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Substance
Use
Disorders

Best reviews

2021: A review of CBD for mental health & addiction

Cannabidiol and mental health: possibilities, uncertainties, and controversies for addiction treatment

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34008796/

2021: A review of using cannabinoids to treat opiate addiction

Cannabinoid treatment of opiate addiction

https://www.psycharchives.org/bitstream/20.500.12034/4327/1/nab.2021.e14.pdf

2021: This review looks at the mechanisms of how CBD might be helpful for opioid use disorder & its effect on inflammatory response

Modulatory Potential of Cannabidiol on the Opioid-Induced Inflammatory Response

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34115948/

2021: A review of CBD for substance use disorder

Role of Cannabidiol in the Therapeutic Intervention for Substance Use Disorders

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34093179/

2021: This review looks at how inhibiting FAAH can help with alcohol use disorder

Contribution of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase to Alcohol Use Disorder: A Systematic Review

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/can.2020.0158

2021: In terms of addiction, this review looks at how the endocannabinoids & endogenous opioids interact

Cellular and behavioral basis of cannabinioid and opioid interactions: Implications for opioid dependence and withdrawal

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33352618/

2021: This meta-review looks at the mechanisms relating CBD to addiction

Possible Receptor Mechanisms Underlying Cannabidiol Effects on Addictive-like Behaviors in Experimental Animals

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33374481/

2021: A review of how THC & CBD affect addiction in animal models

The endocannabinoid system and drug-associated contextual memories

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33491992/

2021: An overview of targeting the CB2 receptor to treat alcohol use disorder

The Endocannabinoid System and Alcohol Dependence: Will Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Agonism be More Fruitful than Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Antagonism?

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33573565/

2021: This editorial looks at modulating the endocannabinoid system for cocaine addiction

A role for amygdala endocannabinoid signaling in reconsolidation of cocaine-associated memories

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41386-020-00951-x

2021: A review of clinical trials using CBD for substance use disorders

Clinical Trials of Cannabidiol for Substance Use Disorders: Outcome Measures, Surrogate Endpoints, and Biomarkers

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33692705/

2021: A review of nabiximols for cannabis use disorder

Nabiximols as a substitute for cannabis

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33201625/

2020: The mechanisms relating CBD & addictive behavior in model organisms

Possible Receptor Mechanisms Underlying Cannabidiol Effects on Addictive-like Behaviors in Experimental Animals

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33374481/

2020: A review & trial in humans about how the genetics of your own endocannabinoid system alter how you process rewards & stress

The contributions of the endocannabinoid system and stress on the neural processing of reward stimuli

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33221340/

2020: A review about CBD & cocaine addiction

Evaluation of the Potential Use of Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Cocaine Use Disorder: A Systematic Review

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32645315/

2020: A meta-review of the ECS's effect on addictions & reward processing

Cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system in reward processing and addiction: from mechanisms to interventions

https://www.dialogues-cns.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/DialoguesClinNeurosci-22-241.pdf

2020: A review on targeting the ECS to help with the neuroinflammation from alcohol

Role of cannabinoids in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32758518/

2020: A review of treating tobacco addiction by modulating the endocannabinoid system

Novel therapeutic and drug development strategies for tobacco use disorder: endocannabinoid modulation

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32425077/

2020: Dr. Kunos on how alcohol interacts with the ECS

Interactions Between Alcohol and the Endocannabinoid System

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32056226

2019: A review of the studies on CBD for alcohol use disorder

Effects of cannabidiol on alcohol-related outcomes: A review of preclinical and human research

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31120285/

2019: A review of CBD & alcohol use disorder

Cannabidiol as a Novel Candidate Alcohol Use Disorder Pharmacotherapy: A Systematic Review

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30698831/

2019: Effect on ECS of alcohol use disorder

Endocannabinoid System and Alcohol Abuse Disorders

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31332736/

2019: Review of alcohol use disorder & ECS signaling in the amygdala

Endocannabinoid Signaling in the Central Amygdala and Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis: Implications for the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31373708/

