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Research Roundup: Nov 8, 2021



Best of the Week...


A free textbook on using CBD & cannabis in mental health

Medicinal Cannabis and CBD in Mental Healthcare

https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-030-78559-8

This survey looks at people who exercise to ask them how & why they use CBD & cannabis

Cannabis and Cannabidiol Use in Active Individuals: A Survey of Timing and Reasons for Use

https://digitalcommons.wku.edu/ijesab/vol14/iss1/53/

A survey reports that CBD & medical cannabis are effective for insomnia across all genders & ages

The Use of Cannabinoids for Insomnia in Daily Life: Naturalistic Study

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34704957/

2020: This review of many clinical trials finds that low-dose THC as well as THC+CBD help to suppress anxiety & aversive memories

Effects of ∆ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol on aversive memories and anxiety: a review from human studies

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32842985/

This review looks at targeting the ECS for the treatment of traumatic brain injuries

Endocannabinoid Metabolism and Traumatic Brain Injury

https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4409/10/11/2979

In humans with multiple sclerosis, this review of Sativex (a 1:1 THC:CBD spray) found it helpful for spasticity

Review of available data for the efficacy and effectiveness of nabiximols oromucosal spray (Sativex) in multiple sclerosis patients with moderate to severe spasticity

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34731865/

In rats with heart problems, chronic treatment with CBD protected their aorta & small arteries

Vasoprotective Endothelial Effects of Chronic Cannabidiol Treatment and Its Influence on the Endocannabinoid System in Rats with Primary and Secondary Hypertension

https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8247/14/11/1120


Clinical Studies & Reviews of CBD & the Endocannabinoid System (ECS)

This review looks at how CBD is neuroprotective during conditions of cerebral ischemia (loss of blood flow)

Neuroprotective Effects of Cannabidiol Under Cerebral Ischemic Conditions

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s43450-021-00199-6

This study of patients with seizures from tuberous sclerosis complex (the growth of many non-malignant tumors) found CBD to be effective & well-tolerated

Long-Term Safety, Efficacy of Add-on Cannabidiol (CBD) for Treatment of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex-Associated Seizures in an Open-Label Extension

https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/s-0041-1739609

This review looks at the endocannabinoids in the hypothalamus & how they relate to obesity

Hypothalamic endocannabinoids in obesity: an old story with new challenges

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34718828/

A review like this confirms our research showing that a moderate amount of CBD-rich hemp extracts each day will help people.

In a related clinical study, people with the highest risk of obesity had lower levels of CB1 receptors

Obesity risk is associated with altered cerebral glucose metabolism and decreased μ-opioid and CB 1 receptor availability

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34728775/

“These results suggest that the hereditary mechanisms promoting obesity may be partly mediated via insulin, opioid and endocannabinoid messaging systems in the brain.”

Students in a survey report on using cannabis to help with the executive dysfunction of ADHD

Self-Reported Effects of Cannabis on ADHD Symptoms, ADHD Medication Side Effects, and ADHD-Related Executive Dysfunction

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34632827/

This review of the ECS & autism looks at all of the human studies & finds that AEA levels are lower in people with autism

Endocannabinoid Markers in Autism Spectrum Disorder: a Scoping Review of Human Studies

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0165178121005515

Humans at an ultra-high risk of psychosis have lower blood levels of endocannabinoids

Plasmatic endocannabinoids are decreased in subjects with ultra-high risk of psychosis

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34716624/

This review of migraines & neural inflammation has a focus on the pain-relieving ability of the endocannabinoids

Neurogenic Inflammation: One of the Participants of Migraine and the Contribution of Translational Research

https://www.preprints.org/manuscript/202111.0064/v1

A review of the CB2 receptors in the hippocampus

Hippocampal Cb 2 receptors: an untold story

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34717053/

The common story has always been that there’s lots of CB1 receptors in the brain & not that many CB2 receptors (mostly related to the brain’s immune system). But new research is finding more & more CB2 receptors in the brain. Their expression in the hippocampus is important because it’s a center of memory. It helps to convert short term memories to long term memories, it’s responsible for spatial memory & navigation & it’s one of the first brain regions damaged in Alzheimer’s disease. This review suggests targeting the CB2 receptors for diseases related to memory & for deficits in adult neurogenesis (growth of new brain cells).

