Nausea & Gut Disorders

Best reviews

2021: This review looks at the power of CBD, CBDA & the more stable methyl ester version of CBDA for nausea & vomiting

Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol, Cannabidiolic Acid, and Cannabidiolic Acid Methyl Ester as Treatments for Nausea and Vomiting

2020: A review of oral cannabinoids for the nausea of chemotherapy

Oral cannabinoid for the prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting-a systematic review and meta-analysis

2020: An article laying out an argument for why the helpful actions of cannabinoid for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) might be mediated by cholinergic system (the acetylcholine neurotransmitter)

Cannabinoid agonists possibly mediate interaction between cholinergic and cannabinoid systems in regulating intestinal inflammation

2020: A review of cannabis & cannabinoids for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that included 15 studies found that while they did not improve clinical markers of inflammation, they significantly improved patient-reported symptoms and quality of life

A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Cannabis and Cannabinoids for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: What Can We Learn From Randomized and Nonrandomized Studies?

2020: A look at cannabis for IBD

Cannabis for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A True Medicine or a False Promise?

2020: A review concluded that "clinical trials with Cannabis in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have shown improvement in quality of life but failed to provide evidence for a reduction of inflammation markers"

Cannabinoids and Opioids in the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

2019: Review of using CB1 inverse agonists (like Rimonabant) for GI issues

Gastrointestinal Adverse Events of Cannabinoid 1 Receptor Inverse Agonists suggest their Potential Use in Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Constipation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

2019: A review of targeting the ECS for IBS

Endocannabinoid system in irritable bowel syndrome and cannabis as a therapy

2019: Cannabinoids for nausea

Cannabinoids: the lows and the highs of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

2017: A big review on using cannabinoids for treatment of IBD

Cannabinoids for treating inflammatory bowel diseases: where are we and where do we go?

2017: A review of the ECS & colitis

Manipulation of the Endocannabinoid System in Colitis: A Comprehensive Review

2016: The cannabinoids for different types of nausea

Cannabinoid Regulation of Acute and Anticipatory Nausea

2014: A review of cannabis for Crohn’s

Cannabis finds its way into treatment of Crohn's disease

Timeline of Research

2021: In humans with IBD, this survey finds that medical cannabis helped patients with their symptoms

Attitudes towards and use of cannabis in New Zealand patients with inflammatory bowel disease: an exploratory study

2021: In humans with Crohn’s disease, CBD-rich cannabis extracts caused significant improvements to the quality of life - though no significant changes to inflammatory scores

Oral CBD-rich cannabis induces clinical but not endoscopic response in patients with Crohn's disease, a randomized controlled trial

2021: In intestinal cells, CBD was their most promising compound against inflammation & oxidative stress

Cannabidiol Isolated From Cannabis sativa L. Protects Intestinal Barrier From In Vitro Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

2021: In mice with inflamed colons, a combination of polydatin (a precursor of resveratrol) & ultra-micronized PEA decreased inflammation via several pathways

PEA/Polydatin: Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Approach to Counteract DNBS-Induced Colitis

2021: In mice with colitis, activating the CB2 receptor reduced the hypersensitivity of the gut tissue

Olorinab (APD371), a peripherally acting, highly selective, full agonist of the cannabinoid receptor 2, reduces colitis-induced acute and chronic visceral hypersensitivity in rodents

2020: In a Phase 2 study, the CB2 receptor agonist olorinab (a drug from Arena Pharmaceuticals) helped with the abdominal pain of Crohn's disease (14 patients)

Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Efficacy of Olorinab, a Peripherally Acting, Highly Selective, Full Agonist of the Cannabinoid Receptor 2, in a Phase 2a Study of Patients With Chronic Abdominal Pain Associated With Crohn’s Disease

2020: This retrospective study found in IBS patients, cannabis users tended to have shorter hospital stays & less of them

Association Between Cannabis Use and Healthcare Utilization in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Study

2020: Survey finds patients using cannabis for their inflammatory bowel disorder (IBD)

Medicinal Cannabis for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Survey of Perspectives, Experiences, and Current Use in Australian Patients

