Parkinson's & Dyskinesia

Best reviews

2021: This review looks at endocannabinoid signaling in Parkinson's disease

Endocannabinoid Signaling in Parkinson’s Disease

2021: A review of CBD for Parkinson's disease

Potential role of cannabidiol in Parkinson's disease by targeting the WNT/β-catenin pathway, oxidative stress and inflammation

2021: A review of the use of oral cannabinoids for seborrheic dermatitis - a common skin issue among Parkinson's disease patients

A Review of the Current Evidence Connecting Seborrheic Dermatitis and Parkinson’s Disease and the Potential Role of Oral Cannabinoids

2020: A review of why CBD may be a therapeutic target for Parkinson’s disease

Cannabidiol as a Therapeutic Target: Evidence of its Neuroprotective and Neuromodulatory Function in Parkinson's Disease

2020: A metareview of cannabis for Huntington's disease looks at 22 studies

Medical Marijuana Effects in Movement Disorders, Focus on Huntington Disease; A Literature Review

2020: The ECS & Parkinson’s disease

Distinctive Evidence Involved in the Role of Endocannabinoid Signalling in Parkinson's Disease: A Perspective on Associated Therapeutic Interventions

2020: How the relationship between the ECS and the microglia (immune cells of the brain) could benefit Parkinson's patients

Microglial Phenotypes and Their Relationship to the Cannabinoid System: Therapeutic Implications for Parkinson's Disease

2020: The cannabinoid receptors & Parkinson’s disease

The therapeutic role of cannabinoid receptors and its agonists or antagonists in Parkinson's disease

2020: For Parkinson's disease, this intriguing review looks at complementary therapies to go along with dopamine replacement including acupuncture, tai chi, qi gong, & cannabis

Complementary Therapies in Parkinson Disease: a Review of Acupuncture, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, Yoga, and Cannabis

2020: A review of cannabis & CBD for Parkinson's

Parkinson’s Disease - Current Treatments and the Possible Use of Cannabis

2019: CBD & the cannabinoids for the L-DOPA dyskinesia

Cannabidiol and Cannabinoid Compounds as Potential Strategies for Treating Parkinson's Disease and L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia

2019: A review of CBD for Parkinson’s symptoms

Is cannabidiol the ideal drug to treat non-motor Parkinson's disease symptoms?

2019: The pathways behind using CBD for Parkinson’s disease

Biological bases for a possible effect of cannabidiol in Parkinson's disease

2019: Cannabinoids & Parkinson’s disease

Evidence for the use of cannabinoids in Parkinson's disease

2019: A review of targeting the cannabinoid receptors for Parkinson’s disease

Cannabinoid receptor as a potential therapeutic target for Parkinson's Disease

2018: A review of CBD for movement disorders

Cannabidiol as a Promising Strategy to Treat and Prevent Movement Disorders?

2012: Interactions between the dopamine & cannabinoid systems

Interactions between the cannabinoid and dopaminergic systems: Evidence from animal studies

Timeline of Research

2021: In an animal model of Parkinson’s disease, CBD acted as both a neuroprotective as well an agent to treat the symptoms

Neuroprotective and Symptomatic Effects of Cannabidiol in an Animal Model of Parkinson's Disease

2021: A survey from the Michael J Fox Foundation confirms that patients with Parkinson's often turn to cannabis

2021: In mice, the brain’s medium spiny neurons – which contain the highest levels of CB1 receptors in the CNS – control exploration & motor coordination partially via the ECS

Control of exploration, motor coordination and amphetamine sensitization by cannabinoid CB 1 receptors expressed in medium spiny neurons

2021: In a rat model of Parkinson’s disease, CBD helped with their musculoskeletal pain

Cannabidiol has therapeutic potential for myofascial pain in female and male parkinsonian rats

2021: In rats, they found that the endocannabinoid system plays a major role in the globus pallidus (a brain region important for movement)

In vivo bidirectional modulation of cannabinoid on the activity of globus pallidus in rats

2021: In mice with a movement disorder, CBD helped to alleviate the facial tics from the treatment drug haloperidol as well as lowering proinflammatory cytokines in the striatum & hippocampus of the brain via the PPARγ nuclear receptors

