptoms

Tetrahydrocannabinol for neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: A randomized controlled trial

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25972490

2015: In a mouse model of AD, JZL184 (MGL inhibitor) lessens neuroinflammation

Monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 reduces neuroinflammatory response in APdE9 mice and in adult mouse glial cells

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25927213

2015: In a mouse model of AD, THC + CBD reduced learning impairment, astrogliosis, microgliosis, and inflammatory-related molecules

Cannabis-based medicine reduces multiple pathological processes in AβPP/PS1 mice

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25125475

2014: In a mouse model of AD, the CB1 expression is altered, suggesting a therapeutic target

Altered expression of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24496074

2014: In a cellular model of AD, THC lowers amyloid beta proteins - directly interacts with peptide - lowers GSK - enhances mitochondria function

The potential therapeutic effects of THC on Alzheimer's disease

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25024327

2014: In a mouse model of AD, CBD protected from onset and helped for symptoms of social withdrawal and facial recognition

Long-term cannabidiol treatment prevents the development of social recognition memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25024347/

2014: In humans with AD, postmortem brain samples showed altered CB1 expression

Type-1 cannabinoid receptor activity during Alzheimer's disease progression

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24946872

2014: In brain slices, B-amyloid suppresses CB1

β-Amyloid inhibits E-S potentiation through suppression of cannabinoid receptor 1-dependent synaptic disinhibition

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24945775/

2014: In rats model of AD, cognition & memory improved by CBD

Chronic cannabidiol treatment improves social and object recognition in double transgenic APPswe/PS1∆E9 mice

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24577515

2014: In cells, CBD increases neuronal survival in model of AD by reducing apoptosis and decreasing amyloid precursor protein levels via PPARγ receptor

Cannabidiol promotes amyloid precursor protein ubiquitination and reduction of beta amyloid expression in SHSY5YAPP+ cells through PPARγ involvement

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24288245

2013: In a mouse model of tauopathy, phytocannabinoids improve dopamine transmission and the pathology of tau and amyloid plaques

Natural cannabinoids improve dopamine neurotransmission and tau and amyloid pathology in a mouse model of tauopathy

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23478312

2013: In an animal model of AD, ECS helped to clear the beta-amyloid’s across the blood-brain barrier

Role of the cannabinoid system in the transit of beta-amyloid across the blood-brain barrier

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23831388/

2013: In mice, activating CB2 helps with AD

CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist ameliorates Alzheimer-like phenotype in AβPP/PS1 mice

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23515018/

2011: In the postmortem brains of Alzheimer’s patients, a look at the state of the ECS

Molecular reorganization of endocannabinoid signalling in Alzheimer's disease

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21459826/

2011: In a mouse model of AD, CBD lessens the activation of the microglia

Cannabidiol and other cannabinoids reduce microglial activation in vitro and in vivo: relevance to Alzheimer's disease

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21350020

2011: In a rat model of AD, CBD’s help may be mediated by the PPARγ nuclear receptor – reduces damage from reactive oxygen species

Cannabidiol reduces Aβ-induced neuroinflammation and promotes hippocampal neurogenesis through PPARγ involvement

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22163051/

2008: In humans with dementia, nabilone helps with agitation

The cannabinoid receptor agonist nabilone for the treatment of dementia-related agitation

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18081000

2007: In a mouse model of AD, CBD helps via several pathways

Cannabidiol in vivo blunts beta-amyloid induced neuroinflammation by suppressing IL-1beta and iNOS expression

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17592514/

2006: In cells, CBD prevents beta-amyloid induced neuronal death via its ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species

Cannabidiol inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression and nitric oxide production in beta-amyloid stimulated PC12 neurons through p38 MAP kinase and NF-kappaB involvement

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16490313

2006: In humans with severe dementia, THC helped for agitation at night (6 patients in an open-label pilot study)

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for nighttime agitation in severe dementia

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16521031

2006: In cell cultures, CBD helps in AD because it “inhibits hyperphosphorylation of tau protein”

The marijuana component cannabidiol inhibits beta-amyloid-induced tau protein hyperphosphorylation through Wnt/beta-catenin pathway rescue in PC12 cells

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16389547

2006: In cell cultures, CBD inhibits damage of beta-amyloids

CB1 receptor selective activation inhibits beta-amyloid-induced iNOS protein expression in C6 cells and subsequently blunts tau protein hyperphosphorylation in co-cultured neurons

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16837132/

2006: In rodents, after insult with a beta-amyloid, 2-AG levels rise

Endocannabinoids and beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in vivo: effect of pharmacological elevation of endocannabinoid levels

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16732431/

2006: In a tissue model of AD, compared to other drugs, ‘THC is a considerably superior inhibitor of Aβ aggregation’

A Molecular Link Between the Active Component of Marijuana and Alzheimer's Disease Pathology

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2562334/

2005: In the brains of humans & in rats, cannabinoids protect by blocking microglial activation in senile plaques

Prevention of Alzheimer's disease pathology by cannabinoids: neuroprotection mediated by blockade of microglial activation

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15728830/

2004: In a model of AD cells, pretreatment with CBD reduced reactive oxygen species (free radicals) and other protective effects

Neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component from Cannabis sativa, on beta-amyloid-induced toxicity in PC12 cells

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15030397

2003: In a mouse model of AD, injecting beta-amyloid fragments into the brain causes amnesia – but this can be attenuated by blocking CB1 receptor

Amnesia induced by beta-amyloid fragments is counteracted by cannabinoid CB1 receptor blockade

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14522360

2003: In brains of deceased AD patients, CB2 and FAAH overexpressed – CB1 unchanged

Cannabinoid CB2 receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase are selectively overexpressed in neuritic plaque-associated glia in Alzheimer's disease brains

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14657172

1997: In humans with AD, dronabinol helped with anorexia & disturbance (15 patients in a placebo-controlled crossover design)

Effects of dronabinol on anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer's disease

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9309469

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