2019: American Journal of Psychiatry on CBD for cue-induced cravings

Cannabidiol: Not a Cure-All, but a Candidate for Coping With Cue-Induced Craving

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31672042/

2019: Review of targeting ECS for addiction

Potential of Cannabinoid Receptor Ligands as Treatment for Substance Use Disorders

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31549358

2019: Review finds of CBD’s effect on the microbiome-gut-brain-axis & its relationship to alcohol use disorder

Cannabinoids and the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis: Emerging Effects of Cannabidiol and Potential Applications to Alcohol Use Disorders

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31803950/

2019: A review of the clinical studies on CBD with psychosis & addiction

The Potential of Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Psychosis and Addiction: Who Benefits Most? A Systematic Review

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31330972

2019: A review of the mechanisms relating CBD to cocaine & methamphetamine addiction

Cannabidiol Treatment Might Promote Resilience to Cocaine and Methamphetamine Use Disorders: A Review of Possible Mechanisms

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31315244

2019: Review finds CBD helps with relapse for the misuse of alcohol, tobacco & opioids (but not as effective for stimulants like meth)

The Endocannabinoid System and Cannabidiol's Promise for the Treatment of Substance Use Disorder

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6390812/

2019: This review goes over CBD & alcohol use disorder as well as the protective effects in the liver & brain found in animal studies

Therapeutic Prospects of Cannabidiol for Alcohol Use Disorder and Alcohol-Related Damages on the Liver and the Brain

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31214036/

2018: On the use of cannabis for opioid addiction

Emerging Evidence for Cannabis' Role in Opioid Use Disorder

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30221197/

2017: Yasmin Hurd's essay on CBD & the opioid crisis

Cannabidiol: Swinging the Marijuana Pendulum From 'Weed' to Medication to Treat the Opioid Epidemic

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28162799/

2017: Review of CBD to lower anxiety & its effects on various fear & drug memory processes

Cannabidiol regulation of emotion and emotional memory processing: relevance for treating anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28268256

2015: A review of 14 studies on CBD & addiction

Cannabidiol as an Intervention for Addictive Behaviors: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26056464

2015: A review by Hurd on  CBD & opioid addiction

Early Phase in the Development of Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Addiction: Opioid Relapse Takes Initial Center Stage

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26269227

2014: A review of 165 articles finds that the cannabinoids may help with the neuroinflammation of drug abuse

Neuroinflammation as a possible link between cannabinoids and addiction

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25455257

2008: Piomelli on the ECS & rewards

The endocannabinoid system in brain reward processes

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2442437/

2006: A review of how the ECS is involved in the brain areas of addiction

Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in drug addiction

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16483675

Chart Gallery

CBD & THC in addiction
CBD & THC in addiction

2015: Early Phase in the Development of Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Addiction: Opioid Relapse Takes Initial Center Stage

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CBD for alcohol use
CBD for alcohol use

2019: Therapeutic Prospects of Cannabidiol for Alcohol Use Disorder and Alcohol-Related Damages on the Liver and the Brain

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ECS & alcohol disruption
ECS & alcohol disruption

2019: Endocannabinoid Signaling in the Central Amygdala and Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis: Implications for the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder

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CBD & THC in addiction
CBD & THC in addiction

2015: Early Phase in the Development of Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Addiction: Opioid Relapse Takes Initial Center Stage

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Timeline of Research

2021: In rats, the CB1 receptors in the hippocampus found to be involved in rewarding & aversion effects which has relevance to addiction

Activation of VTA/CeA/mPFC cannabinoid CB1 receptors induced conditioned drug effects via interacting with hippocampal CAMKII-CREB-BDNF signaling pathway in rats

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34389313/

2021: In a mouse model of cocaine addiction, the researchers looked at gender differences & the ability of a CB1 antagonist to decrease conditioned place preference (time spent in the drug dispensing area)

Sex differences in cocaine-associated memory: The interplay between CB1, mGluR5, and estradiol

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0306453021002407

2021: In a case study of a man with schizophrenia & substance use disorder, high CBD-low THC cigarettes helped lessen his cannabis use & stop his cocaine use