PPARγ receptors are involved in the effects of cannabidiol on orofacial dyskinesia and cognitive dysfunction induced by typical antipsychotic in mice

2021: In a neural model of Parkinson's, CBD acts as a protector of neurons, especially from the dysfunctions of the mitochondria (the powerhouse of the cell)

Cannabidiol Induces Autophagy to Protects Neural Cells From Mitochondrial Dysfunction by Upregulating SIRT1 to Inhibits NF-κB and NOTCH Pathways

2021: In a cellular model of Parkinson's disease, activation of the CB1 receptor lowered stress & inflammation

Cannabinoid receptor-1 has an effect on CD200 under rotenone and alpha-synuclein induced stress

2021: In humans, CBD well-tolerated by patients with Parkinson disease

Tolerability and Efficacy of Cannabidiol on Motor Symptoms in Parkinson Disease: Interim Report on Tolerability

2021: In humans with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD - a common symptom of Parkinson's), CBD helped with sleep satisfaction but not to lessen manifestations of RBD

Cannabidiol for Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder

2021: In rats, the protection of paracetamol against Parkinson's disease may be mediated by the endocannabinoid system

Mechanistic insights into the protective effect of paracetamol against rotenone-induced Parkinson’s disease in rats: Possible role of endocannabinoid system modulation

2021: In humans with Parkinson's, isolated CBD decreased symptoms in half those treated (15 participants in an open label, dose escalation study)

Safety and Tolerability of Cannabidiol in Parkinson Disease: An Open Label, Dose-Escalation Study

2021: In neurons, the loss of dopamine harms the ability of the CB1 receptors to operate (perhaps explaining some of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease)

Dopaminergic denervation impairs cortical motor and associative/limbic information processing through the basal ganglia and its modulation by the CB1 receptor

2020: This survey of Parkinson's patients finds that they find cannabis helpful

Cannabis in Parkinson’s Disease: The Patients’ View

2020: In a mouse model of tardive dyskinesia, CBD prevented microglial activation & prevented neuroinflammation via PPARγ

Cannabidiol prevents haloperidol-induced vacuos chewing movements and inflammatory changes in mice via PPARγ receptors

2020: In humans with Parkinson’s disease, nabilone (synthetic THC) helped with anxiety & sleep (47 participants in a phase II placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, enriched enrollment randomized withdrawal trial)

Non-Motor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease are Reduced by Nabilone


2020: In the brains of monkeys with induced parkinsonism, complexes of CB1+GPR55 and CB2+GPR55 appear to be targets for treating Parkinson's

Expression of GPR55 and either cannabinoid CB 1 or CB 2 heteroreceptor complexes in the caudate, putamen, and accumbens nuclei of control, parkinsonian, and dyskinetic non-human primates

2020: In mice with Parkinson's, THCV helped with the dyskinesia resulting from L-DOPA treatment

Beneficial effects of the phytocannabinoid Δ 9-THCV in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease

2020: In a cellular model of Parkinson's disease, CBD caused a wide array of positive effects via the AKT/mTOR pathway

Cannabidiol exerts protective effects in an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease activating AKT/mTOR pathway

2020: In a study of humans with Parkinson's, high levels of isolated CBD (Epidiolex) helped with their symptoms, caused no serious side effects but did elevate the liver enzymes

Safety and Tolerability of Cannabidiol in Parkinson Disease: An Open Label, Dose-Escalation Study

2020: In a double-blind study of humans with Parkinson’s, 300 mg of CBD decreased anxiety and tremors during a simulation of public speaking

Effects of acute cannabidiol administration on anxiety and tremors induced by a Simulated Public Speaking Test in patients with Parkinson's disease

2019: In an animal model of Parkinson's, CBD increases the pain threshold

Cannabidiol increases the nociceptive threshold in a preclinical model of Parkinson's disease

2019: In a mouse model of dyskinesia, activation of the CB2 receptor may reduce symptoms

Targeting the cannabinoid receptor CB2 in a mouse model of l-dopa induced dyskinesia

2018: In postmortem human brains, CB1, CB2 & MAGL found to be closely related to the neuropathological processes of PD

Cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 Receptors, and Monoacylglycerol Lipase Gene Expression Alterations in the Basal Ganglia of Patients with Parkinson's Disease

2016: In rats, CBD prevented the impairments of reserpine (used for high blood pressure & psychotic symptoms)

Cannabidiol Prevents Motor and Cognitive Impairments Induced by Reserpine in Rats

2015: In humans with Parkinson’s disease, CB2 levels are elevated “in microglial cells recruited and activated at lesioned sites in the substantia nigra”

Potential of the cannabinoid CB(2) receptor as a pharmacological target against inflammation in Parkinson's disease

2015: In tissue culture, CBD protected against a model of Parkinson’s disease via several neuronal proteins

The neuroprotection of cannabidiol against MPP⁺-induced toxicity in PC12 cells involves trkA receptors, upregulation of axonal and synaptic proteins, neuritogenesis, and might be relevant to Parkinson's disease

2015: A survey of cannabis use by Parkinson’s disease patients finds it effective

Self-reported efficacy of cannabis and other complementary medicine modalities by Parkinson's disease patients in Colorado

2014: In rat model of Parkinson’s disease, a CB1 antagonist and an adenosine antagonist worked to protect dopaminergic neuron cell death – but did worse when combined together

Neuroprotective potential of adenosine A2A and cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists in an animal model of Parkinson disease

2014: In humans with Parkinson’s disease, CBD helped with quality of life with no significant downsides

Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease: an exploratory double-blind trial

2014: In humans with Parkinson’s disease, CBD helped with sleep and to decrease REM sleep behavior disorder

Cannabidiol can improve complex sleep-related behaviours associated with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson's disease patients: a case series

2014: In humans with Parkinson’s disease, study finds cannabis helpful for sleep and pain (22 patients in open-label observational study)

Cannabis (medical marijuana) treatment for motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson disease: an open-label observational study

2013: In rats, CBD influenced vertical motor activity – probably via serotonin

Motor effects of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol that are mediated by 5-HT1A receptors

2013: In mice, CBD attenuates drug-induced catalepsy from Parkinsons's treatment via serotonin

Cannabidiol attenuates catalepsy induced by distinct pharmacological mechanisms via 5-HT1A receptor activation in mice

2012: In cell culture, THC causes direct neuroprotective effect against PD – may be mediated via PPARγ

Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC) exerts a direct neuroprotective effect in a human cell culture model of Parkinson's disease

2011: In a rat model of Parkinson’s disease, THCV neuroprotective and symptom relieving

Symptom-relieving and neuroprotective effects of the phytocannabinoid Δ9-THCV in animal models of Parkinson's disease

2011: In a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease, MAGL inhibition to combat neuroinflammation

Endocannabinoid hydrolysis generates brain prostaglandins that promote neuroinflammation

2010: In rats, blockade of CB1 suggested for early disease symptoms of PD

Effects of SR141716A on Cognitive and Depression-Related Behavior in an Animal Model of Premotor Parkinson's Disease

2009: In an open human trial, a flexible oral dose of CBD (from 150 mg to 400 mg per day) showed less psychotic symptoms, no negative effect on cognitive and motor skills and no serious side effects

Cannabidiol for the treatment of psychosis in Parkinson's disease

2009: In rats, Rimonabant improved PD by itself and in addition to regular therapy

The CB(1) antagonist rimonabant is adjunctively therapeutic as well as monotherapeutic in an animal model of Parkinson's disease

2009: In rats, a cannabinoid agonist helps with dyskinesia via changes in dopamine and glutamate

Neurochemical changes in the striatum of dyskinetic rats after administration of the cannabinoid agonist WIN55,212-2

2009: In rats, CB2 agonism suggested to slow progress of Parkinson’s disease

WIN55,212-2, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, protects against nigrostriatal cell loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson's disease

2008: In rat model of Parkinson’s disease, activating 5HT1A (as CBD does) reduces dopamine D1 dyskinesia

Striatal 5-HT1A receptor stimulation reduces D1 receptor-induced dyskinesia and improves movement in the hemiparkinsonian rat

2008: In flies, a CB1/CB2 agonist protects against paraquat neurotoxicity and its antioxidant properties suggest cannabinoids for Parkinson’s disease