2020: In a double-blind human study, CBD & PEA (an endogenous cannabinoid) both helped reduce permeability in the colon & appear helpful for IBS

Palmitoylethanolamide and Cannabidiol Prevent Inflammation-induced Hyperpermeability of the Human Gut In Vitro and In Vivo-A Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind Controlled Trial

2020: CBD influences motility of the inflamed colon

Effects of O-1602 and CBD on TNBS-induced colonic disturbances

2020: In arteries, CBD causes vasodilation in arteries of the lung and the bowel and this effect was reduced by high blood pressure and obesity

Vasodilatory effects of cannabidiol in human pulmonary and rat small mesenteric arteries: modification by hypertension and the potential pharmacological opportunities

2020: In a double-blind human study, CBD & PEA (an endogenous cannabinoid) both helped reduce permeability in the colon & appear helpful for IBS

Palmitoylethanolamide and Cannabidiol Prevent Inflammation-induced Hyperpermeability of the Human Gut In Vitro and In Vivo-A Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind Controlled Trial

2020: In humans, a THC:CBD extract helped with chemotherapy-induced nausea & vomiting – though with additional side effects (80 participants in a phase II crossover trial)

Oral THC:CBD cannabis extract for refractory chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase II crossover trial

2020: In rats & shrews, CBD, CBDA & the stable synthetic version of CBDA (HU-580) all helped for nausea and vomiting

Evaluation of repeated or acute treatment with cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) or CBDA methyl ester (HU-580) on nausea and/or vomiting in rats and shrews

2020: An AI analysis found that the use of cannabis slightly increased the risk of postoperative nausea

Cannabis use is associated with a small increase in the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a retrospective machine-learning causal analysis

2020: In this survey, patients rated cannabis as one of the "most effective treatments for gastrointestinal nausea"

Marijuana, Ondansetron, and Promethazine Are Perceived as Most Effective Treatments for Gastrointestinal Nausea

2020: In rats, research to find the best combinations of THC & CBD or THCA & CBDA to fight nausea

Effect of combined doses of Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol or tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiolic acid on acute nausea in male Sprague-Dawley rats

2019: CB1 activation found helpful for nausea - pathways identified

Δ9-THC and related cannabinoids suppress substance P- induced neurokinin NK1-receptor-mediated vomiting via activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptor

2019: A case study of treating the anxiety of a Crohn’s patient with CBD

A Case Report of Cannabidiol Treatment of a Crohn's Disease Patient With Anxiety Disorder

2019: CB2 activation seems helpful for intestinal failures

The curative effect of cannabinoid 2 receptor agonist on functional failure and disruptive inflammation caused by intestinal ischemia and reperfusion

2019: Long-term cannabis use associated with improvements in IBD

Medical cannabis for inflammatory bowel disease: real-life experience of mode of consumption and assessment of side-effects

2019: Cannabidivarin (CBDV) may be useful for the treatment of ulcerative colitis

The non-euphoric phytocannabinoid cannabidivarin counteracts intestinal inflammation in mice and cytokine expression in biopsies from UC pediatric patients

2019: Cannabis use associated with fewer complications in colitis patients (~600 in a propensity matched retrospective cohort study)

Association between cannabis use and complications related to ulcerative colitis in hospitalized patients: A propensity matched retrospective cohort study

2019: In humans with IBS, the immune cells of the colon had increased expression of MOR, β-END, and CB2 (31 IBS patients)

µ-opioid receptor, β-endorphin, and cannabinoid receptor-2 are increased in the colonic mucosa of irritable bowel syndrome patients

2019: In humans, cannabis use reduced cancer risk in patients with Crohn’s disease – but increased other negatives (~7500 patients in a propensity-matched sample)

In-hospital outcomes of inflammatory bowel disease in cannabis users: a nationwide propensity-matched analysis in the United States

2019: In humans with schizophrenia, cannabis protected against gut disorders

Cannabis use disorders may protect against certain disorders of the digestive organs in people with schizophrenia but not in healthy controls

2019: In humans with Chron's disease, users of cannabis less likely to have serious side effects

Association Between Cannabis Use and Complications Related to Crohn's Disease: A Retrospective Cohort Study

2019: A survey of young patients with IBD found cannabis extracts helpful

Cannabis Oil Use by Adolescents and Young Adults With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

2019: In humans with IBD & colon cancer, many changes in ECS levels

Members of the endocannabinoid system are distinctly regulated in inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer

2019: In rats with IBS, CB2 activation by AM1241 helped

Activation of cannabinoid 2 receptor relieves colonic hypermotility in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome

2019: In a human double-blind study, both CBD & PEA reduced inflammation & reducing permeability in the human colon

Palmitoylethanolamide and Cannabidiol Prevent Inflammation-induced Hyperpermeability of the Human Gut In Vitro and In Vivo—A Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind Controlled Trial

2019: CB2 agonist helps with IBD

Cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist promotes parameters implicated in mucosal healing in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

2019: CB2 agonists developed for use against ulcerative colitis

Benzofuran and pyrrole derivatives as cannabinoid receptor modulators with in vivo efficacy against ulcerative colitis

2017: In a human colon, CBD & PEA help with inflammation

Cannabidiol and palmitoylethanolamide are anti-inflammatory in the acutely inflamed human colon

2017: A small study of CBD for Crohn’s found no benefit – but they used a very low amount of CBD

Low-Dose Cannabidiol Is Safe but Not Effective in the Treatment for Crohn's Disease, a Randomized Controlled Trial.

2017: A study looking at mechanisms of how THCA helps with IBDs

Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Colon Models Is Derived from Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid That Interacts with Additional Compounds in Cannabis Extracts

2016: In a mouse model of colitis, CBD extract decreased damage & reduced intestinal hypermotility better than isolated CBD

An Orally Active Cannabis Extract with High Content in Cannabidiol attenuates Chemically-induced Intestinal Inflammation and Hypermotility in the Mouse

2016: The endocannabinoids OEA & PEA found to modulate intestinal permeability using the TRPV1 channel and the PPARα nuclear receptor

Oleoylethanolamine and palmitoylethanolamine modulate intestinal permeability in vitro via TRPV1 and PPARα.

2015: In rats with nausea, inhibiting FAAH helped with acute & anticipatory nausea by different pathways

Interference with acute nausea and anticipatory nausea in rats by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition through a PPARα and CB1 receptor mechanism, respectively: a double dissociation

2014: In rats, the ECS is suppressed by motion sickness & dexamethasone restores its levels

Dexamethasone alleviates motion sickness in rats in part by enhancing the endocannabinoid system

2014: In a model of a human colon, CBD & AEA reduced IL-17A which is linked to inflammatory bowel disease

Interleukin 17A evoked mucosal damage is attenuated by cannabidiol and anandamide in a human colonic explant model

2014: This team found that CBD, AEA, and the synthetic cannabinoid ACEA all help regulate autophagy. Intriguingly, AEA & ACEA both work via the CB1 receptor pathway – but CBD appears to increase autophagy via another unknown pathway

Cannabinoid-induced autophagy regulates suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 in intestinal epithelium.

2014: Canadian survey shows cannabis helps IBD but worsens prognosis for Crohn’s

Cannabis use provides symptom relief in patients with inflammatory bowel disease but is associated with worse disease prognosis in patients with Crohn's disease

2014: A synthetic inhibitor of FAAH reduces colitis in mouse model – strongly suggests it as a therapeutic target

Experimental colitis in mice is attenuated by changes in the levels of endocannabinoid metabolites induced by selective inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH)

2014: The endocannabinoid PEA helps intestinal motility via CB1 receptors & TRPV channels

Ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide normalizes intestinal motility in a murine model of post-inflammatory accelerated transit: involvement of CB1 receptors and TRPV1.

2014: The endocannabinoid PEA works orally for colitis in mouse

Palmitoylethanolamide, a naturally occurring lipid, is an orally effective intestinal anti-inflammatory agent.

2014: First proofs that the CB receptors are responsible for the protection & therapeutic action of cannabinoids in mouse models of colitis

Cannabinoids alleviate experimentally induced intestinal inflammation by acting at central and peripheral receptors


2013: In rats, CBDA was 1000 times more potent than CBD in reducing acute nausea

Effect of low doses of cannabidiolic acid and ondansetron on LiCl-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats

2013: In rats, oral cannabis extract helped with colitis

Pro-resolution, protective and anti-nociceptive effects of a cannabis extract in the rat gastrointestinal tract

2013: CBG for IBD

Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease

2013: A study for Crohn’s saw significant clinical benefits in 8 weeks – but not complete remission

Cannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn's disease: a prospective placebo-controlled study

2013: A survey of patients using cannabis for IBS

Marijuana use patterns among patients with inflammatory bowel disease

2013: Hergenrather on Crohn’s & IBD considerations

Hergenrather presents study of Crohn’s patients as a template for clinical research on Cannabis

2013: In a tissue culture, an inflammation factor in IBD was attenuated by CBD & AEA

Interleukin 17A evoked mucosal damage is attenuated by cannabidiol and anandamide in a human colonic explant model.

2013: The levels of endocannabinoids in the plasma of patients corresponded to their pain levels

Endocannabinoid and cannabinoid-like fatty acid amide levels correlate with pain-related symptoms in patients with IBS-D and IBS-C: a pilot study

2012: A small pilot study finds inhaled cannabis helps improve quality of life in IBD patients

Impact of cannabis treatment on the quality of life, weight and clinical disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease patients: a pilot prospective study.

2012: CBD found helpful for colitis in mice using several ingestion methods

Topical and systemic cannabidiol improves trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid colitis in mice

2012: “Phytocannabinoids have therapeutic potential for reversing the disordered intestinal permeability associated with inflammation”

Cannabinoids mediate opposing effects on inflammation-induced intestinal permeability.

2012: Research on CB1 in the gut’s inflammation and permeability – found that AEA, 2AG, & CB1 activation play key modulatory roles in a healthy gut response

The role of CB1 in intestinal permeability and inflammation.

2012: CBD lessens vomiting via serotonin 5HT1A

Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT(1A) somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus

2011: CBG and CBD may oppose their effects at the serotonin 5HT1A

Interaction between non-psychotropic cannabinoids in marihuana: effect of cannabigerol (CBG) on the anti-nausea or anti-emetic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in rats and shrews

2011: this observational study is the first look at cannabis for Crohn’s in humans & sees a positive effect

Treatment of Crohn's disease with cannabis: an observational study.

2011: This survey found many IBD patients using cannabis for symptom relief

Cannabis use amongst patients with inflammatory bowel disease

2011: CBD found helpful for gut inflammation via neuroimmune system

Cannabidiol reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis

2010: Both THC & CBD found helpful for gut motility, inflammation & damage in colitis mouse model

The effects of Delta-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alone and in combination on damage, inflammation and in vitro motility disturbances in rat colitis

2010: A different version of the CB1 receptor can change your likelihood of getting colitis & Crohn’s

The cannabinoid 1 receptor (CNR1) 1359 G/A polymorphism modulates susceptibility to ulcerative colitis and the phenotype in Crohn's disease

2009: The genetic variant of your FAAH enzyme can lead to worse outcomes in IBD/Crohn’s

The role of fatty acid hydrolase gene variants in inflammatory bowel disease

2009: CBD is protective in mice with colitis

Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa, is protective in a murine model of colitis

2008: In mice, targeting the ECS shows protection against colitis

Targeting endocannabinoid degradation protects against experimental colitis in mice: involvement of CB1 and CB2 receptors

2005: Hergenrather presents first survey of anecdotal evidence of cannabis for Crohn’s

Cannabis Alleviates Symptoms Of Crohn’s Disease

2005: A biopsy of Crohn’s patients found many cannabinoid receptors in the diseased tissue

Differential expression of cannabinoid receptors in the human colon: cannabinoids promote epithelial wound healing

2004: In shrews, THC reduced lithium induced vomiting while CBD’s effects were biphasic

Effect of cannabinoids on lithium-induced vomiting in the Suncus murinus (house musk shrew)

2001: In rats, CBDA prevents vomiting via serotonin receptors

Cannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation