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Cardiovascular System

The heart, the blood & the cannabinoids

Best reviews

2023: On the possibility of using CBD for sickle cell anemia

Is CBD ready for prime time in sickle cell disease?
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36633888

2022: This review looks at the potential of CBD for treating cardiovascular diseases

The Potential of Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease

https://www.sciresliterature.org/Cardiovascular/IJCDD-ID47.pdf

2022: In a review of cannabinoids & high blood pressure treatments, CBD effectively treated pulmonary hypertension (high blood pressure in your lungs & right side of your heart)
Why Multitarget Vasodilatory (Endo)cannabinoids Are Not Effective as Antihypertensive Compounds after Chronic Administration: Comparison of Their Effects on Systemic and Pulmonary Hypertension
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36145339

2022: A review of CBD’s heart effects
Review of the Effect of Cannabidiol on the Vascular System
https://www.itmedicalteam.pl/articles/review-of-the-effect-of-cannabidiol-on-the-vascular-system.pdf

 

2022: In the heart problems arising from diabetes, this review looks at how the ECS is involved in this complex problem & how we might target the endocannabinoids to treat it
Role of cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system in modulation of diabetic cardiomyopathy
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35664549

2022: An excellent review of CBD’s effect on the TRP ion channels & how this might relate to its effects on seizure, inflammation, pain, acne, and vasorelaxation
Pharmacological effects of cannabidiol by transient receptor potential channels
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35483477/

2021: This review looks at CBD, the ECS & heart disease

The Endocannabinoid System and Cannabidiol: Past, Present, and Prospective for Cardiovascular Diseases

https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8247/14/9/936

2021: An overview of how the cannabinoids may help with heart diseases

An overview on plants cannabinoids endorsed with cardiovascular effects

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34332376/

2017: A review from an endocannabinoid hero, Dr. Cecilia Hillard, on all of the studies that have been done relating the levels of endocannabinoids in your blood to your health status

Circulating Endocannabinoids: From Whence Do They Come and Where are They Going?

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28653665/

2021: A review of how the ECS is involved in the development of blood cells, the immune system in the brain & neuroinflammation
Endocannabinoid system: Role in blood cell development, neuroimmune interactions and associated disorders
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S016557282100028X

2020: A review of how the ECS helps with metabolic syndrome & the related cardiovascular problems
Cannabinoids in Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiac Fibrosis
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33089434/

2020: A review of why it makes sense to use CBD for heart problems
Therapeutic Applications of Cannabinoids in Cardiomyopathy and Heart Failure
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33194003/

2020: This meta-review suggests targeting the ECS for the heart problems related to obesity
Therapeutic Interventions of Endocannabinoid Signaling in Obesity-Related Cardiovascular Dysfunction
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-030-47336-5_14

2020: Clinical review of how changing the ECS system affects heart therapies
Key Aspects to Consider about Beneficial and Harmful Effects on the Central Nervous System by the Endocannabinoid Modulation Linked to New Cardiovascular Therapies
http://www.remedypublications.com/annals-of-pharmacology-and-pharmaceutics-abstract.php?aid=5519

2020: For the heart, this meta-review touches on the many positive effects of CBD that have been seen in experimental models of heart disease as well as its general safety profile for the heart
The Effects of Cannabidiol, a Non-Intoxicating Compound of Cannabis, on the Cardiovascular System in Health and Disease
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32937917/

 

2020: This meta-review looks at the role of the ECS in the heart & the potential for targeting the ECS for diseases of the heart
Naturally Occurring Cannabinoids and their Role in Modulation of Cardiovascular Health
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32677481/

 

2019: This review found that “CBD can protect against cardiac injuries, mainly through its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects on the basis of non-clinical studies”
The protective mechanism of cannabidiol in cardiac injury: A systematic review of non-clinical studies
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31291873

 

Chart Gallery

Timeline of Research

2023: In 54 patients with hypertension, five weeks of CBD reduced their blood pressure via the sympatho-chromaffin system (neuro/hormonal cells of the adrenal glands)
CBD supplementation reduces arterial blood pressure via modulation of the sympatho-chromaffin system: A substudy from the HYPER-H21-4 trial
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36780785/

