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Research Roundup: June 21, 2021


Editors note: The Research Roundup will be paused for a few weeks because of paternity leave.


Best of the Week...


This review looks at how the ECS interacts with your fat tissue & how it regulates your metabolism

Role of the Endocannabinoid System in the Adipose Tissue with Focus on Energy Metabolism

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34064024/


In pain sensing neurons of the mouse, CBD inhibited their firing via sodium channels, thus causing the cells to produce less pain signals

Cannabidiol inhibition of murine primary nociceptors: Tight binding to slow inactivated states of Nav1.8 channels

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34131037/

“Remarkably, CBD was more potent in inhibiting TTX-R channels and inhibiting action potential firing than the local anesthetic bupivacaine. We conclude that CBD might produce some of its analgesic effects by direct effects on neuronal excitability, with tight binding to the slow inactivated state of Nav1.8 channels contributing to effective inhibition of repetitive firing by modest depolarizations.”


This review looks at the power of CBD, CBDA & the more stable methyl ester version of CBDA for nausea & vomiting

Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol, Cannabidiolic Acid, and Cannabidiolic Acid Methyl Ester as Treatments for Nausea and Vomiting

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34115951/


Clinical Studies & Reviews of CBD & the Endocannabinoid System (ECS)

In humans taking anxiety medications, CBD at high doses (200-800 mg per day) did not affect the metabolism of sertraline, fluoxetine & mirtazapine but did increase the levels of citalopram or escitalopram via the liver enzymes CYP3A4 & CYP2C19

Citalopram and Cannabidiol: In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence of Pharmacokinetic Interactions Relevant to the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders in Young People

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34121064/


Zynerba’s CBD transdermal gel helpful for those with autism including for behavior, seizures & sleep

ZYN002 Cannabidiol Transdermal Gel: Efficacy and Safety Findings in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Related Disorders

https://zynerba.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/2021-ASCP-ZYN002-in-ASD-Poster_2021.05.21_Final.pdf


This review looks at the mechanisms of how CBD might be helpful for opioid use disorder & its effect on inflammatory response

Modulatory Potential of Cannabidiol on the Opioid-Induced Inflammatory Response

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34115948/


This review looks at how the endocannabinoids regulate metabolism & energy homeostasis

Roles of Endocannabinoids and Endocannabinoid-like Molecules in Energy Homeostasis and Metabolic Regulation: A Nutritional Perspective

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34115519/


This in-depth review looks at targeting the endocannabinoid system for serious mental health disorders

The Endocannabinoidome in Neuropsychiatry: Opportunities and Potential Risks

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34119623/


This review looks at strokes & the protective effects of the vanilloid system (especially TRPV1)

Advancement in research on the role of the transient receptor potential vanilloid channel in cerebral ischemic injury

https://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/etm.2021.10313

Remember: anandamide is considered an endocannabinoid, but it can also be considered an endovanilloid. Some of the neuroprotective effects of anandamide are at least partially mediated by our vanilloid system.


Because the human placenta is so often used on skin grafts to accelerate the healing process, this study looked at the distribution of endocannabinoids in those membranes

Distribution of an Analgesic Palmitoylethanolamide and Other N-Acylethanolamines in Human Placental Membranes

https://europepmc.org/article/ppr/ppr355738


Editorial on anandamide & chocolate

https://escholarship.org/uc/item/2kk1604c

Preclinical Research & Cannabinoid Chemistry

In horses, two recent studies look at the location of cannabinoid receptors in the guts & brains of horses – found to be widely spread

Localisation of cannabinoid and cannabinoid-related receptors in the horse ileum

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S073708062100318X

Localisation of cannabinoid and cannabinoid-related receptors in the equine dorsal root ganglia

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32524649/


In rats getting chemotherapy, anandamide helped to protect against the neuropathic pain

Protective effects of anandamide against cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34118805/


Vervet monkeys possesses an endocannabinoid system in their brain’s inferior pulvinar (a region related to vision & sight)

Presence of the Endocannabinoid System in the Inferior Pulvinar of the Vervet Monkey

https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3425/11/6/770/htm

“Our results suggest that visual information coming from the retina and entering the PI is modulated by the eCB system on its way to the dorsal visual stream. These results provide insights for understanding the role of eCBs in the modulation of visual thalamic inputs and, hence, visual perception.”


In rats, a study in sex differences found that males had more anandamide in their cortex & females had more 2-AG in their periaqueductal grey (an important brain region for autonomic function, behavioral response & the processing of pain)

Inherent Sex Differences in the Expression of the Endocannabinoid System within V1M Cortex and PAG of Sprague Dawley Rats

https://assets.researchsquare.com/files/rs-606890/v1/6b27dfdf-5bba-494d-bd16-36b63d91f96f.pdf


In rats, they found that the endocannabinoid system plays a major role in the globus pallidus (a brain region important for movement)

In vivo bidirectional modulation of cannabinoid on the activity of globus pallidus in rats

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34129911/