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Best reviews

2023: For substance use disorder, a review of 29 studies finds CBD to be the most promising for treating multiple substance use disorders
Evidence from Human Studies for Utilising Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Substance-Use Disorders: A Scoping Review with a Systematic Approach

2022: This review looks at treating methamphetamine addiction with CBD

Therapeutic Effects of Cannabidiol on Methamphetamine Abuse: A Review of Preclinical Study

2022: A review of the evidence for CBD finds help for anxiety & anti-addiction effects
The safety and efficacy of low oral doses of cannabidiol: An evaluation of the evidence

2022: A review of using CBD to treat cannabis use disorder
Cannabidiol pharmacotherapy for delta-9-tetrahidrocannabinol dependence

2022: A review of CBD for substance use disorders finds that most of the available research is preclinical – but they suggest the therapeutic potential
Cannabidiol in the context of substance use disorder treatment: A systematic review

2022: A review of studies on THC helping with opioid withdrawal
Alleviation of opioid withdrawal by cannabis and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol: A systematic review of observational and experimental human studies

2022: A commentary on using CBD lessening the effects of meth
Cannabidiol as a pharmacotherapy tool for attenuating methamphetamine effects

2022: A review of using cannabinoids to treat cannabis use disorder finds that dronabinol (a synthetic form of THC) reduced withdrawal symptoms & that cannabis use overall was decreased by CBD, nabiximols (1:1 THC:CBD sprays) as well as a FAAH inhibitor
Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Cannabis Use Disorder: Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

2022: On treating addiction disorders by targeting the endocannabinoid system
Targeting the endocannabinoid system in the treatment of addiction disorders

2022: A review of treating alcohol use disorder by targeting the CB2 receptor
Role of Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor in Alcohol Use Disorders: From Animal to Human Studies

2022: In a review of animal models of drug addiction, β-caryophyllene (one of the primary terpenes of cannabis) showed promising results, often via its ability to activate the CB2 receptor
Effects of β-caryophyllene, A Dietary Cannabinoid, in Animal Models of Drug Addiction

2022: A review of the ECS biomarkers for substance use disorder

Biomarkers of the Endocannabinoid System in Substance Use Disorders

2022: This review finds that while CBD may be helpful for treating substance use disorders, more research is needed

Cannabidiol and substance use disorder: Dream or reality

2022: On endocannabinoids & addiction to meth or morphine

Endocannabinoids and addiction memory: Relevance to Methamphetamine/Morphine Abuse

2022: On treating substance use disorders by targeting the CB2 receptor

CB2 Receptor Involvement in the Treatment of Substance Use Disorders

2021: A review of the involvement of the CB2 receptor in treating substance use disorder

CB2 Receptor Involvement in the Treatment of Substance Use Disorders

2021: A literature review that included 41 articles looking at CBD for opioid withdrawal suggests that it can be a safe & effective treatment for many of the relevant symptoms

Adjunctive Management of Opioid Withdrawal with the Nonopioid Medication Cannabidiol

2021: A review of CBD for mental health & addiction

Cannabidiol and mental health: possibilities, uncertainties, and controversies for addiction treatment

2021: A review of using cannabinoids to treat opiate addiction

Cannabinoid treatment of opiate addiction

2021: This review looks at the mechanisms of how CBD might be helpful for opioid use disorder & its effect on inflammatory response

Modulatory Potential of Cannabidiol on the Opioid-Induced Inflammatory Response

2021: A review of CBD for substance use disorder

Role of Cannabidiol in the Therapeutic Intervention for Substance Use Disorders

2021: This review looks at how inhibiting FAAH can help with alcohol use disorder

Contribution of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase to Alcohol Use Disorder: A Systematic Review

2021: In terms of addiction, this review looks at how the endocannabinoids & endogenous opioids interact

Cellular and behavioral basis of cannabinioid and opioid interactions: Implications for opioid dependence and withdrawal

2021: This meta-review looks at the mechanisms relating CBD to addiction

Possible Receptor Mechanisms Underlying Cannabidiol Effects on Addictive-like Behaviors in Experimental Animals

2021: A review of how THC & CBD affect addiction in animal models

The endocannabinoid system and drug-associated contextual memories

2021: An overview of targeting the CB2 receptor to treat alcohol use disorder

The Endocannabinoid System and Alcohol Dependence: Will Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Agonism be More Fruitful than Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Antagonism?