2023: In a rat model of pulmonary hypertension, CBD lowered the proliferation of negative cells & decreased the release of inflammatory cytokines
Cannabidiol inhibits lung proliferation in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36634588/

2023: In rats, cannabis extract relaxed their arteries
Vasorelaxant Effect of Moroccan Cannabis sativa Threshing Residues on Rat Mesenteric Arterial Bed is Endothelium and Muscarinic Receptors Dependent
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37123084/

2022: In humans who had a stroke, nabiximols (a 1:1 CBD:THC mixture) did not alter blood pressure, heart rate or cardiovascular complications
Nabiximols effect on blood pressure and heart rate in post-stroke patients of a randomized controlled studyv
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36386386/

2022: In human hearts, CBD did not alter heart rate, blood pressure or heart rate variability but it did increase standard deviation of interbeat intervals & root mean square of successive differences, indicating an activation of the parasympathetic nervous system
The Effects of Acute Cannabidiol on Autonomic Balance
https://faseb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1096/fasebj.2022.36.S1.R4524

2022: In people taking antipsychotics, it causes damage to their heart & this seems to be mediated by the CB1 receptors interacting with the inflammasomes, suggesting the targeting of CB1 to lower the cardiac side effects of antipsychotics
CB1R-stabilized NLRP3 inflammasome drives antipsychotics cardiotoxicity
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35739093

2022: In a look at a large number of cancer survivors, those with cannabis use disorder had no higher risk of a later major cardiac events
MAJOR ADVERSE CARDIAC AND CEREBROVASCULAR EVENTS WITH CANNABIS USE DISORDER IN ADULT CANCER SURVIVORS HOSPITALIZED WITH PRIOR HISTORY OF MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
https://www.jacc.org/doi/full/10.1016/S0735-1097%2822%2902939-4

2022: In men with HIV who used cannabis, they had lower levels of proteins linked to heart disease risk

Plasma C-reactive protein is lower among marijuana using HIV-negative individuals but not among persons living with HIV

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33649360/

2022: In mice, a combination of CBD & swimming training protected their hearts

Effect of eight weeks of swimming training and consumption of CBD oil on the expression of NF-kB and 5­HT1A genes in heart tissue of rats with myocardial infraction

https://ebnesina.ajaums.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=986&sid=1&slc_lang=en

2022: In a rat model of obesity, CBD treatment protected their hearts via several measures

Cannabidiol Downregulates Myocardial de Novo Ceramide Synthesis Pathway in a Rat Model of High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35216351/

2022: In mice with induced heart problems, CBD decreased inflammation & improved the antioxidant ability
Cannabidiol Improves Antioxidant Capacity and Reduces Inflammation in the Lungs of Rats with Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35630804

2022: In mice with heart failure, CBD “significantly prevented cardiac dysfunction and the development of fibrosis”
Cannabidiol Therapy For Chronic Heart Failure Prevents Cardiac Hypertrophy And Contractile Dysfunction By Reducing Mitochondrial Ros Generation In A Murine Model
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1071916422003669

2022: In a mouse model of sickle cell anemia, CBD lowered their sensitivity to pain
Cannabidiol attenuates hyperalgesia in a mouse model of sickle cell disease
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36122382

2022: In a mouse model of sickle cell disease, CBD lessened the chronic & acute pain by decreasing inflammation & oxidative stress
Cannabidiol Attenuates Chronic and Acute Hyperalgesia in Sickle Mice By Reducing Inflammation and Oxidative Stressv
https://ashpublications.org/blood/article/140/Supplement%201/8226/488015

2022: In a mouse model of hemophilia, PEA helped with pain & the symptoms of arthritis such as joint inflammation
Palmitoylethanolamide Attenuates Pain-like Behavior in Factor VIII Deficient Mice
https://ashpublications.org/blood/article/140/Supplement%201/5578/492940

2022: In a mouse model of sepsis (an extreme immune reaction to an infection), CBD suppressed the inflammatory cytokine storm & protected the heart & kidneys from injury
Cannabidiol Suppresses Cytokine Storm and Protects Against Cardiac and Renal Injury Associated with Sepsis
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36594988/