Case Report: CBD Cigarettes for Harm Reduction and Adjunctive Therapy in a Patient With Schizophrenia and Substance Use Disorder

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34366942/

2021: In mouse neurons, the repeated use of cocaine (but not heroin) increased CB2 receptors in the dopamine neurons of the midbrain as well as the brain’s cortex & striatum (primarily the nucleus accumbens) as well as the spleen

Repeated cocaine administration upregulates CB 2 receptor expression in striatal medium-spiny neurons that express dopamine D 1 receptors in mice

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34316031/

2021: In mice with adolescent exposure to alcohol, an enriched environment helped to restore their synaptic plasticity via their cannabinoid & glutamate receptors

Environmental Enrichment Rescues Endocannabinoid-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity Lost in Young Adult Male Mice after Ethanol Exposure during Adolescence

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34356889/

2021: In humans with cocaine use disorder, CBD caused anti-inflammatory effects

Exploring cannabidiol effects on inflammatory markers in individuals with cocaine use disorder: a randomized controlled trial

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34331010/

2021: In mice, augmenting endocannabinoid levels helped facilitate goal seeking via increases of dopamine

Chronic augmentation of endocannabinoid levels persistently increases dopaminergic encoding of reward cost and motivation

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34230105/

2021: In animal models of alcoholism, inhibiting the DAGL enzyme (which produces 2-AG) reduced alcohol consumption

Targeting diacylglycerol lipase reduces alcohol consumption in preclinical models

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34292886/

2021: In mice addicted to cocaine, CBD helped to prevent drug motivated behavior

Cannabidiol produces distinct U-shaped dose-response effects on cocaine conditioned place preference and associated recruitment of prelimbic neurons in male rats

https://www.bpsgos.org/article/S2667-1743(21)00060-4/fulltext

2021: In humans, their circulating levels of AEA altered connectivity in the brain between regions linked to reward & salience (noticing of stimuli)

Endocannabinoid signaling of homeostatic status modulates functional connectivity in reward and salience networks

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34212205/

2021: In mice, CBD helped to modulate the addictive effects of the psychostimulant MDPV

Cannabidiol Modulates the Motivational and Anxiety-Like Effects of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) in Mice

https://www.preprints.org/manuscript/202106.0642/v1

2021: In rats addicted to methamphetamine, CBD protected the brain from damage

Cannabidiol Modulates the Expression of Neurotrophin Signaling Pathway in Chronic Exposure Methamphetamine Rats During Abstinence Period

http://bcn.iums.ac.ir/article-1-2009-en.html

2021: In rats, our new study in collaboration with UC San Diego finds that CBD helps with the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal

Cannabidiol reduces withdrawal symptoms in nicotine-dependent rats

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33909102/

2021: In mice, CBD prevented several behavioral symptoms of cocaine addiction & may help to prevent the development of addiction or the likelihood to relapse

Cannabidiol prevents several of the behavioral alterations related to cocaine addiction in mice

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34157334/

2021: In rats, the ability of cocaine to increase motivation requires 2-AG & CB1 in the brain’s ventral tegmental area (an area of reward circuitry associated with dopamine)

Cocaine-induced increases in motivation require 2-arachidonoylglycerol mobilization and CB1 receptor activation in the ventral tegmental area

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34058192/

2021: In a rat model of cocaine addiction, CBD helped with anxiety & depressive-like behaviors

Antidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in a rat model of early-life stress with or without adolescent cocaine exposure

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34076862/

2021: In mice, a neutral antagonist of the CB1 receptor caused them to drink less alcohol

CB1 Receptor Neutral Antagonist Treatment Epigenetically Increases Neuropeptide Y Expression and Decreases Alcohol Drinking

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34048869/

2021: In humans using alcohol & cannabis, those smoking high CBD cannabis drank less alcohol & on fewer days (the THC-rich cannabis & the CBD/THC cannabis had no effect) 

THC and CBD effects on alcohol use among alcohol and cannabis co-users

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33764086/

2021: In mice with no CB1 & mice with no CB2 receptors, researchers looked at how this changed their reward vs aversion to cannabinoids

Dissecting the role of CB 1 and CB 2 receptors in cannabinoid reward versus aversion using transgenic CB 1- and CB 2-knockout mice

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33334652/

2021: In rats addicted to nicotine, CBD reduced their withdrawal symptoms

Cannabidiol reduces withdrawal symptoms in nicotine-dependent rats

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33909102/

2021: In rats addicted to amphetamine, CBD prevented a relapse via modulation of the dopamine receptors

Cannabidiol prevents amphetamine relapse and modulates D1- and D2-receptor levels in mesocorticolimbic brain areas of rats

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33951588/

2021: In animals addicted to meth, CBD worked via dopamine in the hippocampus to lessen the rewards & addictive nature of the drug

Involvement of Hippocampal D1-Like Dopamine Receptors in the Inhibitory Effect of Cannabidiol on Acquisition and Expression of Methamphetamine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33993443/

 

2021: In mice addicted to alcohol, treatment with PSNCBAM-1 (a negative allosteric modulator of CB1, something that CBD also does) reduced ethanol taking behavior

The CB1 Negative Allosteric Modulator PSNCBAM-1 Reduces Ethanol Self-Administration via a Nonspecific Hypophagic Effect

https://faseb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1096/fasebj.2021.35.S1.02929

2021: This detailed study in mice looks at how traumatic stress & alcohol consumption alters the reward & addiction components via the endocannabinoid system

Traumatic Stress, Chronic Ethanol Exposure, or the Combination, Alter Cannabinoid System Components in Reward and Limbic Regions of the Mouse Brain

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/26/7/2086

2021: In rats addicted to alcohol, they saw significant changes to the endocannabinoid machinery in their lateral habenula (a brain region linked to addiction) & as well as in their susceptibility to pain

Endocannabinoid signaling in the lateral habenula regulates pain and alcohol consumption

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33854035/

2021: A case report of using CBD to treat withdrawal from a severe opioid addiction

Case Report: Cannabidiol in the Management of Acute Opioid Withdrawal

https://www.rebelmd.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/AJEM_V3I1__opioid_FINAL.pdf

2021: In rats addicted to meth, CBD helped to reduce addiction via dopamine receptors in the hippocampus

Cannabidiol modulates the METH-induced conditioned place preference through D2-like dopamine receptors in the hippocampal CA1 region

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33862125/

2021: In rats exposed to meth, CBD increased neurogenesis in their hippocampus (which is often damaged by long-term meth use)

Cannabidiol promotes neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus during an abstinence period in rats following chronic exposure to methamphetamine

https://assets.researchsquare.com/files/rs-256868/v1/8820e486-c49d-46e9-b03e-6118210a9ef2.pdf

2021: A study in rats finds that the endocannabinoid system is involved with the opioid system in the ventral tegmental area (a brain area associated with the reward system, motivation & addiction that mediates the effects of the pleasure of things like learning, drugs & orgasms)

The Effects of Repeated Morphine Treatment on the Endogenous Cannabinoid System in the Ventral Tegmental Area

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33953672/

2021: In rats, a model of cocaine addiction finds that the CB1 receptor in the lateral habenula (a key brain area that affects dopamine, noradrenaline & serotonin across the entire brain) contributes to the control of impulsive behavior

Lateral habenula cannabinoid CB1 receptor involvement in drug-associated impulsive behavior

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33965396/

2021: In a rat model of alcohol addiction, CBD markedly reduced the intake & amount of alcohol

Reducing Effect of Cannabidiol on Alcohol Self-Administration in Sardinian Alcohol-Preferring Rats

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/can.2020.0132

2021: In rats separated from their mothers, their tendency towards addiction seems to be mediated by dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system

Comparison and interaction of morphine and CB1 agonist conditioned place preference in the rat model of early life stress

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33534920/

2021: In a cutting-edge piece of research, they used a virus to insert a light-sensitive gene into a dopamine region of the brain of a transgenic mouse to test how the cannabinoids affect cocaine addiction

Optogenetic brain-stimulation reward: A new procedure to re-evaluate the rewarding versus aversive effects of cannabinoids in dopamine transporter-Cre mice

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33538103/

2021: In rats, CBD helped with the mechanisms around methamphetamine addiction

Cannabidiol efficiently suppressed the acquisition and expression of methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in the rat

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33571569/

2021: In rats addicted to cocaine, administration of anandamide restored the homeostasis of glutamate & helped to prevent cocaine relapse

Restoring glutamate homeostasis in the nucleus accumbens via endocannabinoid-mimetic drug prevents relapse to cocaine seeking behavior in rats

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41386-021-00955-1

2021: In an animal model of cocaine addiction, the enzymes FAAH & MAGL influence relapse via the endocannabinoid 2-AG

A role for the endocannabinoid enzymes monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol lipases in cue-induced cocaine craving following prolonged abstinence

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33496035/

2021: In mice, inhibiting FAAH or MAGL may lower habit formation

The effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition and monacylglycerol lipase inhibition on habit formation in mice

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ejn.15129

2021: In humans with cocaine use disorder, CBD did not help with cravings

Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Craving and Relapse in Individuals with Cocaine Use Disorder: a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33464660/

2021: In mice with a chronic exposure to alcohol, their CB1 levels increase in response

CB1R Promotes Chronic Alcohol-Induced Neuronal Necroptosis in Mice Prefrontal Cortex

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33382401/

2021: In mice, cocaine triggers the release of 2-AG & this may play a role in cocaine use disorder

Cocaine Triggers Endocannabinoid Release Through a Novel Mechanism

https://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/nida-notes/2020/09/cocaine-triggers-endocannabinoid-release-through-a-novel-mechanism

2021: In rats addicted to Ritalin, CBD helped them to not relapse

Cannabidiol attenuated the maintenance and reinstatement of extinguished methylphenidate-induced conditioned place preference in rats

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33264654/

2021: When mice have been addicted to cocaine, CBD helps prevent a stressful situation to cause a relapse

Cannabidiol prevents priming- and stress-induced reinstatement of the conditioned place preference induced by cocaine in mice

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33427014/

2020: In mice, CBD attenuated the negative effects of cocaine withdrawal

Cannabidiol Modulates Behavioural and Gene Expression Alterations Induced by Spontaneous Cocaine Withdrawal

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33230690/

2020: In mice, activating the CB2 receptor helped to lessen the respiratory depression of opioids

Cannabinoid-2 Agonism with AM2301 Mitigates Morphine-Induced Respiratory Depression

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/can.2020.0076

2020: In mice experiencing withdrawal from methamphetamine, inhibiting FAAH lessened their anxious & depressive behaviors

URB597 abrogates anxiogenic and depressive behaviors in the methamphetamine-withdrawal mice: Role of the cannabinoid receptor type 1, cannabinoid receptor type 2, and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channels

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33155516/

2020: In humans, 300 mg of CBD for ten days "was unable to interfere with symptoms of crack-cocaine withdrawal"

Cannabidiol for the treatment of crack-cocaine craving: an exploratory double-blind study

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33146345/

2020: In mice, activation of the CB2 receptor attenuated the respiratory depression caused by fentanyl

Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor Activation Attenuates Fentanyl-Induced Respiratory Depression

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/can.2020.0059

2020: In mice, CBD helped with cocaine addiction via its effects on memory

Cannabidiol (CBD) reduces cocaine-environment memory in mice

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33127382/

2020: In mice addicted to cocaine & then trained out of their addiction, stress led them to seek cocaine again by a pathway involving neuropeptide S, orexins & CB1 

Stress induces reinstatement of extinguished cocaine conditioned place preference by a sequential signaling via neuropeptide S, orexin, and endocannabinoid

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/adb.12971

2020: A large survey in Canada finds that starting to use medical cannabis can lead to reductions in alcohol use

Reductions in alcohol use following medical cannabis initiation: results from a large cross-sectional survey of medical cannabis patients in Canada

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0955395920303017

2020: In rats, CBD lessened their tendencies towards cocaine via several different mechanisms

Cannabidiol attenuates the rewarding effects of cocaine in rats by CB2, 5-HT 1A and TRPV1 receptor mechanisms

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31437433/

2020: In stressed rats, CBD reduced the neuroinflammation via cytokines and thus prevented re-addiction to meth

Cannabidiol modulates the expression of neuroinflammatory factors in stress- and drug-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine in extinguished rats

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30793820

2020: In humans, brain scans & measurements of circulating endocannabinoids shows that the ECS is involved in our reward systems

The endocannabinoid system in humans: significant associations between anandamide, brain function during reward feedback and a personality measure of reward dependence

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33007775/

2020: In rats with free access to cocaine, the ECS mediated the response where their midbrains stopped experiencing long-term depression (weakening of synaptic strength after overstimulation)

Cocaine self-administration abolishes endocannabinoid-mediated long-term depression of glutamatergic synapses in the ventral tegmental area

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32959420/

2020: In rats, 2AG in the brain lowers self-administration of alcohol

COX-2 Inhibition Antagonizes Intra-Accumbens 2-Arachidonoylglycerol-Mediated Reduction in Ethanol Self-Administration in Rats

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32944989/

2020: In rats separated from their mothers & then isolated in adolescence, the dopamine & endocannabinoid systems of their brains were rewired & increased their tendency to alcohol use disorder

Maternal separation plus social isolation during adolescence reprogram brain dopamine and endocannabinoid systems and facilitate alcohol intake in rats

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32784005/

2020: Very detailed study on the effects of alcohol intoxication on the components of the ECS

Spatio-temporal effects of acute alcohol intoxication on endocannabinoid system in rat brain and blood

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32738384/

2020: In healthy humans, brain scans & tests showed that 600 mg of CBD did not seem to change reward anticipation & feedback 

The acute effects of cannabidiol on the neural correlates of reward anticipation and feedback in healthy volunteers

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32755273/

2020: In rodents, a synthetic cannabinoid that blocks CB2 causes less abuse of cocaine

Xie2-64, a novel CB 2 receptor inverse agonist, reduces cocaine abuse-related behaviors in rodents

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32712273/

2020: In alcoholic mice, activating the CB2 receptor protects the heart from damage

Pharmacological activation of CB2 receptor protects against ethanol-induced myocardial injury related to RIP1/RIP3/MLKL-mediated necroptosis

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32681290/

2020: Patent for using cannabinoids to treat alcohol hangovers

CANNABINOID FORMULATIONS FOR TREATING ALCOHOL HANGOVER

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2020/0215024.html

2020: In mice, inhibiting the MAGL enzyme (which breaks down 2-AG) reduces the rewards and addiction potential of nicotine

Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase reduces nicotine reward in the conditioned place preference test in male mice

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0028390820302380

2020: In rats, CBD helped with methamphetamine addiction

Cannabidiol attenuates methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference via the Sigma1R/AKT/GSK-3β/CREB signaling pathway in rats

https://academic.oup.com/toxres/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/toxres/tfaa021/5831937

2020: In humans with tobacco use disorder, a certain variant of CB2 seems to increase risk (329 participants)

Investigation of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase and Cannabinoid Receptor 2 gene variants in tobacco use disorder or tobacco use disorder and schizophrenia comorbidity

http://www.anadolupsikiyatri.net/?mno=91159

2020: In teenage mice, chronic exposure to nicotine alters the effects of THC and causes lasting effects on cannabinoid signaling

Effects of chronic nicotine exposure on Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced locomotor activity and neural activation in male and female adolescent and adult rats

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32353393

2020: In mice, exposure to cannabinoids as teenagers reprogram their response to cocaine later

Cannabinoid exposure in rat adolescence reprograms the initial behavioral, molecular, and epigenetic response to cocaine

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32312805

2020: Patent by Supera Pharmaceuticals for "genetically modified cannabis sativa plants and modified cannabinoid compounds for treatment of substance addiction and other disorders."

https://patents.google.com/patent/US20200061138A1/en

2020: In a survey of 200 patients, they reported that cannabis helped with the symptoms of opioid withdrawal

The impact of naturalistic cannabis use on self-reported opioid withdrawal

https://www.journalofsubstanceabusetreatment.com/article/S0740-5472(19)30564-1/pdf

2020: In cells, the cannabinoids rescue from seizures that are induced by cocaine via restoration of functionality to the glycine system

Cannabinoids Rescue Cocaine-Induced Seizures by Restoring Brain Glycine Receptor Dysfunction

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32209479

2020: In rats, CBD protects the brain from the damages of methamphetamine-induced impairment

Neuroprotective effect of chronic administration of cannabidiol during the abstinence period on methamphetamine-induced impairment of recognition memory in the rats

https://journals.lww.com/behaviouralpharm/Abstract/publishahead/Neuroprotective_effect_of_chronic_administration.99194.aspx

2020: In teenage rats, exposure to ethanol may negatively affect the gene expression of the ECS, leading to more neuroinflammation and a greater propensity for developing addiction

Impact of intermittent voluntary ethanol consumption during adolescence on the expression of endocannabinoid system and neuroinflammatory mediators

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32057593

2020: In teenage mice, binge drinking accelerates cognitive deficits via negative alterations of the ECS

Adolescent binge-ethanol accelerates cognitive impairment and β-amyloid production and dysregulates endocannabinoid signaling in the hippocampus of APP/PSE mice

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32043730

2020: In a human case study, CBD found helpful for a teen with depression & drug abuse - after taking high levels of CBD, they quit their depression medication & stopped abusing illegal drugs

Cannabidiol treatment in an adolescent with multiple substance abuse, social anxiety and depression

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32052321

2020: In rats addicted to meth, CBD protected from the memory loss of the drug

Neuroprotective effect of chronic administration of cannabidiol during the abstinence period on methamphetamine-induced impairment of recognition memory in the rats

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32032100

2020: In mice, CBD's help for cocaine addiction seems to be mediated by the CB1 receptor

The effects of cannabidiol on cue- and stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking behavior in mice are reverted by the CB1 receptor antagonist AM4113

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.01.23.916601v1

2020: In rats, CBD helps protects against the cognitive impairment of ketamine

Cannabidiol Improves Cognitive Impairment and Reverses Cortical Transcriptional Changes Induced by Ketamine, in Schizophrenia-Like Model in Rats

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31823199

2020: In liver tissue, CBD influences the metabolism of heroin

The influence of carboxylesterase 1 polymorphism and cannabidiol on the hepatic metabolism of heroin

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31837295

2020: in a human case study of adolescent, CBD helped with substance abuse, anxiety & depression

Cannabidiol treatment in an adolescent with multiple substance abuse, social anxiety and depression

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32052321

2019: Survey finds medical cannabis may help with the opioid crisis

The effect of cannabis laws on opioid use

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31590091/

2019: Survey finds “that a substantial number of US adults reported that they substituted marijuana for opioids”

Substitution of marijuana for opioids in a national survey of US adults

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777788/

2019: In mice, beta-caryophyllene reduces alcohol intake via CB2 receptor

The sesquiterpene beta-caryophyllene oxide attenuates ethanol drinking and place conditioning in mice

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31245644

2019: Exercise performed by patients with substance use disorder increased anandamide concentration

Psychological and endocannabinoid responses to aerobic exercise in substance use disorder patients

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31729933

2019: In humans, a study finds that ‘CBD-rich extract enabled our patients to reduce or eliminate opioids with significant improvement in their quality of life indices’ (97 patients in a prospective, single-arm cohort study)

Evaluation of the effects of CBD hemp extract on opioid use and quality of life indicators in chronic pain patients: a prospective cohort study

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31711352/

2019: CBD and THC may be helpful in the treatment of methamphetamine in neurodegeneration

Cannabinoids Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol may be effective against methamphetamine induced mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation by modulation of Toll-like type-4(Toll-like 4) receptors and NF-κB signaling

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31465975

2019: In rodents, Δ8‐THCV may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of nicotine dependence

Δ8‐Tetrahydrocannabivarin has potent anti‐nicotine effects in multiple rodent models of nicotine dependence