2021: This editorial looks at modulating the endocannabinoid system for cocaine addiction

A role for amygdala endocannabinoid signaling in reconsolidation of cocaine-associated memories

2021: A review of clinical trials using CBD for substance use disorders

Clinical Trials of Cannabidiol for Substance Use Disorders: Outcome Measures, Surrogate Endpoints, and Biomarkers

2021: A review of nabiximols for cannabis use disorder

Nabiximols as a substitute for cannabis

2020: The mechanisms relating CBD & addictive behavior in model organisms

Possible Receptor Mechanisms Underlying Cannabidiol Effects on Addictive-like Behaviors in Experimental Animals

2020: A review & trial in humans about how the genetics of your own endocannabinoid system alter how you process rewards & stress

The contributions of the endocannabinoid system and stress on the neural processing of reward stimuli

2020: A review about CBD & cocaine addiction

Evaluation of the Potential Use of Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Cocaine Use Disorder: A Systematic Review

2020: A meta-review of the ECS's effect on addictions & reward processing

Cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system in reward processing and addiction: from mechanisms to interventions

2020: A review on targeting the ECS to help with the neuroinflammation from alcohol

Role of cannabinoids in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation

2020: A review of treating tobacco addiction by modulating the endocannabinoid system

Novel therapeutic and drug development strategies for tobacco use disorder: endocannabinoid modulation

2020: Dr. Kunos on how alcohol interacts with the ECS

Interactions Between Alcohol and the Endocannabinoid System

2019: A review of the studies on CBD for alcohol use disorder

Effects of cannabidiol on alcohol-related outcomes: A review of preclinical and human research

2019: A review of CBD & alcohol use disorder

Cannabidiol as a Novel Candidate Alcohol Use Disorder Pharmacotherapy: A Systematic Review

2019: Effect on ECS of alcohol use disorder

Endocannabinoid System and Alcohol Abuse Disorders

2019: Review of alcohol use disorder & ECS signaling in the amygdala

Endocannabinoid Signaling in the Central Amygdala and Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis: Implications for the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder

2019: American Journal of Psychiatry on CBD for cue-induced cravings

Cannabidiol: Not a Cure-All, but a Candidate for Coping With Cue-Induced Craving

2019: Review of targeting ECS for addiction

Potential of Cannabinoid Receptor Ligands as Treatment for Substance Use Disorders

2019: Review finds of CBD’s effect on the microbiome-gut-brain-axis & its relationship to alcohol use disorder

Cannabinoids and the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis: Emerging Effects of Cannabidiol and Potential Applications to Alcohol Use Disorders

2019: A review of the clinical studies on CBD with psychosis & addiction

The Potential of Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Psychosis and Addiction: Who Benefits Most? A Systematic Review

2019: A review of the mechanisms relating CBD to cocaine & methamphetamine addiction

Cannabidiol Treatment Might Promote Resilience to Cocaine and Methamphetamine Use Disorders: A Review of Possible Mechanisms

2019: Review finds CBD helps with relapse for the misuse of alcohol, tobacco & opioids (but not as effective for stimulants like meth)

The Endocannabinoid System and Cannabidiol's Promise for the Treatment of Substance Use Disorder

2019: This review goes over CBD & alcohol use disorder as well as the protective effects in the liver & brain found in animal studies

Therapeutic Prospects of Cannabidiol for Alcohol Use Disorder and Alcohol-Related Damages on the Liver and the Brain

2018: On the use of cannabis for opioid addiction

Emerging Evidence for Cannabis' Role in Opioid Use Disorder

2017: Yasmin Hurd's essay on CBD & the opioid crisis

Cannabidiol: Swinging the Marijuana Pendulum From 'Weed' to Medication to Treat the Opioid Epidemic

2017: Review of CBD to lower anxiety & its effects on various fear & drug memory processes

Cannabidiol regulation of emotion and emotional memory processing: relevance for treating anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders

2015: A review of 14 studies on CBD & addiction

Cannabidiol as an Intervention for Addictive Behaviors: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

2015: A review by Hurd on  CBD & opioid addiction

Early Phase in the Development of Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Addiction: Opioid Relapse Takes Initial Center Stage

2014: A review of 165 articles finds that the cannabinoids may help with the neuroinflammation of drug abuse

Neuroinflammation as a possible link between cannabinoids and addiction

2008: Piomelli on the ECS & rewards

The endocannabinoid system in brain reward processes

2006: A review of how the ECS is involved in the brain areas of addiction

Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in drug addiction

Chart Gallery

Timeline of Research


2023: While treating people for cannabis use disorder with large levels of CBD, these researchers found no problems with memory impairment or broader cognitive effects & at 800 milligrams per day it may have even improved working memory manipulation
Effect of four-week cannabidiol treatment on cognitive function: secondary outcomes from a randomised clinical trial for the treatment of cannabis use disorder

2023: In a mouse model of methamphetamine addiction, they saw help from a 1:1 CBD:THC treatment
A 1:1 ratio of cannabidiol: tetrahydrocannabinol attenuates methamphetamine conditioned place preference in mice: A prospective study of antidopaminergic mechanism

2022: A survey of people with substance use disorder who used CBD found that it helped them to sleep better, relax, reduce pain & feel less anxious
Cannabidiol use among patients with substance use disorders

2022: In a small open label study of people with opioid use disorder already using buprenorphine, 600 mg of CBD for 3 days significantly lowered cue-induced craving
Cannabidiol Effect on Cue-Induced Craving for Individuals with Opioid Use Disorder Treated with Buprenorphine: A Small Proof-of-Concept Open-Label Study

2022: A study of using nabiximols (1:1 THC:CBD sprays) to treat cannabis use disorder combined with counseling showed an increased chance of abstinence or reduction of use
Correlates of treatment engagement and client outcomes: results of a randomised controlled trial of nabiximols for the treatment of cannabis use disorder