2022: In heart cells poisoned by phosphine gas, THC protected them from the harmful effects, especially cytotoxicity (damage to cell), mitochondrial toxicity (damage to the cell’s powerhouse) & oxidative stress
Inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore and antioxidant effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol reduces aluminium phosphide-induced cytotoxicity and dysfunction of cardiac mitochondria
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35715056

2022: In rat hearts & human heart cells simulating bypass surgery, THC protected the cardiac function, decreased the number of dead cells & reactive oxygen species as well as improving their metabolic function
Δ 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9-THC) Improves Ischemia/Reperfusion Heart Dysfunction and Might Serve as a Cardioprotective Agent in the Future Treatment
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35468673/

2022: In a rat model of obesity, CBD rich hemp extracts protected the heart via the inhibition of the transport of adenosine (a messenger of protein synthesis)
The effect of a long-term treatment with cannabidiol-rich hemp extract oil on the adenosinergic system of the zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat atrium
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36588715/

2022: CBD is protective of the heart in several diseases via its antioxidant & cardioprotective effects
Treatment with Cannabidiol Results in an Antioxidant and Cardioprotective Effect in Several Pathophysiologies
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36508270/

2022: In mice with high blood pressure, one month of cannabis oil reduced their hypertension & improved their network of mitochondria (powerhouse of the cell) probably via its antioxidant effects
Cannabis oil one-month oral treatment given to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR): Could it be a promising therapeutic strategy for hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy?
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022282822003959

2022: In heart cells exposed to typical chemotherapy drugs, PEA protected them from cell death & inflammation via the PPAR-α pathway (nuclear receptors that on & off genetic transcription) & the NLRP3-related pathways (related to inflammation)
The analgesic compound palmitoylethanolamide reduces inflammation in human cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells exposed to doxorubicin and anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody through PPAR-α and NLRP3-related pathways
https://www.annalsofoncology.org/article/S0923-7534(22)01894-4/fulltext

2022: In mice undergoing exhaustive exercise, CBD reduced rupture of the heart tissue, the degree of inflammatory cell infiltration & the deposition of collagen fibers in the heart tissue
Protective effect and mechanism of cannabidiol on myocardial injury in exhaustive exercise training mice
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35926578

 

2022: In a mouse model of diabetes with heart problems, THC caused beneficial effects on insulin levels as well as improvements to the heart’s main blood vessel
Vascular responses disrupted by fructose-induced hyperinsulinemia improved with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
https://internationalbiochemistry.com/jvi.aspx?un=IJMB-83703&volume=

2022: In human immune & cardiac cells exposed to an inflammatory agent (a model of sepsis leading to cardiac arrhythmias), CBD protected against the inflammation & arrhythmias via inhibition of inflammatory cytokine release, antioxidant & anti-apoptotic effects (cellular suicide) & via the cardiac sodium channels
Anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol against lipopolysaccharides in cardiac sodium channels
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35906756

2022: In a mouse & cellular model of a heart stressed by metabolic disorder, the two terpenes 1,8-cineole & beta-caryophyllene worked synergistically to protect from heart damage

Combination of 1,8-cineole and beta-caryophyllene synergistically reverses cardiac hypertrophy in isoprenaline-induced mice and H9c2 cells
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0045206822002280

2022: In heart cells stressed by high levels of glucose (a model of diabetes), CBD protected them from arrythmia & cytotoxicity via inhibition of the sodium channels

Cannabidiol protects against high glucose-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32077098/

2021: In rats with heart problems, chronic treatment with CBD protected their aorta & small arteries

Vasoprotective Endothelial Effects of Chronic Cannabidiol Treatment and Its Influence on the Endocannabinoid System in Rats with Primary and Secondary Hypertension

https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8247/14/11/1120

2021: In a mouse model of heart failure, CBD nanoparticles protected against the formation of scar tissue

Cannabidiol Loaded Nanoparticles Exhibit an Anti-Fibrotic Effect in a Mouse Model of Non-Ischemic Heart Failure

https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1161/circ.144.suppl_1.10708

