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Neuroprotection &

Best reviews

2022: A review looking at targeting the CB2 receptor for neurodegenerative diseases

New Insights and Potential Therapeutic Targeting of CB2 Cannabinoid Receptors in CNS Disorders

2022: In neuroinflammation, a review of the importance of the ECS & the microglia (often called the guardian cells of the brain)

The Dynamic Role of Microglia and the Endocannabinoid System in Neuroinflammation

2022: On the role of cannabis in neurology

Neurology - to be or not to be of the cannabis-based medicine?

2022: A review about treating central nervous system diseases by inhibiting the breakdown of endocannabinoids (nice chart)

Polypharmacological Approaches for CNS Diseases: Focus on Endocannabinoid Degradation Inhibition

2021: A review of the cannabinoids as anticancer drugs & neuroprotective agents

Cannabinoids as anticancer and neuroprotective drugs: Structural insights and pharmacological interactions—A review

2021: This review looks at how the endocannabinoid system helps to lower oxidative stress & how it works with our nitric oxide signaling system

Intertwined associations between oxidative and nitrosative stress and endocannabinoid system pathways: Relevance for neuropsychiatric disorders

2021: This review looks at CBD as a new fixture in pediatric neurology

Cannabidiol - A new fixture in childhood neurology

2021: A review of how the cannabinoids lower inflammation in the brain

Cannabinoid control of neurogenic inflammation

2021: A review of the CB2 receptors & the microglia (immune cells of the brain)

CB2 Receptor in Microglia: The Guardian of Self-Control

2020: A review of the neuroprotective effects of the molecules found in cannabis

Cannabis Phytochemicals: A Review of Phytocannabinoid Chemistry and Bioactivity as Neuroprotective Agents

2020: A review of the minor cannabinoids & neuroprotection

A Systematic Review of Minor Phytocannabinoids with Promising Neuroprotective Potential

2020: The endocannabinoids & the microglia

Endocannabinoid Modulation of Microglial Phenotypes in Neuropathology

2020: This review looks at how cannabinoids lower inflammation in the brain

Cannabinoid Control of Neurogenic Inflammation

2018: The ECS & the oligodendrocytes (large immune cells of the brain)

The Endocannabinoid System and Oligodendrocytes in Health and Disease

2017: CBD & the astrocytes

Modulation of Astrocyte Activity by Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid.

2016: A review of CBD’s brain protection properties

Cannabidiol, neuroprotection and neuropsychiatric disorders

2016: great charts on how the microglial work with the cannabinoids

Microglia activation states and cannabinoid system: Therapeutic implications

2016: A fascinating chart on the ECS & the glial cells

Endocannabinoids and Heterogeneity of Glial Cells in Brain Function

2015: Maccarrone on the cannabinoids & neuroinflammation

Cannabinoid Signaling and Neuroinflammatory Diseases: A Melting pot for the Regulation of Brain Immune Responses

2008: A review of CB2 receptors in neuroinflammation

Cannabinoid CB2 receptors in human brain inflammation

2008:The mechanisms of the ECS for protecting neurons

Mechanisms of control of neuron survival by the endocannabinoid system

2002: Mechoulam on ECS neuroprotection

Discovery of endocannabinoids and some random thoughts on their possible roles in neuroprotection and aggression

Chart Gallery

CBD's neuroprotection
CBD's neuroprotection

2016: Cannabidiol, neuroprotection and neuropsychiatric disorders

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ECS & neuroprotection
ECS & neuroprotection

2008: Mechanisms of control of neuron survival by the endocannabinoid system

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Microglia & ECS
Microglia & ECS

2020: Endocannabinoid Modulation of Microglial Phenotypes in Neuropathology

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CBD's neuroprotection
CBD's neuroprotection

2016: Cannabidiol, neuroprotection and neuropsychiatric disorders

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Timeline of Research

2022: In obese mice, PEA lessened neuroinflammation as well as anxious behavior

Palmitoylethanolamide dampens neuroinflammation and anxiety-like behavior in obese mice