2022: A small study of using a CBD vape for treating cannabis use disorder helped 30% of the patients reduce their use by half
Efficiency of Inhaled Cannabidiol in Cannabis Use Disorder: The Pilot Study Cannavap

2022: A review of cases where doctors chose to use cannabis for chronic pain, opioid dependence, depression & migraines
Cannabinoids-Perspectives for Individual Treatment in Selected Patients: Analysis of the Case Series

2022: In humans with opioid use disorder, a report on using cannabis for withdrawal

Biological (Testosterone and Oxytocin) Approach for the Impact of Naturalistic Cannabis use on Self-reported Opioid Withdrawal

2022: In an analysis of prescription data, the use of Sativex (a 1:1 THC:CBD medicine) caused substantial reductions in opioid use

Possible opioid-saving effect of cannabis-based medicine using individual-based data from the Norwegian Prescription Database

2022: In a rat model of meth addiction, CBD seems to help lower the potential to relapse via a dopamine receptor
Intra-Accumbal D1- But not D2-Like Dopamine Receptor Antagonism Reverses the Inhibitory Effects of Cannabidiol on Extinction and Reinstatement of Methamphetamine Seeking Behavior in Rats

2022: In a rat model of methamphetamine addiction, CBD inhibited the rewarding effects & increased the extinction of use as well as protecting relevant brain cells
Cannabidiol attenuates methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in male rats and viability in PC12 cells through the Sigma1R/AKT/GSK3β/CREB signaling pathway

2022: In mice going through opioid withdrawal, CBD reduced the severity of their gut problems
Cannabidiol Reduced the Severity of Gastrointestinal Symptoms of Opioid Withdrawal in Male and Female Mice

2022: In teens rats withdrawing from an alcohol binge, CBD increased their social exploration, reduced stress hormone levels, restored dopamine transmission & helped to strengthen & remodel their brain connections
Social stress under binge-like alcohol withdrawal in adolescence: evidence of cannabidiol effect on maladaptive plasticity in rats

2022: In a rat model of stimulant addiction, CBD lowered the likelihood of relapse as well as lowering anxiety levels & improving endocannabinoid & dopamine machinery levels in the brain
Cannabidiol treatment prevents drug reinstatement and the molecular alterations evoked by amphetamine on receptors and enzymes from dopaminergic and endocannabinoid systems in rats

2022: In rats addicted to methamphetamine, CBD (but not CBDA) helped them to self-administer less
Cannabidiol but not cannabidiolic acid reduces behavioural sensitisation to methamphetamine in rats, at pharmacologically effective doses


2022: In rats conditioned to a scheduled drinking of alcohol, THC helped to delay their acquisition of the drinking habit
Chronic ∆-9-tetrahydrocannabinol administration delays acquisition of schedule-induced drinking in rats and retains long-lasting effects

2022: In monkeys with free access to fentanyl, THC & CBD, alone or in combination, did “not enhance or diminish the rewarding effects of fentanyl”, suggesting them as a safe way to enhance the painkilling power of fentanyl
Effects of cannabidiol (CBD), ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and CBD/THC mixtures on fentanyl self-administration in a food drug choice procedure in rhesus monkeys

2022: In mice addicted to Oxycodone, a positive modulator of the CB1 receptor (similar to CBD) helped to lower withdrawal symptoms such as diarrhea & weight loss
The Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 Positive Allosteric Modulator ZCZ011 Attenuates Naloxone-Precipitated Diarrhea and Weight Loss in Oxycodone-Dependent Mice

2022: In a rodent model of opioid use disorder, a negative allosteric modulator of the CB1 receptor (similar to CBD) blocked the rewarding effects of morphine & reduced consumption of oxycodone
Negative allosteric modulation of CB1 cannabinoid receptor signaling suppresses opioid-mediated reward

2022: In mice with alcohol use disorder, 2-AG modulates their sensitivity to pain & its supplementation could be a potential treatment for alcohol withdrawal

2-Arachodonoylglycerol-mediated endocannabinoid signaling modulates mechanical hypersensitivity associated with alcohol withdrawal in mice

2022: In rats addicted to methamphetamine, CBD protected their hearts

Cannabidiol Attenuates Methamphetamine-Induced Cardiac Inflammatory Response and Necrosis through The PKA/CREB Signaling Pathway

2022: In rats taking cocaine and/or alcohol, they experienced alterations to their GABA, glutamate & endocannabinoid systems

The interactions of alcohol and cocaine regulate the expression of genes involved in the GABAergic, glutamatergic and endocannabinoid systems of male and female rats

2022: In rats addicted to cocaine, they saw alterations in the CB1 receptors of their hippocampus (memory area of the brain)

Hippocampal Cannabinoid 1 Receptors Are Modulated Following Cocaine Self-administration in Male Rats

2022: In mice formerly addicted to cocaine, a synthetic negative allosteric modulator of the CB1 receptor significantly reduced the reinstatement of their cocaine seeking behavior

Development of 3-(4-Chlorophenyl)-1-(phenethyl)urea Analogues as Allosteric Modulators of the Cannabinoid Type-1 Receptor: RTICBM-189 is Brain Penetrant and Attenuates Reinstatement of Cocaine-Seeking Behavior

2022: In male rats using cocaine, changes occurred in their CB1 receptor levels in brain areas related to rewards

Hippocampal Cannabinoid 1 Receptors Are Modulated Following Cocaine Self-administration in Male Rats

2022: In a mouse model of heroin addiction & withdrawal, CBD reduced behavioral impairments & normalized the associated gene expression changes

CBD-mediated regulation of heroin withdrawal-induced behavioural and molecular changes in mice

2022: In a mouse model of cocaine addiction, CBD helped them to not pick up the habit but did not affect abstinence or cravings

Cannabidiol decreases motivation for cocaine in a behavioral economics paradigm but does not prevent incubation of craving in mice

2022: In rats, CBD blocks the dopamine release of methamphetamine

Cannabidiol inhibits methamphetamine-induced dopamine release via modulation of the DRD1-MeCP2-BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway

2022: In a mouse model of pain & opioid addiction, a look at the effects of CBD & a novel CBD derivative (CBD-val-HS)

Differential Effects of Cannabidiol and a Novel Cannabidiol Analog on Oxycodone Place Preference and Analgesia in Mice: an Opioid Abuse Deterrent with Analgesic Properties

2021: Using cannabis to help boost the efficacy of methadone maintenance for people with opioid use disorder
The Cannabis-Dependent Relationship Between Methadone Treatment Dose and Illicit Opioid Use in a Community-Based Cohort of People Who Use Drugs

2021: In a mouse model of alcoholism combined with poor eating habits, CBD prevented fattiness of the liver, lowered oxidative stress & suppressed activation of the pathway causing cell death via inflammation

CBD Alleviates Liver Injuries in Alcoholics With High-Fat High-Cholesterol Diet Through Regulating NLRP3 Inflammasome-Pyroptosis Pathway

2021: In a mouse model of cocaine addiction, CBD & blocking the CB1 receptor had an array of effects on drug seeking behavior

CB1 receptor antagonist AM4113 reverts the effects of cannabidiol on cue and stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behaviour in mice

2021: In mice addicted to nicotine, activation of the cannabinoid receptor GPR55 (which may one day be known as CB3) showed significant help in reducing nicotine addiction behavior

Cannabinoid receptor GPR55 activation blocks nicotine use disorder by regulation of AMPAR phosphorylation

2021: In rats addicted to alcohol, CBD reduced their signs of addiction as well as their fighting

Acute cannabidiol treatment attenuates ethanol-induced place preference and reduces aggressivity in group-housed male rats

2021: In rats addicted to methamphetamine, CBD helped to diminish the rewarding effects of the drug via the dopamine circuits

Cannabidiol impairs the rewarding effects of methamphetamine: Involvement of dopaminergic receptors in the nucleus accumbens

2021: In rats, the CB1 receptors in the hippocampus found to be involved in rewarding & aversion effects which has relevance to addiction

Activation of VTA/CeA/mPFC cannabinoid CB1 receptors induced conditioned drug effects via interacting with hippocampal CAMKII-CREB-BDNF signaling pathway in rats

2021: In a mouse model of cocaine addiction, the researchers looked at gender differences & the ability of a CB1 antagonist to decrease conditioned place preference (time spent in the drug dispensing area)

Sex differences in cocaine-associated memory: The interplay between CB1, mGluR5, and estradiol

2021: In a case study of a man with schizophrenia & substance use disorder, high CBD-low THC cigarettes helped lessen his cannabis use & stop his cocaine use

Case Report: CBD Cigarettes for Harm Reduction and Adjunctive Therapy in a Patient With Schizophrenia and Substance Use Disorder

2021: In mouse neurons, the repeated use of cocaine (but not heroin) increased CB2 receptors in the dopamine neurons of the midbrain as well as the brain’s cortex & striatum (primarily the nucleus accumbens) as well as the spleen

Repeated cocaine administration upregulates CB 2 receptor expression in striatal medium-spiny neurons that express dopamine D 1 receptors in mice

2021: In mice with adolescent exposure to alcohol, an enriched environment helped to restore their synaptic plasticity via their cannabinoid & glutamate receptors

Environmental Enrichment Rescues Endocannabinoid-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity Lost in Young Adult Male Mice after Ethanol Exposure during Adolescence

2021: In humans with cocaine use disorder, CBD caused anti-inflammatory effects

Exploring cannabidiol effects on inflammatory markers in individuals with cocaine use disorder: a randomized controlled trial

2021: In mice, augmenting endocannabinoid levels helped facilitate goal seeking via increases of dopamine

Chronic augmentation of endocannabinoid levels persistently increases dopaminergic encoding of reward cost and motivation

2021: In animal models of alcoholism, inhibiting the DAGL enzyme (which produces 2-AG) reduced alcohol consumption

Targeting diacylglycerol lipase reduces alcohol consumption in preclinical models