In related research, the activation of CB1 receptors was found to protect hippocampal neurons

Cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors differentially regulate TNF-α-induced apoptosis and LPA1-mediated pro-survival signaling in HT22 hippocampal cells

https://iris.unica.it/handle/11584/320763#.YYkYYp7MKUk

A review of the available studies of using cannabis for treating Tourette syndrome

Cannabis-based medicine in treatment of patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34708399/

A review of using cannabinoid for epilepsy

Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Epilepsy: A Review

https://emj.emg-health.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2021/10/Cannabinoids-in-the-Treatment-of-Epilepsy-A-Review.pdf

In humans, the endocannabinoid levels in the blood might be useful biomarkers for dementia & Alzheimer’s patients

Alterations of plasma endocannabinoid levels in MCI and dementia patients

https://pure.ulster.ac.uk/en/publications/alterations-of-plasma-endocannabinoid-levels-in-mci-and-dementia-

In dogs, no drug-drug interactions found between CBD & phenobarbital

Drug-drug interaction between cannabidiol and phenobarbital in healthy dogs

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34727050



Preclinical Research & Cannabinoid Chemistry

In human immune cells, treatment with CBD significantly lowered pro-inflammatory cytokines

Cannabidiol selectively modulates interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 production in toll-like receptor activated human peripheral blood monocytes

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0300483X21003383

In a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, CBD coated by nano-particles reduced brain plaques, increased CB1 & CB2 levels & improved learning & memory

The Effect of Cannabidiol Coated by Nano-Chitosan on Learning and Memory, Hippocampal CB1 and CB2 Levels, and Amyloid Plaques in an Alzheimer's Disease Rat Model

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34727550/

Two studies on the antibacterial effects of CBD against MRSA & another drug-resistant bacteria

RAPID BACTERICIDAL EFFECT OF CANNABIDIOL (CBD) AGAINST Staphylococcus aureus BY IN VITRO TIME-KILL ASSAYS AFTER 30-DAYS OF CBD EXPOSURE

https://sbmicrobiologia.org.br/31cbm-anais/resumos/R0861-2.pdf

SYNERGISTIC BACTERICIDAL EFFECT OF THE COMBINATION CANNABIDIOL PLUS POLYMYXIN B (PB) AGAINST PB-RESISTANT Klebsiella pneumoniae BY IN VITRO TIME-KILL ASSAYS

https://sbmicrobiologia.org.br/31cbm-anais/resumos/R0861-1.pdf

In rats poisoned by aluminum phosphide (a common pesticide that causes toxicity in humans across the world), CBD protected their hearts from the usual damage, restored mitochondrial function (powerhouse of the cell) & prevented heart cell death

Modification of the hemodynamic and molecular features of phosphine, a potent mitochondrial toxicant in the heart, by cannabidiol

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34711111/

In rats, THC decreased blood flow while CBD increased it

The Effect of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Blood Flow

https://esmed.org/MRA/mra/article/view/2541

In rats with bone damage from a loss of blood supply caused by stress hormones, activating the CB2 receptor strengthened new bone production & helped to maintain the blood supply

Activation of cannabinoid receptor 2 alleviates glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis of femoral head with osteogenesis and maintenance of blood supply

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34718335/

In mice with neuropathic pain from diabetes, their cannabinoid & opioid receptors interact & may be targeted by hemopressin for pain control

Interactions between cannabinoid and opioid receptors in a mouse model of diabetic neuropathy

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34724682/

In mice dependent on oxycodone, positive modulation of the CB1 receptor reduces weight loss as well as the diarrhea caused by naloxone

The CB 1 Receptor Positive Allosteric Modulator, ZCZ011, Attenuates Naloxone-Precipitated Diarrhea and Weight Loss in Oxycodone-Dependent Mice

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34625464/

In an animal model, the antidepressant effects of rosmarinic acid (found in rosemary) is probably mediated by the endocannabinoid system

Antidepressant-like effect of rosmarinic acid during LPS-induced neuroinflammatory model: The potential role of cannabinoid receptors/PPAR-γ signaling pathway

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ptr.7318

Research in the eyes of monkeys finds that the FAAH enzyme & the endocannabinoids mediate vision from our cone photoreceptors

The Inhibition of the Degrading Enzyme Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Alters the Activity of the Cone System in the Vervet Monkey Retina

https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3425/11/11/1418