2022: On treating neuroinflammation via targeting of the CB2 receptor

CB2 receptor activation inhibits the phagocytic function of microglia through activating ERK/AKT-Nurr1 signal pathways

2022: This look at the CB2 receptors of parrots finds that they help with neuroinflammation (as well as intriguing backstory on the evolution)

Revealing genomic changes responsible for cannabinoid receptor loss in parrots: mechanism and functional effects

2022: In a mouse model of traumatic brain injury, increasing the endocannabinoid signaling caused greater resilience to injury, lessened neuropathology & protected from cognitive declines

Enhancing endocannabinoid signalling in astrocytes promotes recovery from traumatic brain injury

2022: In a survey of military veterans with persistent symptoms after a mild traumatic brain injuries, the self-reported reasons for cannabis use include “neuropsychiatric symptoms, sleep disturbances, and pain for which standard treatments (both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic) provided insufficient relief”

Cannabis Use in a Cohort of Healthcare-Seeking United States Military Veterans With Persisting Symptoms After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Preliminary Observations

2021: In a tissue sample of spinal discs, activating the CB2 receptor relieved oxidative stress & the inflammatory response

CB2-mediated attenuation of nucleus pulposus degeneration via the amelioration of inflammation and oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro

2021: In a rat model of traumatic brain injury, direct injection of CBD into the brain restored several measures of motor & cognitive function

Cannabidiol reduces lesion volume and restores vestibulomotor and cognitive function following moderately severe traumatic brain injury

2021: In a rat model of traumatic brain injury, direct injection of CBD into the brain restored several measures of motor & cognitive function

Cannabidiol reduces lesion volume and restores vestibulomotor and cognitive function following moderately severe traumatic brain injury

2021: In a tissue sample of spinal discs, activating the CB2 receptor relieved oxidative stress & the inflammatory response

CB2-mediated attenuation of nucleus pulposus degeneration via the amelioration of inflammation and oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro

2021: The CB2 receptor is a key pathway to control homeostasis of our brain’s microglia (immune cells that respond to potential threats)

Cannabinoid receptor 2 is necessary to induce toll-like receptor-mediated microglial activation

2021: In rat neurons insulted by kainic acid (a toxin), 2-AG caused neuroprotection via modulation of the sodium channels

Modulatory effect of 2-arachidonoylglycerol on voltage-gated sodium currents in rat caudate nucleus neurons with kainic acid-induced injury

2021: In a rat model of a traumatic brain injury, CBD improved the integrity of the blood-brain barrier & reduced edema (brain swelling from excess fluids)

Effects of cannabinoid (CBD) on blood brain barrier permeability after brain injury in rats

2021: In mice with no DAGL-β enzyme (which creates 2-AG), they had less neuroinflammation during traumatic brain injury & displayed gender differences

Diacylglycerol Lipase-β Knockout Mice Display a Sex-Dependent Attenuation of Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Mortality with No Impact on Memory or Other Functional Consequences

2021: In baby rats with crushed spinal cords, CBD protected the neurons in the spine & reduced the reaction of the glial cells, probably via the CB1 receptor

Short and long-term neuroprotective effects of cannabidiol after neonatal peripheral nerve axotomy

2021: In rats with spinal cord injuries, activating the CB2 receptor helped mitigate their osteoporosis

Delayed Systemic Treatment with Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Agonist Mitigates Spinal Cord Injury-Induced Osteoporosis More Than Acute Treatment Directly after Injury

2021: In a patient with severe pain after a stroke, a 1:1 ratio of THC & CBD gave relief after 3 years of other therapies did not

Tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol as an oromucosal spray in a 1:1 ratio: a therapeutic option for patients with central post-stroke pain syndrome?

2021: In an animal model of stroke, they already knew that PEA protects the blood-brain barrier & the brain itself. This study found that the effects weren’t only mediated by changes in genetic transcription (the PPARα receptor) but also by the regulation of the cell’s microfilaments

PEA prevented early BBB disruption after cerebral ischaemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury through regulation of ROCK/MLC signaling

2021: In mouse brain cells, CBD helps protects them via the process of autophagy

Cannabidiol induces autophagy via ERK1/2 activation in neural cells


2021: In neurons of the hippocampus, CBD provided neuroprotection against oxidative stress

Neuroprotective Effect of Cannabidiol Against Hydrogen Peroxide in Hippocampal Neuron Culture

2021: In mice, the researchers looked at the pathways that CBD used to protect the brain & found that it involved CB1, CB2, a serotonin receptor & the nuclear receptor PPAR-γ

Differential contribution of CB1, CB2, 5-HT1A, and PPAR-γ receptors to cannabidiol effects on ischemia-induced emotional and cognitive impairments

2021: In mice exposed to chemical warfare nerve agents that induce seizures, CBD increased their survival rate & attenuated seizure severity

Cannabidiol reduces soman-induced lethality and seizure severity in female plasma carboxylesterase knockout mice treated with midazolam

2021: In rats, the terpene β-caryophyllene protects against dementia caused by neuroinflammation

Beta-caryophyllene, a CB2R selective agonist, protects against cognitive impairment caused by neuro-inflammation and not in dementia due to ageing induced by mitochondrial dysfunction

2021: In the brains of mice, having no CB1 receptors leads to the brain aging faster

Lack of Cannabinoid Receptor Type-1 Leads to Enhanced Age-Related Neuronal Loss in the Locus Coeruleus

2021: In the immune cells of a mouse's brain, the neurodegeneration caused by HIV was lessened by inhibition of the FAAH enzyme via GPR18

GPR18 drives FAAH inhibition-induced neuroprotection against HIV-1 Tat-induced neurodegeneration

2021: In neural stem cells, they express the machinery of the endocannabinoid system & adding cannabinoids like 2-AG increased their proliferation

Cannabinoid Receptor Modulation of Neurogenesis: ST14A Striatal Neural Progenitor Cells as a Simplified In Vitro Model

2021: In mice with a central nervous system injury, early treatment with a CB2 agonist protected the brain & improved the immune response

Effect of Cannabinoid 2 Receptor Modulation on the Peripheral Immune Response in Central Nervous System Injury-Induced Immunodeficiency Syndrome

2021: In five cases of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, cannabis helped with disruptive behavior & the authors note that CBD shows a "marked and statistically significant improvement"

Use of Cannabis in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

2021: In a rat model of Fragile X Syndrome, the CB2 receptor is necessary for protection against neuropathic pain

Role of the endocannabinoid system in a mouse model of Fragile X undergoing neuropathic pain

2021: In microglial cells (the immune cells of the brain), the cannabinoid receptors help to regulate inflammation via genetic transcription

Cannabinoid receptors modulate LPS-induced increase of class-II transactivator expression levels in a microglial cell line

2021: In rats, nanoformulations of anandamide were administered & seemed to protect both the brain & the heart

Central nervous system, peripheral and hemodynamic effects of nanoformulated anandamide in hypertension

2021: In neurons of the hippocampus, an inhibitor of MGL protects them from injury during ischemia via the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway

JZL184 protects hippocampal neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced injury via activating Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway

2021: In astrocytes (a type of immune cell in the brain), a synthetic cannabinoid inhibited inflammation

The Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist, WIN, Suppresses the Activation of Proinflammatory Genes Induced by Interleukin 1 Beta in Human Astrocytes

2021: In a neuronal model of neurodegeneration, three cannabinoids isolated from seized cannabis in Thailand were found to be neuroprotective

Neuroprotective activities of three cannabinoids separated from confiscated cannabis in Thailand

2020: In rats, CBD helps to protect the brain during injury by increasing apoptosis (programmed cellular suicide) via the PI3K/AKT pathway

Cannabidiol alleviates hemorrhagic shock-induced neural apoptosis in rats by inducing autophagy through activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway

2020: In microglial cells, CBD potently inhibited proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and that of glutamate, a noncytokine mediator of inflammation via NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS production and NF-κB-dependent signaling events – also found that the ability of CBD to prevent glucose uptake also contributes to the anti-inflammatory effect

Cannabidiol prevents LPS-induced microglial inflammation by inhibiting ROS/NF-κB-dependent signaling and glucose consumption

2020: In a cell culture of hippocampus neurons, CBD protected against the insult of hydrogen peroxide

Neuroprotective Effect of Cannabidiol Against Hydrogen Peroxide in Hippocampal Neuron Culture

2020: In neuron tissue, CBD protects the cells against stress via the heme oxygenase (HO) system (the enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of heme in your blood)

Cannabidiol Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in Mesencephalic Cultures against the Complex I Inhibitor Rotenone Via Modulation of Heme Oxygenase Activity and Bilirubin

2020: In mice, activating their CB receptors protected both their retinas & their brains

Effect of acute and subchronic administration of (R)-WIN55,212-2 induced neuroprotection and anti inflammatory actions in rat retina: CB1 and CB2 receptor involvement

2020: In diabetic rats, activating the CB2 receptor protected the brain via increased blood flow

A cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor agonist augments NOS-dependent responses of cerebral arterioles during type 1 diabetes

2020: In mouse brain cells, this study examined how CBD, CBG & their acid forms protected the neurons

A Comparative In Vitro Study of the Neuroprotective Effect Induced by Cannabidiol, Cannabigerol, and Their Respective Acid Forms: Relevance of the 5-HT 1A Receptors

2020: In mice, their astroglia (immune cells in the brain) have their energy levels regulated by CB1 receptors on their mitochondria

Glucose metabolism links astroglial mitochondria to cannabinoid effects

2020: In mouse neurons, the protective molecule orexin-A seems to prevent cell death via 2-AG & the CB1 receptor

Role of 2-Arachidonoyl-Glycerol and CB1 Receptors in Orexin-A-Mediated Prevention of Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation-Induced Neuronal Injury

2020: In brain cells of rats experiencing neurotoxicity, both CBD & CBG rescued serotonin levels & acted as antioxidants – but only CBD helped to repair the release of neurotransmitters

Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Effects Induced by Cannabidiol and Cannabigerol in Rat CTX-TNA2 Astrocytes and Isolated Cortexes

2020: In neuronal tissue, the Tat protein of HIV is thought to be a major cause of the disease's neurocognitive disorders & the Tat protein cause CB1 receptors to not work as well on the presynaptic junctions where they usually cause neuroprotection

HIV Tat Protein Selectively Impairs CB 1 Receptor-Mediated Presynaptic Inhibition at Excitatory but Not Inhibitory Synapses

2020: In mice, a new mechanism found for how the CB2 receptor calms the brain's Purkinje cells via the inhibition of GABA-A

Cannabinoid type 2 receptors inhibit GABAA receptor-mediated currents in cerebellar Purkinje cells of juvenile mice

2020: In mice, CB1 agonist helps to repair myelin after a brain insult

Dose-dependent effect of cannabinoid WIN-55,212-2 on myelin repair following a demyelinating insult

2020: In rat brains, CBD & CBG protected and modulated the neurons

Neuroprotective and Neuromodulatory Effects Induced by Cannabidiol and Cannabigerol in Rat Hypo-E22 cells and Isolated Hypothalamus

2020: In mice, activating the CB2 receptor helped with pain via the microglia (the brain's immune cells)

Low-dose cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist induces microglial activation in a cancer pain-morphine tolerance rat model

2020: In humans, the difference between how sensitive we are to the psychoactive effects of THC is linked to how it affects our cortisol levels & the function of our glial cells (brain's immune cells) (16 participants)

Differential sensitivity to the acute psychotomimetic effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol associated with its differential acute effects on glial function and cortisol

2020: In cells, micronized PEA (FM-LipoMatrix®) combined with lipoic acid & vitamin D3 caused better absorption & reduced neuroinflammation

A New Palmitoylethanolamide Form Combined with Antioxidant Molecules to Improve Its Effectivess on Neuronal Aging

2019: In dopamine neurons, CBD protects against cadmium poisoning

Cannabidiol Protects Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells from Cadmium

2019: In diabetic rats, CBD protects from neurodegeneration & improved many metabolic measures

Cannabidiol improves metabolic dysfunction in middle-aged diabetic rats submitted to a chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

2019: In middle-aged diabetic rats, CBD treatment protected the brain from the declines of diabetes & reduced several inflammation markers in the hippocampus

Effects of Cannabidiol on Diabetes Outcomes and Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion Comorbidities in Middle-Aged Rats

2019: In people living with HIV, marijuana users tend to have lower cognitive impairment - perhaps because of anti-inflammatory effects

Cannabis Exposure is Associated With a Lower Likelihood of Neurocognitive Impairment in People Living With HIV

2019: In neuronal cells, CBD + CBG lowered inflammation & increased survival via PPARγ

Could the Combination of Two Non-Psychotropic Cannabinoids Counteract Neuroinflammation? Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Associated with Cannabigerol

2019: In cell cultures, CBD blocks inflammation of the brain's immune cells

Cannabidiol prevents LPS-induced microglial inflammation by inhibiting ROS/NF-κB-dependent signaling and glucose consumption

2019: In human brain cells, THC lowered neuroinflammation by slowing monocyte activation

Δ 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Suppresses Monocyte-Mediated Astrocyte Production of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 and Interleukin-6 in a Toll-Like Receptor 7-Stimulated Human Coculture

2019: In microglial cells, CBD had a greater effect than THC on changing levels of miRNAs controlling immune response, cell cycle regulation & cellular stress

miRNA expression profiles and molecular networks in resting and LPS-activated BV-2 microglia-Effect of cannabinoids

2019: In mice, PET study finds CB2 upregulated in neuroinflammation

Upregulation of cannabinoid receptor type 2, but not TSPO, in senescence-accelerated neuroinflammation in mice: a positron emission tomography study

2019: In humans, cannabis use in adolescence may impair the function of glial cells in the brain

Adolescent-onset heavy cannabis use associated with significantly reduced glial but not neuronal markers and glutamate levels in the hippocampus

2019: In mice, an antagonist at the adenosine A2A receptor may enhance neuroprotective effects of endocannabinoids

Potentiation of cannabinoid signaling in microglia by adenosine A2A receptor antagonists

2019: In a tissue culture, Cannflavin A shows neuroprotective effects against neurotoxicity

Novel cannabis flavonoid, cannflavin A displays both a hormetic and neuroprotective profile against amyloid β-mediated neurotoxicity in PC12 cells: comparison with geranylated flavonoids, mimulone and diplacone

2018: In rats overexposed to iron, CBD protected the brain from apoptosis & negative effects

Antiapoptotic effects of cannabidiol in an experimental model of cognitive decline induced by brain iron overload

2018: In neurons, CBD protected against neuroinflammation & oxidative stress

In Vitro Model of Neuroinflammation: Efficacy of Cannabigerol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid

2017: CBD as a tool to improve stem cells taken from the mouth into neuronal stem cells

Cannabidiol Activates Neuronal Precursor Genes in Human Gingival Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

2017: In neuronal cells, THCA as a PPARγ agonist that protects the brain

Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid is a potent PPARγ agonist with neuroprotective activity

2016: In microglial cells & T cells, a CBD derivative shows similar anti-inflammatory properties

Anti-inflammatory effects of the cannabidiol derivative dimethylheptyl-cannabidiol - studies in BV-2 microglia and encephalitogenic T cells

2015: In microglial cells, activation can be lowered via the CB2 receptor

Activation of murine microglial N9 cells is attenuated through cannabinoid receptor CB2 signaling

2015: In microglial cells, the endocannabinoids seem to be critical for their regulation & activation

Endocannabinoids drive the acquisition of an alternative phenotype in microglia

2015: In microglial cells, CBD’s reduction of glial activity could help explain antipsychotic properties

Decreased glial reactivity could be involved in the antipsychotic-like effect of cannabidiol

2015: In neurons, CBD did not protect against neurotoxins & seemed to sensitize immature cells to them

Cannabidiol Exposure During Neuronal Differentiation Sensitizes Cells Against Redox-Active Neurotoxins

2014: In rats overexposed to iron, CBD helped normalize levels & mitochondrial function

Cannabidiol normalizes caspase 3, synaptophysin, and mitochondrial fission protein DNM1L expression levels in rats with brain iron overload: implications for neuroprotection

2014: In stressed mice, the importance of neurogenesis & autophagy via CB1 receptor activation for neuroprotection

Behavioural effects of cannabidiol in chronically stressed mice is mediated by neurogenesis and autophagy through CB1 receptor activation


2014: In a cellular model of Alzheimer’s disease, CBD increased neuronal survival by reducing apoptosis & decreasing amyloid precursor protein levels via PPARγ receptor

Cannabidiol promotes amyloid precursor protein ubiquitination and reduction of beta amyloid expression in SHSY5YAPP+ cells through PPARγ involvement

2014: In microglia, CBD enhances phagocytosis (bacteria ingestion) via TRPV1

Cannabidiol enhances microglial phagocytosis via transient receptor potential (TRP) channel activation

2012: In microglial cells, CBD upregulates many more genes (1298) than THC (58) related to oxidative stress and inflammation

Differential transcriptional profiles mediated by exposure to the cannabinoids cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in BV-2 microglial cells

2012: In microglial cells, CBD affects the genes involved with zinc homeostasis & might exert some of its antioxidant & anti-inflammatory effects via this pathway

Cannabidiol affects the expression of genes involved in zinc homeostasis in BV-2 microglial cells

2012: In microglial cells, CBD induces apoptosis via lipid rafts

Cannabidiol-induced apoptosis in murine microglial cells through lipid raft

2012: The mechanisms of how CBD protects the oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) which can differentiate into myelinating cells to reduce cell death & free radical production

Cannabidiol protects oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from inflammation-induced apoptosis by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress

2012: In mice, altering the DAGL enzymes helped to regulate proinflammatory responses in macrophages

DAGLβ inhibition perturbs a lipid network involved in macrophage inflammatory responses

2012: In a rat model of meningitis, CBD treatment lessens damage by reducing TNF-α levels in frontal cortex

Cannabidiol reduces host immune response and prevents cognitive impairments in Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis

2011: In a mouse model of sepsis-related encephalitis (brain swelling), CBD works by raising BDNF levels, lowering type-1 TNFα receptor levels & preserving the blood-brain barrier

Cannabidiol reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced vascular changes and inflammation in the mouse brain: An intravital microscopy study

2011: In amphetamine-induced oxidative stress (mania) model in rats, CBD increased BDNF levels & protected against oxidative damage

Effects of cannabidiol on amphetamine-induced oxidative stress generation in an animal model of mania

2011: In a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease, CBD’s ability to reduce damage from reactive oxygen species may be mediated by the PPARγ nuclear receptor

Cannabidiol reduces Aβ-induced neuroinflammation and promotes hippocampal neurogenesis through PPARγ involvement

2011: In microglial cells, CBD affects the metabolism of cholesterol & lipid-gene expression

The non-psychoactive plant cannabinoid, cannabidiol affects cholesterol metabolism-related genes in microglial cells

2010: In insulted microglial cells, both CBD & THC reduced production & release of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6 & interferon (IFN)beta

Cannabinoids Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol differentially inhibit the lipopolysaccharide-activated NF-kappaB and interferon-beta/STAT proinflammatory pathways in BV-2 microglial cells

2010: In a cell culture, a look at the mechanisms of how THC & CBD reduce inflammation in brain cells

Cannabinoids Δ-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol Differentially Inhibit the Lipopolysaccharide-activated NF-κB and Interferon-β/STAT Proinflammatory Pathways in BV-2 Microglial Cells

2009: In microglial cells, the neuroprotection mechanisms of 2AG

2-Arachidonoylglycerol elicits neuroprotective effects on excitotoxically lesioned dentate gyrus granule cells via abnormal-cannabidiol-sensitive receptors on microglial cells

2009: In brain cells, CB2 activation protects via the PI3K/Akt pathway

Selective CB2 receptor agonism protects central neurons from remote axotomy-induced apoptosis through the PI3K/Akt pathway

2007: In a rat model of Huntington’s disease, CBD reduced brain atrophy & increased superoxide dismutase (antioxidant) machinery

Cannabidiol reduced the striatal atrophy caused 3-nitropropionic acid in vivo by mechanisms independent of the activation of cannabinoid, vanilloid TRPV1 and adenosine A2A receptors

2007: In a model of Parkinson’s disease, a test of an array of cannabinoids found their help was independent of CB1 & CB2 receptors – but CB2 activation may also be helpful – upregulated the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase antioxidant machinery

Evaluation of the neuroprotective effect of cannabinoids in a rat model of Parkinson's disease: importance of antioxidant and cannabinoid receptor-independent properties

2006: In neurons, CBD prevented beta-amyloid induced neuronal death via its ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species & a reduction of the neurotoxic effects of an uncontrolled immune response

Cannabidiol inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression and nitric oxide production in beta-amyloid stimulated PC12 neurons through p38 MAP kinase and NF-kappaB involvement

2006: In a rat model of diabetes, CBD reduced the levels of tyrosine nitration & malondialdehyde (MDA - a measure of lipid peroxidation) as well as decreased neural cell death

Neuroprotective and blood-retinal barrier-preserving effects of cannabidiol in experimental diabetes

2006: In human spinal cords, the glial cells activated in MS & ALS show more COX2, P2X7 & CB2 receptors

COX-2, CB2 and P2X7-immunoreactivities are increased in activated microglial cells/macrophages of multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis spinal cord

2006: In glioma cancer cells, CBD induced ER stress and the production of free radicals to cause the cells to divide less

The non-psychoactive cannabidiol triggers caspase activation and oxidative stress in human glioma cells

2005: In a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, the CB2 receptors are upregulated as the microglia are activated

Modulation of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor in microglial cells in response to inflammatory stimuli

2005: In brain cell cultures, cannabinoids protect by blocking microglial activation in senile plaques

Prevention of Alzheimer's disease pathology by cannabinoids: neuroprotection mediated by blockade of microglial activation

2004: In a cellular model of Alzheimer’s disease, pretreatment with CBD reduced reactive oxygen species (free radicals) & other protective effects

Neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component from Cannabis sativa, on beta-amyloid-induced toxicity in PC12 cells

2004: In rats, the neurotoxic aspect of AEA is mediated by TRPV1

The "dark side" of endocannabinoids: a neurotoxic role for anandamide

2003: In retinal cells, CBD & THC caused less tyrosine nitration (an indirect measure of free radical formation) & protected them via attenuation of peroxynitrite formation

Neuroprotective effect of (-)Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced retinal neurotoxicity: involvement of peroxynitrite

2003: In mice, PEA potentiates the ability of AEA to induce microglia migration – not mediated by CB1 or CB2

Palmitoylethanolamide increases after focal cerebral ischemia and potentiates microglial cell motility

2003: In microglial cells, cannabinoid receptors regulate their movement during neuroinflammation

Nonpsychotropic cannabinoid receptors regulate microglial cell migration’

2002: in brain immune stem cells, cannabinoids help promote survival

Cannabinoids promote oligodendrocyte progenitor survival: involvement of cannabinoid receptors and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt signaling

2002: In cells, CB1 seems to not be involved with the antioxidative effects of cannabinoids

Neuroprotective properties of cannabinoids against oxidative stress: role of the cannabinoid receptor CB1

1998: early work on antioxidant properties of the cannabinoids – CBD found more effective than ascorbate or alpha-tocopherol

Cannabidiol and (-)Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants

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