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Research Roundup: Aug 30, 2021



Best of the Week...


This review looks at the mechanisms suggesting CBD for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2

Cannabinoids for SARS-CoV-2 and is there evidence of their therapeutic efficacy?

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ahmet-Onay-2/publication/353851355_Cannabinoids_for_SARS-CoV-2_and_is_there_evidence_of_their_therapeutic_efficacy/links/61156e631ca20f6f861b4d69/Cannabinoids-for-SARS-CoV-2-and-is-there-evidence-of-their-therapeutic-efficacy.pdf


In a human lung tissue model of COVID-19 infection, a combination of PEA & α-lipoic acid (ALA) reduced oxidative stress & lowered the cytokine storm

A Combination of α-Lipoic Acid (ALA) and Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) Blocks Endotoxin-Induced Oxidative Stress and Cytokine Storm: A Possible Intervention for COVID-19

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34405764/


This insightful review of the literature suggests the mechanisms by which CBD exerts its promising effects on PTSD

Cannabidiol and the corticoraphe circuit in post-traumatic stress disorder

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2667242121000324


In a rat model of traumatic brain injury, direct injection of CBD into the brain restored several measures of motor & cognitive function

Cannabidiol reduces lesion volume and restores vestibulomotor and cognitive function following moderately severe traumatic brain injury

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34428457/


In rats with nerve injuries, the ability of exercise to lower their pain seems to be at least partially mediated by the endocannabinoid system lowering their inflammatory response

Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia Profile in a Rat Neuropathic Pain Model Predicts Pain Severity Following Infraorbital Nerve Injury and Is Associated with Local Cytokine Levels, Systemic Endocannabinoids, and Endogenous Opioids

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34398938/


In a mouse model of depression, CBD was suggested as an antidepressant

The effects of cannabidiol, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and combinations of cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the open field test and forced swim test

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1388245721005204


In rats fed a high-fat diet, CBD reduced insulin resistance & decreased the tau protein associated with Alzheimer’s disease

Cannabidiol - A phytocannabinoid that widely affects sphingolipid metabolism under conditions of brain insulin resistance

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34435590/


Clinical Studies & Reviews of CBD & the Endocannabinoid System (ECS)

At a cannabis social club, researchers tested various cannabis extracts with differing THC/CBD ratios & found CBD protected people from the psychotic-like symptoms caused by THC

Opposite Roles for Cannabidiol and δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Psychotomimetic Effects of Cannabis Extracts: A Naturalistic Controlled Study

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34412109/


In humans, oral doses of isolated CBD does not produce false positives for THC on two of the major tests for drugged driving

Orally administered cannabidiol (CBD) does not produce false-positive tests for THC on the Securetec DrugWipe® 5S or Dräger Drug Test® 5000

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34412166/


In this review, they look at the endocannabinoid system in C. elegans (a type of nematode worm)

The Endocannabinoid System in Caenorhabditis elegans

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34401955/

C. elegans are one of the most important model organisms on the planet. They’re also evidence of the widespread nature of the endocannabinoid system. It reaches all the way from organisms like worms & sea sponges up to the mighty mammals like sperm whales, polar bears & us.


This review looks at how the histamines interact with the endocannabinoid oleoylethanolamide (an analog of anandamide)

A Duet Between Histamine and Oleoylethanolamide in the Control of Homeostatic and Cognitive Processes

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34410679/


This review looks at how the important steroid pregnenolone works via the CB1 receptor

New perspectives on the role of the neurosteroid pregnenolone as an endogenous regulator of type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) activity and function

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jne.13034


A chapter on the relationship between the ECS & the GABA system (the main inhibitory neurotransmitter)

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) and the Endocannabinoids: Understanding the Risks and Opportunities

https://www.intechopen.com/online-first/78043


A review of targeting the CB2 receptor for bone disorders

Research progress on natural cannabinoid receptor type 2( CB2R)regulators and their effects on bone metabolism

https://europepmc.org/article/med/34402276

If we know one thing about the ECS, it’s involved in the regulation of bones.



Preclinical Research & Cannabinoid Chemistry

In a 3D model of ovarian cancer, CBD caused antitumorigenic effects & combined well with an anticancer drug

Cannabidiol suppresses 3-dimensional ovarian cancer growth and may enhance potency of classic and epigenetic therapies

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0090825821008386


In mice with no CB2 receptor, they had an impaired social memory

Cannabinoid receptor 2 deletion influences social memory and synaptic architecture in the hippocampus

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34413398/

This is significant because the CB2 receptor is usually thought of as acting primarily outside the brain - or that it’s only activated in the brain as a protective measure after a neural insult. But this study shows that CB2 receptors play an important role in a vital memory area of the brain, the hippocampus.


In a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, an analog of anandamide protected the brain via regulation of autophagy (the recycling system of the brain) via the CB1 & CB2 receptor

N-linoleyltyrosine exerts neuroprotective effects in APP/PS1 transgenic mice via cannabinoid receptor-mediated autophagy

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1347861321000839


In a mouse model of aging kidneys, CB2 plays a central role in protecting their renal mitochondria (powerhouse of the cell) & reducing signs of aging

Cannabinoid receptor 2 plays a central role in renal tubular mitochondrial dysfunction and kidney ageing

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34414658/


In a tissue sample of spinal discs, activating the CB2 receptor relieved oxidative stress & the inflammatory response

CB2-mediated attenuation of nucleus pulposus degeneration via the amelioration of inflammation and oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34412587/


This study looks at the distribution of cannabinoid related receptors in the brains of horses

Cellular distribution of cannabinoid-related receptors TRPV1, PPAR-gamma, GPR55 and GPR3 in the equine cervical dorsal root ganglia

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34418142/