The cannabinoid CP55,940 prolongs survival and improves locomotor activity in Drosophila melanogaster against paraquat: implications in Parkinson's disease

2007: In an animal model of Parkinson’s disease, the ECS helps to rescue motor skills & striatal long-term depression

Endocannabinoid-mediated rescue of striatal LTD and motor deficits in Parkinson's disease models

2007: In a rat model of Parkinson’s disease, tested an array of cannabinoids and found their help was independent of CB1 & CB2 receptors – but CB2 activation may also be helpful – upregulated the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase antioxidant machinery

Evaluation of the neuroprotective effect of cannabinoids in a rat model of Parkinson's disease: importance of antioxidant and cannabinoid receptor-independent properties

2007: In primates, CB1 antagonists seem to levodopa work better for Parkinson’s disease

Blockade of cannabinoid type 1 receptors augments the antiparkinsonian action of levodopa without affecting dyskinesias in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated rhesus monkeys

2007: In rats, on how CB1 & TRPV1 interact with levodopa for Parkinson’s disease

Anti-dyskinetic effects of cannabinoids in a rat model of Parkinson's disease: role of CB(1) and TRPV1 receptors

2006: In rats, Rimonabant seems effective for Parkinson’s disease at low doses but effect not related to dopaminergic, GABAergic, or glutamatergic transmission in the striatum

Effects of rimonabant, a selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, in a rat model of Parkinson's disease

2005: In a tissue & animal model of Parkinson’s disease, the neuroprotective properties of cannabinoids

Cannabinoids provide neuroprotection against 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity in vivo and in vitro: relevance to Parkinson's disease

2005: In humans with untreated Parkinson’s disease, high endocannabinoid levels found in their cerebrospinal fluid

High endogenous cannabinoid levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of untreated Parkinson's disease patients

2005: In rats, CB1 antagonists seem to only be effective in late stage Parkinson’s disease

Cannabinoid CB1 antagonists possess antiparkinsonian efficacy only in rats with very severe nigral lesion in experimental parkinsonism

2005: In primates, the potential roles of CB1 and the endocannabinoids for Parkinson’s disease

A role for endocannabinoids in the generation of parkinsonism and levodopa-induced dyskinesia in MPTP-lesioned non-human primate models of Parkinson's disease

2004: “Anonymous questionnaire sent to all patients attending the Prague Movement Disorder Centre revealed that 25% of 339 respondents had taken cannabis and 45.9% of these described some form of benefit”

Survey on cannabis use in Parkinson's disease: subjective improvement of motor symptoms

2004: In humans, clinical trial of cannabis saw no help for symptoms in dyskinesias or parkinsonism

Cannabis for dyskinesia in Parkinson disease: a randomized double-blind crossover study

2004: In humans, antagonism of neuropeptide receptors was well tolerated but did not improve parkinsonian motor disability

Neurokinin B, neurotensin, and cannabinoid receptor antagonists and Parkinson disease

2004: In a case study, THC helped with musician’s dystonia

Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol improves motor control in a patient with musician's dystonia

2002: In primates, cannabinoid receptor agonists reduces the dyskinesia of levodopa

Stimulation of cannabinoid receptors reduces levodopa-induced dyskinesia in the MPTP-lesioned nonhuman primate model of Parkinson's disease

2002: In humans, nabilone (THC) showed no significant reduction in dystonia (double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study)

Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the potential of cannabinoid receptor stimulation in the treatment of dystonia

2002: In a hamster model of dyskinesia, WIN 55,212-2 helped but seemingly not by the CB1 receptor

Effects of pharmacological manipulations of cannabinoid receptors on severity of dystonia in a genetic model of paroxysmal dyskinesia

2001: In humans, CB1 agonist “significantly reduces levodopa-induced dyskinesia in PD”

Cannabinoids reduce levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease: a pilot study

1998: In rats, the effects of cannabinoids in the basal ganglia

Cannabinoid effects in basal ganglia in a rat model of Parkinson's disease

1990: In humans, letter on the history of cannabis for Parkinson’s disease tremors and 5 case studies

Marijuana for parkinsonian tremor

1986: In a clinical study humans with dystonia, CBD caused all 5 of them to see improvements

Open label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders