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Research Roundup: Sept 27, 2021



Best of the Week...


In exercising humans, one dose of CBD showed small but significant effects on muscle damage & recovery

Effects of Cannabidiol Supplementation on Skeletal Muscle Regeneration after Intensive Resistance Training

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/13/9/3028

Nice review by two pharmacists about using CBD & the other cannabinoids for pain

See, Be, Deceived…or Relieved? Evaluating CBD for Pain Management

https://cme.tarsusmedicaleducation.com/sites/default/files/PHM-03%20See%20Be%20Relieved%20or%20Deceived%20%28Brooks%20and%20Kominek%29.pdf

Also, they win this week’s ‘Clever Title Award’.

In a rat model of osteoarthritis, PEA reduced knee joint swelling, cartilage degradation & inflammatory markers

Anti-inflammatory activity of palmitoylethanolamide ameliorates osteoarthritis induced by monosodium iodoacetate in Sprague-Dawley rats

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34468900/

In mice with an ACL rupture, their CB2 receptors were upregulated in the injured area & treatment with CBD helped with inflammation

Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 is Upregulated in Synovium following Joint Injury and Mediates Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Synovial Fibroblasts and Macrophages

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34537380/

This review looks at CBD, the ECS & heart disease

The Endocannabinoid System and Cannabidiol: Past, Present, and Prospective for Cardiovascular Diseases

https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8247/14/9/936

This paper also includes quite an intriguing graphical abstract.

A nicely done history of the discovery of CBD by Dr. Roger Adams

https://cbdtesters.co/2021/09/26/roger-adams-and-the-unexpected-discovery-of-cbd/

For more on the excellent Dr. Adams, see my book ‘The CROWN

A history of the flavonoids by Uwe Blesching (author of the excellent ‘Cannabis Health Index’)

Flavonoids in Cannabis

https://cannakeys.com/flavonoids-in-cannabis/


Clinical Studies & Reviews of CBD & the Endocannabinoid System (ECS)

In children with treatment resistant epilepsy, found that CBD “significantly reduces seizure frequency, and improves QOL [quality of life] , behavior deficits, and sleep disruption” while remaining efficacious over a 2-year period

Seizure frequency, quality of life, behavior, cognition, and sleep in pediatric patients enrolled in a prospective, open-label clinical study with cannabidiol

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34560358/

In humans undergoing a caloric restriction diet for 12 weeks & taking 100 mg of capsicum extract, they saw important alterations in their fecal microbiome

Oral Capsaicinoid Administration Alters the Plasma Endocannabinoidome and Fecal Microbiota of Reproductive-Aged Women Living with Overweight and Obesity

https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/9/9/1246

The vanilloid system contains much overlap with the endocannabinoid system. Many of the cannabinoids activate the TRPV1 receptor, the same receptor activated by hot foods containing capsaicin such as peppers. In fact, as Dr. Di Marzo points out elsewhere, anandamide could be referred to as an endovanilloid just as much as you can call it an endocannabinoid.



Preclinical Research & Cannabinoid Chemistry

In a cellular model of MS, activating the CB2 receptor caused potent immunomodulation of the T-cells (immune cells that attack foreign material)

Potent T cell mediated anti-inflammatory role of the selective CB2 agonist lenabasum in multiple sclerosis

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34543449/

In a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease, activation of the CB1 receptor lessened cognitive impairment by lowering oxidative stress & enhancing neurogenesis (the creation of new brain cells)

WIN55,212-2 Attenuates Cognitive Impairments in AlCl3 + d-Galactose-Induced Alzheimer’s Disease Rats by Enhancing Neurogenesis and Reversing Oxidative Stress

https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/9/9/1270

In a rat model of migraines, the CB1 receptor & orexin receptor were involved with the resulting anxiety & social dysfunction

The involvement of orexin 1 and cannabinoid 1 receptors within the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter in the modulation of migraine-induced anxiety and social behavior deficits of rats

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34560171/

In rats experiencing fear, this study looks at the interaction of adrenaline, stress hormones & the endocannabinoid system

Interactions of noradrenergic, glucocorticoid and endocannabinoid systems intensify and generalize fear memory traces

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34560200/

In cells that produce cholecystokinin (CCK - a hormone that regulates the pancreas, gastric motility & appetite), the endocannabinoid 2-AG caused increased CCK secretion via the CB1 receptor

2-Arachidonoyl glycerol potently induces cholecystokinin secretion in murine enteroendocrine STC-1 cells via cannabinoid receptor CB1

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34533218/

In rat neurons insulted by kainic acid (a toxin), 2-AG caused neuroprotection via modulation of the sodium channels

Modulatory effect of 2-arachidonoylglycerol on voltage-gated sodium currents in rat caudate nucleus neurons with kainic acid-induced injury

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34549704/

In mice housed in small cages, oleamide (an endocannabinoid) rescued their muscles from atrophy

Oleamide rescues tibialis anterior muscle atrophy of mice housed in small cages

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33143796/