2021: In mice addicted to cocaine, CBD helped to prevent drug motivated behavior

Cannabidiol produces distinct U-shaped dose-response effects on cocaine conditioned place preference and associated recruitment of prelimbic neurons in male rats

2021: In humans, their circulating levels of AEA altered connectivity in the brain between regions linked to reward & salience (noticing of stimuli)

Endocannabinoid signaling of homeostatic status modulates functional connectivity in reward and salience networks

2021: In mice, CBD helped to modulate the addictive effects of the psychostimulant MDPV

Cannabidiol Modulates the Motivational and Anxiety-Like Effects of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) in Mice

2021: In rats addicted to methamphetamine, CBD protected the brain from damage

Cannabidiol Modulates the Expression of Neurotrophin Signaling Pathway in Chronic Exposure Methamphetamine Rats During Abstinence Period

2021: In rats, our new study in collaboration with UC San Diego finds that CBD helps with the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal

Cannabidiol reduces withdrawal symptoms in nicotine-dependent rats

2021: In mice, CBD prevented several behavioral symptoms of cocaine addiction & may help to prevent the development of addiction or the likelihood to relapse

Cannabidiol prevents several of the behavioral alterations related to cocaine addiction in mice

2021: In rats, the ability of cocaine to increase motivation requires 2-AG & CB1 in the brain’s ventral tegmental area (an area of reward circuitry associated with dopamine)

Cocaine-induced increases in motivation require 2-arachidonoylglycerol mobilization and CB1 receptor activation in the ventral tegmental area

2021: In a rat model of cocaine addiction, CBD helped with anxiety & depressive-like behaviors

Antidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in a rat model of early-life stress with or without adolescent cocaine exposure

2021: In mice, a neutral antagonist of the CB1 receptor caused them to drink less alcohol

CB1 Receptor Neutral Antagonist Treatment Epigenetically Increases Neuropeptide Y Expression and Decreases Alcohol Drinking

2021: In humans using alcohol & cannabis, those smoking high CBD cannabis drank less alcohol & on fewer days (the THC-rich cannabis & the CBD/THC cannabis had no effect) 

THC and CBD effects on alcohol use among alcohol and cannabis co-users

2021: In mice with no CB1 & mice with no CB2 receptors, researchers looked at how this changed their reward vs aversion to cannabinoids

Dissecting the role of CB 1 and CB 2 receptors in cannabinoid reward versus aversion using transgenic CB 1- and CB 2-knockout mice

2021: In rats addicted to nicotine, CBD reduced their withdrawal symptoms

Cannabidiol reduces withdrawal symptoms in nicotine-dependent rats

2021: In rats addicted to amphetamine, CBD prevented a relapse via modulation of the dopamine receptors

Cannabidiol prevents amphetamine relapse and modulates D1- and D2-receptor levels in mesocorticolimbic brain areas of rats

2021: In animals addicted to meth, CBD worked via dopamine in the hippocampus to lessen the rewards & addictive nature of the drug

Involvement of Hippocampal D1-Like Dopamine Receptors in the Inhibitory Effect of Cannabidiol on Acquisition and Expression of Methamphetamine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference


2021: In mice addicted to alcohol, treatment with PSNCBAM-1 (a negative allosteric modulator of CB1, something that CBD also does) reduced ethanol taking behavior

The CB1 Negative Allosteric Modulator PSNCBAM-1 Reduces Ethanol Self-Administration via a Nonspecific Hypophagic Effect

2021: This detailed study in mice looks at how traumatic stress & alcohol consumption alters the reward & addiction components via the endocannabinoid system

Traumatic Stress, Chronic Ethanol Exposure, or the Combination, Alter Cannabinoid System Components in Reward and Limbic Regions of the Mouse Brain

2021: In rats addicted to alcohol, they saw significant changes to the endocannabinoid machinery in their lateral habenula (a brain region linked to addiction) & as well as in their susceptibility to pain

Endocannabinoid signaling in the lateral habenula regulates pain and alcohol consumption

2021: A case report of using CBD to treat withdrawal from a severe opioid addiction

Case Report: Cannabidiol in the Management of Acute Opioid Withdrawal

2021: In rats addicted to meth, CBD helped to reduce addiction via dopamine receptors in the hippocampus

Cannabidiol modulates the METH-induced conditioned place preference through D2-like dopamine receptors in the hippocampal CA1 region

2021: In rats exposed to meth, CBD increased neurogenesis in their hippocampus (which is often damaged by long-term meth use)

Cannabidiol promotes neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus during an abstinence period in rats following chronic exposure to methamphetamine

2021: A study in rats finds that the endocannabinoid system is involved with the opioid system in the ventral tegmental area (a brain area associated with the reward system, motivation & addiction that mediates the effects of the pleasure of things like learning, drugs & orgasms)

The Effects of Repeated Morphine Treatment on the Endogenous Cannabinoid System in the Ventral Tegmental Area

2021: In rats, a model of cocaine addiction finds that the CB1 receptor in the lateral habenula (a key brain area that affects dopamine, noradrenaline & serotonin across the entire brain) contributes to the control of impulsive behavior

Lateral habenula cannabinoid CB1 receptor involvement in drug-associated impulsive behavior

2021: In a rat model of alcohol addiction, CBD markedly reduced the intake & amount of alcohol

Reducing Effect of Cannabidiol on Alcohol Self-Administration in Sardinian Alcohol-Preferring Rats

2021: In rats separated from their mothers, their tendency towards addiction seems to be mediated by dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system

Comparison and interaction of morphine and CB1 agonist conditioned place preference in the rat model of early life stress

2021: In a cutting-edge piece of research, they used a virus to insert a light-sensitive gene into a dopamine region of the brain of a transgenic mouse to test how the cannabinoids affect cocaine addiction

Optogenetic brain-stimulation reward: A new procedure to re-evaluate the rewarding versus aversive effects of cannabinoids in dopamine transporter-Cre mice

2021: In rats, CBD helped with the mechanisms around methamphetamine addiction

Cannabidiol efficiently suppressed the acquisition and expression of methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in the rat

2021: In rats addicted to cocaine, administration of anandamide restored the homeostasis of glutamate & helped to prevent cocaine relapse

Restoring glutamate homeostasis in the nucleus accumbens via endocannabinoid-mimetic drug prevents relapse to cocaine seeking behavior in rats

2021: In an animal model of cocaine addiction, the enzymes FAAH & MAGL influence relapse via the endocannabinoid 2-AG

A role for the endocannabinoid enzymes monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol lipases in cue-induced cocaine craving following prolonged abstinence

2021: In mice, inhibiting FAAH or MAGL may lower habit formation

The effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition and monacylglycerol lipase inhibition on habit formation in mice

2021: In humans with cocaine use disorder, CBD did not help with cravings

Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Craving and Relapse in Individuals with Cocaine Use Disorder: a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

2021: In mice with a chronic exposure to alcohol, their CB1 levels increase in response

CB1R Promotes Chronic Alcohol-Induced Neuronal Necroptosis in Mice Prefrontal Cortex

2021: In mice, cocaine triggers the release of 2-AG & this may play a role in cocaine use disorder

Cocaine Triggers Endocannabinoid Release Through a Novel Mechanism

2021: In rats addicted to Ritalin, CBD helped them to not relapse

Cannabidiol attenuated the maintenance and reinstatement of extinguished methylphenidate-induced conditioned place preference in rats

2021: When mice have been addicted to cocaine, CBD helps prevent a stressful situation to cause a relapse

Cannabidiol prevents priming- and stress-induced reinstatement of the conditioned place preference induced by cocaine in mice

2020: In mice, CBD attenuated the negative effects of cocaine withdrawal

Cannabidiol Modulates Behavioural and Gene Expression Alterations Induced by Spontaneous Cocaine Withdrawal

2020: In mice, activating the CB2 receptor helped to lessen the respiratory depression of opioids

Cannabinoid-2 Agonism with AM2301 Mitigates Morphine-Induced Respiratory Depression

2020: In mice experiencing withdrawal from methamphetamine, inhibiting FAAH lessened their anxious & depressive behaviors

URB597 abrogates anxiogenic and depressive behaviors in the methamphetamine-withdrawal mice: Role of the cannabinoid receptor type 1, cannabinoid receptor type 2, and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channels

2020: In humans, 300 mg of CBD for ten days "was unable to interfere with symptoms of crack-cocaine withdrawal"

Cannabidiol for the treatment of crack-cocaine craving: an exploratory double-blind study

2020: In mice, activation of the CB2 receptor attenuated the respiratory depression caused by fentanyl

Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor Activation Attenuates Fentanyl-Induced Respiratory Depression

2020: In mice, CBD helped with cocaine addiction via its effects on memory

Cannabidiol (CBD) reduces cocaine-environment memory in mice

2020: In mice addicted to cocaine & then trained out of their addiction, stress led them to seek cocaine again by a pathway involving neuropeptide S, orexins & CB1 

Stress induces reinstatement of extinguished cocaine conditioned place preference by a sequential signaling via neuropeptide S, orexin, and endocannabinoid

2020: A large survey in Canada finds that starting to use medical cannabis can lead to reductions in alcohol use

Reductions in alcohol use following medical cannabis initiation: results from a large cross-sectional survey of medical cannabis patients in Canada

2020: In rats, CBD lessened their tendencies towards cocaine via several different mechanisms

Cannabidiol attenuates the rewarding effects of cocaine in rats by CB2, 5-HT 1A and TRPV1 receptor mechanisms

2020: In stressed rats, CBD reduced the neuroinflammation via cytokines and thus prevented re-addiction to meth

Cannabidiol modulates the expression of neuroinflammatory factors in stress- and drug-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine in extinguished rats

2020: In humans, brain scans & measurements of circulating endocannabinoids shows that the ECS is involved in our reward systems

The endocannabinoid system in humans: significant associations between anandamide, brain function during reward feedback and a personality measure of reward dependence

2020: In rats with free access to cocaine, the ECS mediated the response where their midbrains stopped experiencing long-term depression (weakening of synaptic strength after overstimulation)

Cocaine self-administration abolishes endocannabinoid-mediated long-term depression of glutamatergic synapses in the ventral tegmental area

2020: In rats, 2AG in the brain lowers self-administration of alcohol

COX-2 Inhibition Antagonizes Intra-Accumbens 2-Arachidonoylglycerol-Mediated Reduction in Ethanol Self-Administration in Rats

2020: In rats separated from their mothers & then isolated in adolescence, the dopamine & endocannabinoid systems of their brains were rewired & increased their tendency to alcohol use disorder

Maternal separation plus social isolation during adolescence reprogram brain dopamine and endocannabinoid systems and facilitate alcohol intake in rats

2020: Very detailed study on the effects of alcohol intoxication on the components of the ECS

Spatio-temporal effects of acute alcohol intoxication on endocannabinoid system in rat brain and blood

2020: In healthy humans, brain scans & tests showed that 600 mg of CBD did not seem to change reward anticipation & feedback 

The acute effects of cannabidiol on the neural correlates of reward anticipation and feedback in healthy volunteers

2020: In rodents, a synthetic cannabinoid that blocks CB2 causes less abuse of cocaine

Xie2-64, a novel CB 2 receptor inverse agonist, reduces cocaine abuse-related behaviors in rodents

2020: In alcoholic mice, activating the CB2 receptor protects the heart from damage

Pharmacological activation of CB2 receptor protects against ethanol-induced myocardial injury related to RIP1/RIP3/MLKL-mediated necroptosis

2020: Patent for using cannabinoids to treat alcohol hangovers


2020: In mice, inhibiting the MAGL enzyme (which breaks down 2-AG) reduces the rewards and addiction potential of nicotine

Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase reduces nicotine reward in the conditioned place preference test in male mice

2020: In rats, CBD helped with methamphetamine addiction

Cannabidiol attenuates methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference via the Sigma1R/AKT/GSK-3β/CREB signaling pathway in rats

2020: In humans with tobacco use disorder, a certain variant of CB2 seems to increase risk (329 participants)

Investigation of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase and Cannabinoid Receptor 2 gene variants in tobacco use disorder or tobacco use disorder and schizophrenia comorbidity

2020: In teenage mice, chronic exposure to nicotine alters the effects of THC and causes lasting effects on cannabinoid signaling

Effects of chronic nicotine exposure on Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced locomotor activity and neural activation in male and female adolescent and adult rats

2020: In mice, exposure to cannabinoids as teenagers reprogram their response to cocaine later

Cannabinoid exposure in rat adolescence reprograms the initial behavioral, molecular, and epigenetic response to cocaine

2020: Patent by Supera Pharmaceuticals for "genetically modified cannabis sativa plants and modified cannabinoid compounds for treatment of substance addiction and other disorders."

2020: In a survey of 200 patients, they reported that cannabis helped with the symptoms of opioid withdrawal

The impact of naturalistic cannabis use on self-reported opioid withdrawal

2020: In cells, the cannabinoids rescue from seizures that are induced by cocaine via restoration of functionality to the glycine system

Cannabinoids Rescue Cocaine-Induced Seizures by Restoring Brain Glycine Receptor Dysfunction

2020: In rats, CBD protects the brain from the damages of methamphetamine-induced impairment

Neuroprotective effect of chronic administration of cannabidiol during the abstinence period on methamphetamine-induced impairment of recognition memory in the rats

2020: In teenage rats, exposure to ethanol may negatively affect the gene expression of the ECS, leading to more neuroinflammation and a greater propensity for developing addiction

Impact of intermittent voluntary ethanol consumption during adolescence on the expression of endocannabinoid system and neuroinflammatory mediators

2020: In teenage mice, binge drinking accelerates cognitive deficits via negative alterations of the ECS

Adolescent binge-ethanol accelerates cognitive impairment and β-amyloid production and dysregulates endocannabinoid signaling in the hippocampus of APP/PSE mice

2020: In a human case study, CBD found helpful for a teen with depression & drug abuse - after taking high levels of CBD, they quit their depression medication & stopped abusing illegal drugs

Cannabidiol treatment in an adolescent with multiple substance abuse, social anxiety and depression

2020: In rats addicted to meth, CBD protected from the memory loss of the drug

Neuroprotective effect of chronic administration of cannabidiol during the abstinence period on methamphetamine-induced impairment of recognition memory in the rats

2020: In mice, CBD's help for cocaine addiction seems to be mediated by the CB1 receptor

The effects of cannabidiol on cue- and stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking behavior in mice are reverted by the CB1 receptor antagonist AM4113

2020: In rats, CBD helps protects against the cognitive impairment of ketamine

Cannabidiol Improves Cognitive Impairment and Reverses Cortical Transcriptional Changes Induced by Ketamine, in Schizophrenia-Like Model in Rats

2020: In liver tissue, CBD influences the metabolism of heroin

The influence of carboxylesterase 1 polymorphism and cannabidiol on the hepatic metabolism of heroin