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31454413/

2019: In rats, CBD attenuates the rewarding effects of cocaine via CB2, serotonin & TRPV1

Cannabidiol attenuates the rewarding effects of cocaine in rats by CB2, 5-TH1A and TRPV1 receptor mechanisms

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31437433/

2019: In rodents, CBD inhibited sugar self-administration

Cannabidiol inhibits sucrose self-administration by CB1 and CB2 receptor mechanisms in rodents

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31215752

2019: In mice, CBD may help with cocaine addiction because it causes new brain cell growth in the hippocampus

The pharmacological reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis attenuates the protective effects of cannabidiol on cocaine voluntary intake

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31162770/

2019: in humans, Dr. Hurd demonstrates CBD’s help for heroin addiction – reduced cue-induced craving and anxiety

Cannabidiol for the Reduction of Cue-Induced Craving and Anxiety in Drug-Abstinent Individuals With Heroin Use Disorder: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31109198

2018: In humans using alcohol, cannabis helped to lower the inflammatory cytokines

Investigating the Relationships Between Alcohol Consumption, Cannabis Use, and Circulating Cytokines: A Preliminary Analysis

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29286537/

2018: In rats, CBD helped prevent relapse to drug use

Unique treatment potential of cannabidiol for the prevention of relapse to drug use: preclinical proof of principle

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29686308

2018: In mice, CBD reduced the use of cocaine and caused neurogenesis in the hippocampus

Repeated Cannabidiol treatment reduces cocaine intake and modulates neural proliferation and CB1R expression in the mouse hippocampus

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30273593

2018: In mice, CBD combined well with naltrexone to decrease alcohol consumption – via serotonin

Effects of cannabidiol plus naltrexone on motivation and ethanol consumption

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29859012/

2018: In sleep-deprived rats, CBD helped to prevent meth addiction

Cannabidiol inhibits priming-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine in REM sleep deprived rats

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28870635

2018: In mice, CBD reduced addiction to alcohol

Cannabidiol reduces ethanol consumption, motivation and relapse in mice

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28194850

2018: In humans who use tobacco, 800 mg of CBD did not improve working or spatial memory or improve impulsivity during tobacco abstinence (30 participants in a randomized control study)

The effects of cannabidiol on impulsivity and memory during abstinence in cigarette dependent smokers

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29765102

2018: In humans who use tobacco, 800 mg of CBD “reduced the salience and pleasantness of cigarette cues” but “did not influence tobacco craving or withdrawal or any subjectively rated side effects” (30 participants in a randomized, double-blind cross-over study)

Cannabidiol reverses attentional bias to cigarette cues in a human experimental model of tobacco withdrawal

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29714034

2015: In mice, CBD attenuated the disruptive effects of amphetamine

Cannabidiol effects in the prepulse inhibition disruption induced by amphetamine

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25943166

2014: In rats, CBD “reduced ethanol and cocaine seeking in animal models of relapse” as well as reversing high impulsivity

CANNABIDIOL: LONG-LASTING AMELIORATION OF VULNERABILITY STATES ASSOCIATED WITH RELAPSE RISK AS DETERMINED IN ANIMAL MODELS OF DRUG SEEKING, ANXIETY, AND IMPULSIVITY

https://academic.oup.com/alcalc/article/49/suppl_1/i34/104402

2013: in human double-blind study, tobacco smokers given a vape with CBD smoked 40% less cigarettes

Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: preliminary findings

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23685330

2013: CBD gel attenuated neurodegeneration from alcohol

Transdermal delivery of cannabidiol attenuates binge alcohol-induced neurodegeneration in a rodent model of an alcohol use disorder

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24012796

2009: in rats, CBD helped with self-administration of heroin & drug seeking behavior – altered glutamate & ECS systems

Cannabidiol, a nonpsychotropic component of cannabis, inhibits cue-induced heroin seeking and normalizes discrete mesolimbic neuronal disturbances

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19940171

1999: In CB1 knockout mice, their proclivity to opiate addiction was greatly reduced

Unresponsiveness to cannabinoids and reduced addictive effects of opiates in CB1 receptor knockout mice

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9888857