2021: In rats poisoned by aluminum phosphide (a common pesticide that causes toxicity in humans across the world), CBD protected their hearts from the usual damage, restored mitochondrial function (powerhouse of the cell) & prevented heart cell death

Modification of the hemodynamic and molecular features of phosphine, a potent mitochondrial toxicant in the heart, by cannabidiol

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34711111/

2021: In rat heart tissue, THC protected the heart from the negative effects of toxic gas

Inhibition of Mitochondria Permeability Transition Pore and Antioxidant Effect of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Reduces Aluminum Phosphide-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Cytotoxicity

https://assets.researchsquare.com/files/rs-998530/v1/aaffbd8f-32b0-4606-a7c7-26530d81c600.pdf?c=1635174312

2022: In a mouse model of diabetes, activating the CB2 receptor protected the heart from inflammation, oxidative stress, fibrosis (scarring), cell death & cardiac dysfunction
Cannabinoid receptor 2 activation alleviates diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35460032/

2022: In stressed rats, activating the CB2 receptor protected the heart from oxidative stress during a heart attack
Cannabinoid receptor-2 agonist AM1241 attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion- induced oxidative stress in rats via Nrf2/HO-1 pathway
https://assets.researchsquare.com/files/rs-1568320/v1/859f5cdf-0ab0-499b-b602-c49f34d8608e.pdf

2022: In a rat model of a heart attack causing blood loss to the brain, inhibiting the MGL enzyme (which breaks down 2-AG) was as effective as therapeutic hypothermia for fixing cerebral microcirculation, smaller brain swellings & protecting the blood brain barrier
The monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor, JZL184, has comparable effects to therapeutic hypothermia, attenuating global cerebral injury in a rat model of cardiac arrest
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36252353

2021: In mice with no CB1 receptor, researchers found that the CB1 receptor helped the smooth muscle of the heart to relax during its dilation phase & that during an infarct (a small area of dead tissue due to lack of blood flow), mice with no CB1 receptors had larger areas of dead tissue

Impaired vessel relaxation response and increased infarct size in smooth muscle cannabinoid receptor 1 knockout mice

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34655603/ 

2021: In rats with heart problems from diabetes, a combination of CB2 activation & L-arginine decreased oxidative stress, reduced inflammation & protected the heart

CB2 receptor agonist and L- arginine combination attenuates diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats via NF-ĸβ inhibition

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34860602/

2021: A study "provides evidence supporting an association between recent cannabis use and history of [myocardial infarction] in young adults"

Recent cannabis use and myocardial infarction in young adults: a cross-sectional study

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34493564/

2021: In rats given ZnO nanoparticles (a treatment for cancer & diabetes), it modified the response of their hearts to the cannabinoid receptors

ZnO Nanoparticles Induce Dyslipidemia and Atherosclerotic Lesions Leading to Changes in Vascular Contractility and Cannabinoid Receptors Expression as Well as Increased Blood Pressure

https://www.mdpi.com/2079-4991/11/9/2319

 

2021: In mice undergoing swimming training, consuming CBD oil improved their heart’s markers for MAPK & PPARα gene expression while showing that the interventions of CBD & swimming combined worked better than either method alone

Effect of Eight Weeks of Swimming Training and CBD Oil Consumption on MAPK, Pparα Gene Expression in the Heart Tissue of Myocardial Infarction Rats

https://www.jorjanijournal.goums.ac.ir/article-1-840-en.html

2021: In a rat’s aorta, the drug affinin (a painkiller with a structure similar to anandamide) appears to act via the CB1, TRPV1 & TRPA1 receptors to cause vasodilation in the heart

Endothelial TRP channels and cannabinoid receptors are involved in affinin-induced vasodilation

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34237389/

2021: In humans with Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome (a rare genetic disorder leading to fatal adult scarring of the heart), treatment with MRI-1867 (a dual inhibitor of the CB1 receptor & enzyme that creates the signaling molecule nitric oxide) prevented heart scarring & revered dysfunction of the mitochondria (the powerhouse of the cell)

CB1R and iNOS are distinct players promoting pulmonary fibrosis in Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255071/

2021: In a rat model of myocardial ischemia reperfusion (the return of blood flow to the heart after a heart attack), pretreatment with CBD protected the heart from damage

Cannabidiol-mediated RISK PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK pathways decreasing reperfusion myocardial damage

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34176244/

2021: In diabetic mice, injections of 2-AG protected their hearts from the cardiac pathology of the disease

2-Arachidonoylglycerol Attenuates Fibrosis in Diabetic Mice via the TGF-β1/Smad Pathway

https://europepmc.org/article/ppr/ppr344998

2021: In mice with heart disease, CBD caused less inflammation, lower levels of reactive oxygen species & protection of the mitochondria

Cannabidiol attenuates pulmonary arterial hypertension by improving vascular smooth muscle cells mitochondrial function

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33859746/

2021: In mice with their left carotid artery tied off, a combination of PEA & rutin (a helpful plant pigment) reduces inflammation, oxidative stress & vascular damage

Micro Composite Palmitoylethanolamide/Rutin Reduces Vascular Injury through Modulation of the Nrf2/HO-1 and NF-kB Pathways

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33781184/

2021: In humans with a valve disease of the heart, the endocannabinoid system is suggested as a potential target to limit disease progression

Role of the Endocannabinoid System in Modulation of the Inflammatory Reaction in Aortic Valve Degeneration

https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/html/10.1055/s-0041-1725674

2021: In rats, β-Caryophyllene (usually the most common terpene in hemp) protects the heart from cardiotoxicity of a widely used chemotherapy drug via the CB2 receptor

β-Caryophyllene, a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene attenuates doxorubicin-induced chronic cardiotoxicity via activation of myocardial cannabinoid type-2 (CB 2) receptors in rats

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30836069/

2021: In rats, activating the CB2 receptor protects the heart during a model of a heart attack

AM1241 alleviates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats by enhancing Pink1/Parkin-mediated autophagy

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33607150/

2021: In megakaryocyte cells (the bone marrow cells that produce platelets), the endocannabinoid virodhamine helps to control the differentiation process via the mitochondria (the powerhouse of the cell)

Virodhamine, an endocannabinoid, induces megakaryocyte differentiation by regulating MAPK activity and function of mitochondria

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32696508/

2021: In rat arteries, CBD lessened contraction in the small arteries but not the large ones

Cannabidiol selectively inhibits the contraction of rat small resistance arteries: Possible role for CGRP and voltage-gated calcium channels

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014299920308591

2020: In a mouse model of cardiomyopathy, the liver-heart axis is heavily involved & a CB2 agonist seems to help

Interplay of Liver-Heart Inflammatory Axis and Cannabinoid 2 Receptor Signaling in an Experimental Model of Hepatic Cardiomyopathy

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31469200/

2020: In heart preparations from rabbits & guinea-pigs, they looked at the effects of CBD

The electrophysiological effect of cannabidiol on hERG current and in guinea-pig and rabbit cardiac preparations

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32999428/

2020: In rats, CBD lowered hypertension of the heart

Cannabidiol Ameliorates Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension in Rats

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32992900/

2020: In mammal heart preparations, high levels of CBD altered the electrophysiology

The electrophysiological effect of cannabidiol on hERG current and in guinea-pig and rabbit cardiac preparations

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-73165-2

 

2020: In rabbit hearts, CBD affected several of the ion channels causing a shorter action potential & slightly decreased amplitude

Cannabidiol inhibits multiple cardiac ion channels and shortens ventricular action potential duration in vitro

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0014299920306348

2020: In endothelial cells (those that line your blood vessels), CBD helped them to survive via heme oxygenase-1, an enzyme that helps to regulate programmed cellular suicide

Cannabidiol Promotes Endothelial Cell Survival by Heme Oxygenase-1-Mediated Autophagy

https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4409/9/7/1703

2020: In alcoholic mice, activating the CB2 receptor protects the heart from damage

Pharmacological activation of CB2 receptor protects against ethanol-induced myocardial injury related to RIP1/RIP3/MLKL-mediated necroptosis

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32681290/

2020: In rats exposed to the chemotherapeutic agent bleomycin, CB2 activation protected the heart against inflammation & scarring (fibrosis)

Effects of cannabinoid receptor 2 synthetic agonist, AM1241, on bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10520295.2020.1758343