2020: in a human case study of adolescent, CBD helped with substance abuse, anxiety & depression

Cannabidiol treatment in an adolescent with multiple substance abuse, social anxiety and depression

2019: Survey finds medical cannabis may help with the opioid crisis

The effect of cannabis laws on opioid use

2019: Survey finds “that a substantial number of US adults reported that they substituted marijuana for opioids”

Substitution of marijuana for opioids in a national survey of US adults

2019: In mice, beta-caryophyllene reduces alcohol intake via CB2 receptor

The sesquiterpene beta-caryophyllene oxide attenuates ethanol drinking and place conditioning in mice

2019: Exercise performed by patients with substance use disorder increased anandamide concentration

Psychological and endocannabinoid responses to aerobic exercise in substance use disorder patients

2019: In humans, a study finds that ‘CBD-rich extract enabled our patients to reduce or eliminate opioids with significant improvement in their quality of life indices’ (97 patients in a prospective, single-arm cohort study)

Evaluation of the effects of CBD hemp extract on opioid use and quality of life indicators in chronic pain patients: a prospective cohort study

2019: CBD and THC may be helpful in the treatment of methamphetamine in neurodegeneration

Cannabinoids Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol may be effective against methamphetamine induced mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation by modulation of Toll-like type-4(Toll-like 4) receptors and NF-κB signaling

2019: In rodents, Δ8‐THCV may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of nicotine dependence

Δ8‐Tetrahydrocannabivarin has potent anti‐nicotine effects in multiple rodent models of nicotine dependence

2019: In rats, CBD attenuates the rewarding effects of cocaine via CB2, serotonin & TRPV1

Cannabidiol attenuates the rewarding effects of cocaine in rats by CB2, 5-TH1A and TRPV1 receptor mechanisms

2019: In rodents, CBD inhibited sugar self-administration

Cannabidiol inhibits sucrose self-administration by CB1 and CB2 receptor mechanisms in rodents

2019: In mice, CBD may help with cocaine addiction because it causes new brain cell growth in the hippocampus

The pharmacological reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis attenuates the protective effects of cannabidiol on cocaine voluntary intake

2019: in humans, Dr. Hurd demonstrates CBD’s help for heroin addiction – reduced cue-induced craving and anxiety

Cannabidiol for the Reduction of Cue-Induced Craving and Anxiety in Drug-Abstinent Individuals With Heroin Use Disorder: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

2018: In humans using alcohol, cannabis helped to lower the inflammatory cytokines

Investigating the Relationships Between Alcohol Consumption, Cannabis Use, and Circulating Cytokines: A Preliminary Analysis

2018: In rats, CBD helped prevent relapse to drug use

Unique treatment potential of cannabidiol for the prevention of relapse to drug use: preclinical proof of principle

2018: In mice, CBD reduced the use of cocaine and caused neurogenesis in the hippocampus

Repeated Cannabidiol treatment reduces cocaine intake and modulates neural proliferation and CB1R expression in the mouse hippocampus

2018: In mice, CBD combined well with naltrexone to decrease alcohol consumption – via serotonin

Effects of cannabidiol plus naltrexone on motivation and ethanol consumption

2018: In sleep-deprived rats, CBD helped to prevent meth addiction

Cannabidiol inhibits priming-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine in REM sleep deprived rats

2018: In mice, CBD reduced addiction to alcohol

Cannabidiol reduces ethanol consumption, motivation and relapse in mice

2018: In humans who use tobacco, 800 mg of CBD did not improve working or spatial memory or improve impulsivity during tobacco abstinence (30 participants in a randomized control study)

The effects of cannabidiol on impulsivity and memory during abstinence in cigarette dependent smokers

2018: In humans who use tobacco, 800 mg of CBD “reduced the salience and pleasantness of cigarette cues” but “did not influence tobacco craving or withdrawal or any subjectively rated side effects” (30 participants in a randomized, double-blind cross-over study)

Cannabidiol reverses attentional bias to cigarette cues in a human experimental model of tobacco withdrawal

2015: In mice, CBD attenuated the disruptive effects of amphetamine

Cannabidiol effects in the prepulse inhibition disruption induced by amphetamine

2014: In rats, CBD “reduced ethanol and cocaine seeking in animal models of relapse” as well as reversing high impulsivity


2013: in human double-blind study, tobacco smokers given a vape with CBD smoked 40% less cigarettes

Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: preliminary findings

2013: CBD gel attenuated neurodegeneration from alcohol

Transdermal delivery of cannabidiol attenuates binge alcohol-induced neurodegeneration in a rodent model of an alcohol use disorder

2009: in rats, CBD helped with self-administration of heroin & drug seeking behavior – altered glutamate & ECS systems

Cannabidiol, a nonpsychotropic component of cannabis, inhibits cue-induced heroin seeking and normalizes discrete mesolimbic neuronal disturbances

1999: In CB1 knockout mice, their proclivity to opiate addiction was greatly reduced

Unresponsiveness to cannabinoids and reduced addictive effects of opiates in CB1 receptor knockout mice

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