2020: In this clinical trial, they found that the benefits of flaxseed oil for your heart seems to be mediated by the ECS

Effect of flaxseed oil supplementation on the erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition and endocannabinoid system modulation in patients with coronary artery disease: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7201600/

2020: In rats, a look at how PEA causes vasodepression (the lowering of blood pressure) via the heart's CB1, TRPV1 and probably GPR55 receptors, but not by CB2

Potential Mechanisms Involved in Palmitoylethanolamide-Induced Vasodepressor Effects in Rats

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32248195

2020: In rats, activation of CB1 helped lower hypertension without affecting blood pressure

Stimulation of brain cannabinoid CB1 receptors can ameliorate hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32141630

2020: In a cell culture mimicking heart cells in a diabetic, CBD protected from all the negative effect of high glucose: elevated reactive oxygen species, shift of voltage by sodium channels, and prolongation of action potential (hyperexcitability)

Cannabidiol protects against high glucose-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32077098

2020: In rats with high blood pressure, CBD did not help to lower their blood pressure - but it did help with oxidative stress

Chronic Cannabidiol Administration Fails to Diminish Blood Pressure in Rats with Primary and Secondary Hypertension Despite Its Effects on Cardiac and Plasma Endocannabinoid System, Oxidative Stress and Lipid Metabolism

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/21/4/1295

2020: In lambs, a look at how activating the CB1 receptor protects from the oxidative stress of fetal ischemia (cutting off the blood flow)

Cannabinoid-mediated Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Early Inflammatory Response after Hypoxia–Ischemia

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/21/4/1283

2020: In a cell culture, a look at how CBD modulates the important sodium channels in the cell membrane

Mechanism of Sodium Channel Inhibition by Cannabidiol

https://www.cell.com/biophysj/pdf/S0006-3495(19)33690-2.pdf

 

2020: In a cell culture, CBD seems to protect the heart against high glucose levels via anti-oxidant effects & inhibition of the sodium channels

Protective Effect of Cannabidiol Against Oxidative Stress and Cytotoxicity Evoked by High Glucose in Cardiac Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels

https://www.cell.com/biophysj/pdf/S0006-3495(19)34071-8.pdf

2020: The CB1 receptor helps to modulate the cardiovascular response to stress

Cannabinoid receptor type 1 in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis modulates cardiovascular responses to stress via local N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor/neuronal nitric oxide synthase/soluble guanylate cyclase/protein kinase G signaling

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881119897556

2020: During reduced blood flow to the heart, 2-AG levels elevate

Endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol is elevated in the coronary circulation during acute coronary syndrome

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31887202

2020: in humans, one dose of CBD reduced blood pressure

A single dose of cannabidiol reduces blood pressure in healthy volunteers in a randomized crossover study

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28614793

2020: CBD causes vasodilation in arteries of the lung and the bowel and this effect was reduced by high blood pressure and obesity

Vasodilatory effects of cannabidiol in human pulmonary and rat small mesenteric arteries: modification by hypertension and the potential pharmacological opportunities

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31800399

2020: In humans, heart effects of CBD: initially lowers blood pressure – but tolerance develops after 7 days. However, CBD continues to protect against the tendency of stress to increase blood pressure. Also reduces arterial stiffness & improves endothelial function

The effects of acute and sustained cannabidiol dosing for seven days on the haemodynamics in healthy men: a randomised controlled trial

https://nottingham-repository.worktribe.com/output/3780903/the-effects-of-acute-and-sustained-cannabidiol-dosing-for-seven-days-on-the-haemodynamics-in-healthy-men-a-randomised-controlled-trial

 

2019: In rats, activation of the CB1 receptor protects against mitochondrial damage in the heart induced by a toxin

Activation of Cannabinoid Receptors Attenuates Endothelin-1-induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Rat Ventricular Myocytes

https://journals.lww.com/cardiovascularpharm/Abstract/publishahead/Activation_of_Cannabinoid_Receptors_Attenuates.98463.aspx

2019: CBD's ability to cause vasodilation may be helpful for heart disease treatment

Vasodilatory effects of cannabidiol in human pulmonary and rat small mesenteric arteries

https://journals.lww.com/jhypertension/Abstract/publishahead/Vasodilatory_effects_of_cannabidiol_in_human.97067.aspx

2017: In diabetic rats, CBD improves vasorelaxation in arteries via COX & NO

In Vivo Cannabidiol Treatment Improves Endothelium-Dependent Vasorelaxation in Mesenteric Arteries of Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28572770/

2016: in a mouse model of MS, CBD largely attenuated the CD3+ and CD4+ T cell-mediated inflammatory response and injury, myocardial fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction

Cannabidiol Limits T Cell-Mediated Chronic Autoimmune Myocarditis: Implications to Autoimmune Disorders and Organ Transplantation

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26772776

2015: In rat heart cells, CBD depressed contractility via calcium channels & inhibits excitation-contraction coupling

Effects of cannabidiol on contractions and calcium signaling in rat ventricular myocytes

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25711828/

2015: In a mouse, CBD protected against the negative heart effects of doxorubicin, a chemotherapy agent

Cannabidiol Protects against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy by Modulating Mitochondrial Function and Biogenesis

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25569804/

2015: in rat model of anxiety, a FAAH inhibitor protects the heart

Cardioprotective effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB694, in a rodent model of trait anxiety

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26656183/

2015: In rabbits with a heart attack, CBD infusion before the attack protected the heart in multiple ways

Pharmacologic Effects of Cannabidiol on Acute Reperfused Myocardial Infarction in Rabbits: Evaluated With 3.0T Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Histopathology

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26065843/

2015: In mice with arrythmias, CBD conferred protection, probably via the adenosine A1 receptor

The effect of cannabidiol on ischemia/reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias: the role of adenosine A1 receptors

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24853683/

2015: in humans, CBD causes relaxation of the arteries in the heart via activation of CB1 & TRP channels

Cannabidiol causes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of human mesenteric arteries via CB1 activation

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26092099

2014: pathway of platelet activation by ECs

Mechanism of platelet activation induced by endocannabinoids in blood and plasma.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23789792

2014: In diabetic rats, CBD improves vasorelaxation via COX1 & COX2

Cannabidiol improves vasorelaxation in Zucker diabetic fatty rats through cyclooxygenase activation

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25212218/

2013: in mice, CBD protects from cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin

Cardioprotective effect of cannabidiol in rats exposed to doxorubicin toxicity

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23721741

2012: In human females with depression, the AEA & 2AG levels in their blood correlated to their blood pressure

Serum contents of endocannabinoids are correlated with blood pressure in depressed women

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22373123/

2011: FAAH is a key protector of the heart

Fatty acid amide hydrolase is a key regulator of endocannabinoid-induced myocardial tissue injury

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21070851/

2011: In the mouse brain model of sepsis, CBD helped to stabilize the vasculature & lower inflammation

Cannabidiol reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced vascular changes and inflammation in the mouse brain: an intravital microscopy study

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21244691/

2010: In a mouse model of diabetes, CBD protected the heart by lowering oxidative stress, inflammation, cell death and fibrosis

Cannabidiol attenuates cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and inflammatory and cell death signaling pathways in diabetic cardiomyopathy

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21144973/

2010: In rats, CBD protects the heart from insult by reducing arrhythmias & size of infarct (dead tissue)

Acute administration of cannabidiol in vivo suppresses ischaemia-induced cardiac arrhythmias and reduces infarct size when given at reperfusion

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20590615

2009: In rats, AEA decreased blood pressure in those with hypertension but not those without via mechanisms besides CB1

Acute hypertension reveals depressor and vasodilator effects of cannabinoids in conscious rats

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19133994/

2009: In rat aortas, CBD causes vasorelaxation via the calcium channels & also binds to PPARgamma

Time-dependent vascular actions of cannabidiol in the rat aorta

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19285060/

2007: in the heart of rats, CBD protected against ischemia

Cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive Cannabis constituent, protects against myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17890433

2006: In rats with conditioned fear, CBD lessened anxiety & cardiovascular effects of fear

Effects of cannabidiol and diazepam on behavioral and cardiovascular responses induced by contextual conditioned fear in rats

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16780966/


 

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